French Revolution


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French Revolution

  1. 1. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1
  2. 2. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 The Revolution Begins Preview • Starting Points Map • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Causes of the Revolution • Quick Facts: Causes of the Revolution • First Events of the Revolution • Creating a New Nation
  3. 3. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  4. 4. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 The Revolution Begins Main Idea Problems in French society led to a revolution, the formation of a new government, and the end of the monarchy. Reading Focus • What caused the French Revolution? • What happened during the first events of the Revolution? • How did the French create a new nation?
  5. 5. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Causes of the Revolution Long-standing resentments against the monarchy • Inequalities in society – Existing social and political structure – Called the Old Order, or ancient régime • King at the top and estates under him – King Louis XVI, shy and indecisive – Unpopular, self-indulgent queen, Marie-Antoinette – Rest of French society divided into three classes, called estates
  6. 6. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 The Three Estates Varied widely in what they contributed in terms of work and taxes First Estate Second Estate Third Estate • Roman Catholic clergy • Nobility • Largest group—97% of the population • One percent of the • Less than 2 percent of population the population • Bourgeoisie—city- dwelling • Exempt from taxes • Paid few taxes merchants, factory • Owned 10 percent of • Controlled much wealth owners, and the land professionals • Held key positions – Collected rents and • Sans culottes— – Government fees artisans and workers – Military – Bishops and other • Peasants—poor with clergy grew wealthy • Lived on country little hope, paid rents estates and fees
  7. 7. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Further Causes Enlightenment Ideas A Financial Crisis • Inspiring new ideas from • Severe economic problems Enlightenment philosophers affected much of the country • Great Britain’s government • France in debt, spending limiting the king’s power lavishly, borrowing money, and facing bankruptcy • American colonists rebelled successfully against British king • Hailstorm and drought ruined harvest; harsh winter limited • New ideas changed flour production government and society in other countries • People hungry and angry; clergy and nobility no help
  8. 8. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1
  9. 9. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Summarize What were the causes of the French Revolution? Answer(s): inequalities in society, Enlightenment ideas, poor leadership, financial crisis, hunger and cold
  10. 10. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 First Events of the Revolution By 1789, no group happy Estates General meets • Clergy and nobility lost power to • Desire for reforms monarchy • Voting process a problem • Bourgeoisie resented • Third Estate proclaimed regulations themselves National Assembly • Poor worse off • Tennis Court Oath Storming of the Bastille Great Fear spread • King brought in troops • King to punish the Third Estate • People of Paris armed with foreign soldiers themselves • Rumors of massacres • Searching for weapons, a mob • Peasants destroyed records stormed the Bastille and burned nobles’ houses
  11. 11. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect What was the connection between the fall of the Bastille and the Great Fear? Answer(s): possible answer—After the fall of the Bastille, people were terrified that the king would punish them.
  12. 12. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Creating a New Nation Legislating New Rights Restrictions on Power • Feudal dues eliminated • Louis tried to protect his throne • Declaration laid out • Angered the common people ―liberty, equality, fraternity‖ • Prices still high; mob broke into • Inspired by the English Bill of the palace demanding bread Rights, American Declaration of • Royal family seized; National Independence, and the writings Assembly took bolder steps of Enlightenment philosophers • Passed laws against the • Men are born equal and remain church, clergy, and public equal under the law employees • The rights did not extend to • Some outraged by actions women
  13. 13. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Formation of a New Government In 1791, the Legislative Assembly is formed. Citizens gained broad voting rights, but rights were not universal. Constitution restricted power of king and ended distinctions of birth. King and queen feared they would be harmed. Foreign Powers End of Monarchy • Austria and Prussia warned against • August 10, 1792 royal family harming monarchs imprisoned by mob • Austrian army defeats French • Radical faction took charge with • Financial strain of war, food National Convention shortages, and high prices • Monarchy abolished; France • King blamed; action demanded declared a republic French revolutionary troops won the Battle of Valmy. New French republic held ground against Europe’s Old Order.
  14. 14. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Sequence What steps did National and Legislative Assemblies take to create a new nation? Answer(s): National Assembly completed constitution and created Legislative Assembly; Legislative Assembly—created a new legislature, the National Convention, which abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic