An Introduction to SAFe: The Scaled Agile Framework

2,750 views

Published on

Many organizations have achieved agility at the team level only to be unable to achieve it across teams. The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) provides both a vision and method for how to achieve this. SAFe is the first documented framework that can be used to scale agile throughout an organization. It is a combination of lean, kanban, and Scrum—lean to provide a context for an organization, kanban to manage the flow of projects, and Scrum to provide agile at the team level. Beginning with an introduction to lean and kanban, Ken Pugh explains why they are required for agile at scale. Ken then describes the framework of SAFe—specifically how it creates a structure to manifest the behaviors required for agile at scale. In particular, learn how to coordinate your organization’s portfolio, programs, and projects. Ken concludes by discussing when it is advisable to use the framework and when a more emergent method is preferable.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,750
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
313
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
187
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

An Introduction to SAFe: The Scaled Agile Framework

  1. 1. ! MN PM!Half(day!Tutorial! 11/11/2013!1:00!PM! ! ! ! ! ! "An Introduction to SAFe: The Scaled Agile Framework" ! ! ! Presented by: Ken Pugh Net Objectives ! ! ! ! ! ! Brought(to(you(by:( ! ! ! 340!Corporate!Way,!Suite!300,!Orange!Park,!FL!32073! 888(268(8770!G!904(278(0524!G!sqeinfo@sqe.com!G!www.sqe.com
  2. 2. ! ! !!Ken!Pugh! !!Net!Objectives! ! A fellow consultant with Net Objectives, Ken Pugh helps companies transform into lean-agile organizations through training and coaching. His special interests are in communication (particularly effectively communicating requirements), delivering business value, and using lean principles to deliver high quality quickly. Ken trains, mentors, and testifies on technology topics from object-oriented design to Linux/Unix. He has written several programming books, including the 2006 Jolt Award winner Prefactoring and his latest Lean-Agile Acceptance Test Driven Development: Better Software Through Collaboration. Ken has helped clients from London to Boston to Sydney to Beijing to Hyderabad. He enjoys snowboarding, windsurfing, biking, and hiking the Appalachian Trail. Reach Ken at ken.pugh@netobjectives.com!
  3. 3. 10/16/13& SAFe Scaled Agile Framework info@netobjec+ves.com00000000000 www.netobjec+ves.com 0 1& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Introductions !  How many doing? –  Scrum –  Scrum but –  Kanban !  How successful? !  What bigger stuff have you tried? 2& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 1&
  4. 4. 10/16/13& Ken&Pugh& !  Fellow&Consultant& !  SAFe&Program&Consultant&& !  OOA&D,&Design&PaWerns,&Lean,&Scrum,&TestZDriven& Photo& Size:& &&&Height:&2.25& Posi9on:&& &&from&top&leN&corner& &&Horizontal&0.75&& &&Ver9cal&1.& Picture&&Style:&Simple&Black&& &&&Frame& & Development& !  Over&2/5&century&of&soNware&development& experience& ken.pugh& @netobjec9ves.com& !  Author&of&seven&books,&including:& –  0Prefactoring:0Extreme0Abstrac+on,0Extreme0 Separa+on,0Extreme0Readability00(2006&Jolt&Award)& –  0Interface0Oriented0Design0 –  Lean0Agile0Acceptance0TestIDriven0Development:0 BeKer0SoLware0Through0Collabora+on0 No0code0goes0in0+ll0the0test0goes0on.0 A0journey0of0two0thousand0miles0begins0with0a0single0step.0 3& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Lean for Executives Product Portfolio Management &16&October&2013& ASSESSMENTS" CONSULTING" T RAINING " COACHING" Business Lean Enterprise Team technical Kanban / Scrum ATDD / TDD / Design Patterns 4& Manage ment Lean Management Project Management &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 2&
  5. 5. 10/16/13& Objectives !  Introduce SAFe –  Concepts –  Roles –  Principles !  Lean (a little) 5& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Issues !  More people " more dependencies " more lookahead 6& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 3&
  6. 6. 10/16/13& Acknowledgements !  Much&of&the&material&was&adapted&from:& 0 Leading0SAFe0(Leading0the0Lean/Agile0SoLware0Enterprise0with0 the0Scaled0Agile0Framework0®&&by&Scaled&Agile&Academy&& 7& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Where used !  Where SAFe is used –  John Deere –  TradeStation –  Discount Tire –  Nordstrom –  and others 8& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 4&
  7. 7. 10/16/13& Overview 9& &&& &16&October&2013& SAFe Levels !  Portfolio –  Epics (span releases) –  Architecture !  Program –  (Agile Release Train) –  Features (fit in release) Epic&& Portfolio Program& Team Feature Story Feature Story !  Teams –  Stories in iterations !  (implemented by tasks) –  Spikes 10& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 5&
  8. 8. 10/16/13& SAFE– Portfolio !  Program portfolio management !  Themes !  Investment !  Metrics !  Kanban to create portfolio backlog Portfolio Program& Team –  Business Epics –  Architectural Epics 11& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& SAFE – Program !  Roadmap and vision !  Product management !  Release management !  Shared resources –  Architecture –  User experience –  Release train engineer Portfolio Program& Team !  Release planning !  System Teams !  Create Team Backlog 12& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 6&
  9. 9. 10/16/13& SAFe – Team !  Agile teams !  Product owner !  Scrum/agile master !  Developers and testers !  Team backlog Portfolio Program& Team –  Includes Non-Feature Requests (NFR) !  Features into stories !  Demo and retrospective 13& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Aspects'of'SAFe ' 14& &&& &16&October&2013& 7&
  10. 10. 10/16/13& Agile Development !  Agile accelerates value delivery !  From predicative (waterfall) to iterative to agile to enterprise (SAFe) !  Smaller, frequent, more predictable releases !  Business Benefits –  Accelerates value delivery –  Makes money faster –  Reduces risk –  Avoids death march and burnout 15& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Agile Teams !  Empowered, self-organizing !  Two-week increments !  Scrum management / XP practices !  Context is Program Vision, System, Architecture, User Experience !  Test-first !  Teams deliver stories !  Agile Release Train (ART) –  Self organizing team of teams 16& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 8&
  11. 11. 10/16/13& Core Values 17& !  Code quality !  Program execution !  Alignment !  Transparency &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Code Quality !  Continuous integration !  Test-first !  Refactoring !  Pair work !  Collective ownership !  Quality produces more predictability and scalability 18& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 9&
  12. 12. 10/16/13& Program Execution !  Teams aligned to common mission –  Driven by Vision and Roadmap !  Eight to twelve week delivery of system level solution !  Common sprint lengths and normalized velocity !  Face to face planning cadence !  Deliver features and benefits 19& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Potentially Shippable Increment !  Potentially Shippable Increment (PSI) !  Time-box for value delivery !  Aggregates iterations into bigger increment PSI& && && HIP Sprint / Iteration 20& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 10&
  13. 13. 10/16/13& Cadence !  Develop on fixed cadence (PSI) !  Release on demand - business decision 21& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Portfolio !  Centralized strategy, decentralized execution !  Enterprise architecture !  Kanban for business and architecture flows !  Deliver business and architectural epics 22& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 11&
  14. 14. 10/16/13& Alignment !  All levels aligned !  Face to face planning !  Architecture and UX guidance 23& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Portfolio Management !  Strategy and investment funding –  –  –  –  Decentralized decision making Continuous value flow Lightweight business cases Rolling wave planning !  Program Management –  Agile estimating and planning –  Agile Release Trains (instead of project-based funding) –  Self-managing teams and programs !  Governance –  Objective measures (e.g. delivery of working software) 24& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 12&
  15. 15. 10/16/13& Transparency !  Backlogs, progress visible !  Open communication fostered 25& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Lean Thinking 26& &&& &16&October&2013& 13&
  16. 16. 10/16/13& Lean Goal !  Speed – shortest lead time !  Value – to people !  Quality 27& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Exercise !  What'is'quality?'' 28& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 14&
  17. 17. 10/16/13& Lean Tools 29& !  Respect for people !  Kaizen !  Product development flow &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Respect for people !  Develop individuals and teams !  Empower teams !  Trust and respect 30& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 15&
  18. 18. 10/16/13& Kaizen !  Continuous improvements !  Inspect and adapt 31& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Product Development Flow &16&October&2013& !  Take economic view !  Actively manage queues !  Understand and exploit variability !  Reduce batch sizes !  Apply WIP constraints !  Control flow under uncertainty, cadence, and synchronization !  Get feedback as fast as possible !  Decentralize control 32& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 16&
  19. 19. 10/16/13& Take economic view !  Do not consider money already spent !  Sequence for maximum benefit !  Quantify Cost of Delay (CoD) 33& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Actively manage queues !  Long queue = bad !  Wait time = queue length / processing rate (Little’s Law) !  High utilization increases variability 34& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 17&
  20. 20. 10/16/13& Understand and exploit variability !  Buffers trade money and time for variability reduction 35& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Reduce batch size !  Reduces cycle time !  Faster feedback !  Decrease variability !  Good infrastructure enables small batches 36& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 18&
  21. 21. 10/16/13& Exercise !  Penny flip !  One person is timer !  Set of ten pennies !  Version One –  Each person flips all and passes them to next !  Version Two –  Each person flips one at a time 37& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Apply WIP Constraints !  WIP forces capacity matching !  Increases flow !  Purge lower value project when WIP high !  Easier to start project than to finish one 38& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 19&
  22. 22. 10/16/13& Control flow under uncertainty !  Cadence makes waiting times predictable !  Scheduled periodic resynchronization limits variance to single time interval 39& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Planning for alignment !  Principle: More value created with overall alignment than with local excellence !  Planning to create alignment, not measure conformance !  Principle – specify end state and purpose with minimum constraints !  Deviate from plan when economically sensible 40& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 20&
  23. 23. 10/16/13& Feedback !  Feedback'helps'to'correct'misunderstandings'' !  Quick'feedback'be=er'than'slow'feedback' –  End failures quickly –  Improves efficiency of learning Desired& 41& Actual& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Actual& &16&October&2013& Decentralize control !  Centralize for global decision !  Set framework for decisions 42& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 21&
  24. 24. 10/16/13& Value Stream Mapping !  Analyze and optimize time from concept to cash !  Want small, fast batches 43& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Value'Stream'Map'–'Classical'Development' Elicit&Requirements& Code& Analyze& Requirements& Test& Design&& Deploy& Why&go&back?& 44& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 22&
  25. 25. 10/16/13& Leadership !  Management understands and practices lean and agile !  Manager develop people – people develop solutions 45& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Vision and Roadmap !  Vision –  Strategic intent –  Where we are headed –  What problem does it solve –  Formats – vision document, preliminary data sheet !  Roadmap –  Prioritized features and release –  Commitment only for next release (PSI) !  46& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 23&
  26. 26. 10/16/13& Features !  Features – services that fulfill user needs !  Program backlog – prioritized and estimated features 47& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Prioritize Backlog for ROI !  Cost of Delay (CoD) in delivering value !  Cost to implement 48& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 24&
  27. 27. 10/16/13& Cost of Delay (1) !  Weighted Shortest Job First (WSJF) !  WSJF = Cost of Delay / Duration !  Job size is proxy for duration 49& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Cost of Delay (2) !  Three factors: –  User/business value (BV) – relative value –  Time criticality (TC) – value decay over time –  Risk Reduction / Opportunity Enablement (RR/OE) – what does it do for business? !  Computation: –  Rank BV, TC, RR/OE from 1,2,3,5,8,13,20 –  Add together –  WSJF = CoD / Duration 50& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 25&
  28. 28. 10/16/13& Ignore Sunk Costs !  Cadence-based re-prioritization drives agility, not sunk costs !  May not implement entire epic 51& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Product Integrity via Capacity Allocation !  Allocate capacity to new features / architecture 52& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 26&
  29. 29. 10/16/13& Non-functional Requirements !  Non-functional Requirements (NFR) – system qualities which support user functionality !  Program level NFR – as a whole !  Team level NFR – to feature or component !  May have backlog items for NFRs 53& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Agile Release Train Flow Ready& 54& Plan Commit Execute Demo &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Retrospect &16&October&2013& 27&
  30. 30. 10/16/13& Release Pre-Planning !  Product Management / Tech Leads –  Build program backlog –  Pick out features Ready& Plan 55& Commit Execute Demo Retrospect &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PSI/Release Planning !  Two days every 8 to 12 weeks !  Product Management owns features !  Development team owns story planning !  Result – committed set of program objectives for PSI Ready& 56& Plan Commit Execute Demo &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Retrospect &16&October&2013& 28&
  31. 31. 10/16/13& Calendars !  Program –  PSI planning meeting –  PSI Demos –  Inspect and Adapt Workshops !  Team –  Sprint Planning –  Sprint Demos –  Sprint Retrospectives 57& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Team ' Portfolio Program& (ART)& Team 58& &&& &16&October&2013& 29&
  32. 32. 10/16/13& Agile Team !  SAFe calls these Define, Build, Test team –  Could be Define, Test, Build Team –  Prefer term delivery team !  Teams based on features, products, component, subsystems, interfaces 59& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Scrum Roles !  Product owner – drives business value from prioritized backlogs !  Scrum/Agile Master – facilitates agility !  Developers/Testers - implement stories . 60& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 30&
  33. 33. 10/16/13& Team Backlog . !  All things to be done – opportunities, not commitments !  Single owner – Product Owner !  Backlog sources –  Program backlog –  Team context (technical debt) –  Other stakeholders (other teams’ dependencies, spikes/research, other commitments) !  Capacity allocation – by percentages - Epic&& –  User stories 75% –  Team context 25% Feature !  Prioritize within capacity – not overall 61& Story Feature Story &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Backlog grooming !  Preview and elaboration of stories !  Continuous effort, rather than single event !  Identify and resolve dependencies for next sprint !  Relative sizing with story points Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 62& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 31&
  34. 34. 10/16/13& Sprint Planning !  PO defines what !  Team defines how and how much !  Sequence by priorities, dependencies, WIP, capacity allocations, PSI events Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 63& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Stories !  User stories (INVEST criteria) !  Spike – not a user story – for tryout of design – technical, functional 64& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 32&
  35. 35. 10/16/13& Card Conversation Confirmation !  Card – user story, typically As a <role>, I want <to do something>, so that <business value> !  Conversation – shared context for story !  Confirmation – acceptance criteria – general statements of acceptance 65& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& DefiniGons' !  Acceptance'criteria' –  General'ideas'' !  Acceptance'tests' –  Specific'tests'that'either'pass'or'fail' –  ImplementaGon'independent'''' !  Triad'–'customer'unit,'developer'unit,'tester'unit'' 66& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 33&
  36. 36. 10/16/13& Value'Stream'Map'–'Agile'Development' Elicit&Requirements& Analyze& Requirements&With& Tests& Code&With&Tests& 67& Design&& Deploy& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Sprint Goals !  Clarity, commitment, and management information !  Align team members to common purpose !  Align program members to common PSI objectives and manage dependencies !  Consists of everything committed –  But not laundry list Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 68& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 34&
  37. 37. 10/16/13& Execute sprint !  Constant communication !  Daily synchronization (stand-up) !  Develop serially, not mini-waterfall !  Quality through TDD, continuous integration, automated testing Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 69& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Scrum of scrums !  SM and RTE (Release Train Engineers) !  2 times/week !  Synchronize and keep train on tracks 70& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 35&
  38. 38. 10/16/13& Issues !  Scrum board – simple – at story or task level !  All code is tested code !  Continuous integration mandatory 71& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Team sprint demo !  All stories, spikes, NFRs demonstrated !  Not for system stakeholders !  Review against PSI objectives Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 72& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 36&
  39. 39. 10/16/13& Sprint Retrospective !  As'usual'' !  Measure against metrics –  Question - what do you use? Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 73& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Exercise !  You&are&one&team&& !  Ball&must&be&touched&by&each&person&& !  Ball&must&be&passed&with&air&9me&between&any&two& people&& !  No&ball&may&be&passed&to&direct&neighbor&& !  Ball&must&return&to&start&point&before&counted&as& complete&& !  Objec9ve&is&to&process&as&many&balls&as&possible& 2 minutes plan with estimate 2 minute execute (someone times) 2 minute debrief & 74& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 37&
  40. 40. 10/16/13& Program' ' (Agile'Release' Train) ' Portfolio Program& (ART)& Team 75& &&& &16&October&2013& Agile Release Train !  5 to 12 teams (50 to 100 individuals) –  Has some overhead !  Common cadence and story point normalization !  Common mission and program backlog !  Under architectural and user experience (UX) guidance !  Potentially Shippable Increments (PSI) every 8 to 12 weeks 76& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 38&
  41. 41. 10/16/13& Roadmap !  Prioritized features and release –  Commitment only for next release (PSI) –  Subsequent releases are “best estimates” !  Levels –  PSI – current – high confidence –  PSI – next – medium confidence –  PSI – future – marque features Epic&& Feature Story 77& Feature Story &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Rules !  PSI dates fixed !  Two week sprint lengths – aligned cadence !  System demo every two weeks (to stakeholders) !  Everything (documentation, etc.) goes on train !  System always runs 78& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 39&
  42. 42. 10/16/13& Synchronized Cadence !  Delivery !  PSI is development milestone !  Might release any sprint 79& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& ART Roles 80& &16&October&2013& !  Product Management !  System Architect !  User Experience !  Release Train Engineer (RTE) !  System Team !  Release Management &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 40&
  43. 43. 10/16/13& Product Management !  Content authority for the ART !  Owns the vision !  Defines and prioritizes Program Backlog !  Defines releases and features !  Accepts PSI !  Works with architects to prioritize features !  Has 2 to 4 product owners underneath –  Product Owner !  Accepts sprint !  Owns team backlogs 81& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& System architect !  Splits architectural epics into features !  Works with enterprise architects to establish architectural runway !  Provides architectural guidance to teams 82& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 41&
  44. 44. 10/16/13& User Experience (UX) !  Guidance for consistent user experience !  Provides UX guidelines !  Performs user testing !  Participates in team planning and demos 83& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Release Train Engineer !  Overall scrum master !  Facilitates scrum of scrums !  interfaces with release management team 84& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 42&
  45. 45. 10/16/13& System team !  Builds development infrastructure !  Supports system demo !  Performance and load testing !  Assists with test automation strategies !  Release Management !  Facilitates / negotiates release content 85& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PorOolio ' Portfolio Program& (ART)& Team 86& &&& &16&October&2013& 43&
  46. 46. 10/16/13& Portfolio Management !  Business and Architectural epics tracked with Kanban board !  Portfolio vision guides investments 87& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Program Portfolio Management (PPM) !  Strategy and Investment funding - assure funding to follow strategy !  Program management – assist in program execution !  Governance – close loop on funding and execution 88& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 44&
  47. 47. 10/16/13& PPM !  PPM Team –  Executives with market knowledge, technology awareness !  Drives product and solution strategy !  May have assistance of PPM office 89& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Portfolio Vision !  Vision represents enterprise business strategy !  Investment themes –  Key value proposition –  Managed not by priority, but as budget/resource allocation –  Updated twice a year !  Cross-cutting business/architectural epics !  Agile programs (delivered through Agile Release Trains) 90& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 45&
  48. 48. 10/16/13& Portfolio Kanban (1) !  Makes epics visible !  Manage Work in Progress (WIP) limits !  Stages: !  Opportunity Identification (no limit) – all ideas –  Estimate size and value –  Alignment with investment themes –  Authority approves epic into backlog !  Backlog (WIP limit) –  Refine understanding and estimates –  Relative ranking into ranked backlog !  Ranked Backlog 91& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Portfolio Kanban System (2) !  Ranked backlog –  Business analyst pulls epic –  Looks at solution alternatives –  Refines business case !  Analyzed backlog –  Portfolio Management Team approves epic !  Epic Backlog –  Epic to be implemented by Program (ART) –  Epic Owner !  Drives cross-cutting epics across release trains !  Works with release train product management –  Lightweight business case (1 to 2 pages) Epic&& Feature Story 92& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Feature Story &16&October&2013& 46&
  49. 49. 10/16/13& Epic !  Epic in portfolio backlog –  Investment themes determine epics in backlog !  Template –  For <customer> who <do something> the <solution> is a <something – the how> that <provides this value> unlike <competitor, current solution> our solution <does something better> !  In and out of scope features !  Success criteria !  Non-functional requirements 93& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Legacy Mindsets to Avoid !  “Can plan a full year of projects” !  “Maximize utilization” – 100 % allocation !  “Just get it done” – no adjustments !  “Order taker mentality” – treat development as production process !  “Control through data” - fine grained reporting !  “Control through milestones” – on artifacts, not running code 94& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 47&
  50. 50. 10/16/13& Lean Agile PPM !  Decentralized decision making !  Continuous value flow !  Lightweight business cases !  Decentralized rolling wave planning !  Agile estimating and planning !  Agile Release Trains (not project based) !  Self-managing teams and programs !  Objective fact-based measures 95& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Decentralized Decision Making !  Epics – portfolio decisions !  Features – program decisions Epic&& Portfolio Program& Team 96& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Feature Story Feature Story &16&October&2013& 48&
  51. 51. 10/16/13& Continuous Value Flow !  Limit demand to meet capacity 97& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Lightweight Business Cases !  One to two pages 98& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 49&
  52. 52. 10/16/13& Decentralized Rolling Wave Planning !  Teams plan face-to-face on a fixed cadence !  Result: agree-to objectives 99& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Agile Estimation and Planning !  Monitor velocity !  Account for uncertainty 100& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 50&
  53. 53. 10/16/13& Agile Release Trains !  Project scheduling replaced by standard cadence !  Resources only adjusted at cadence boundaries 101& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Self-Managing Teams !  Model is to proceed unless stopped !  All development in fixed PSI increments 102& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 51&
  54. 54. 10/16/13& Objective Fact-Based Measures !  Status by working software 103& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PSI Planning Agenda 104& &&& &16&October&2013& 52&
  55. 55. 10/16/13& Day One !  Business Context !  Product Solution/Vision !  Architectural Vision / Development Practices !  Planning Context and Lunch !  Team Breakout !  Draft Plan Review !  Management Reviews / Problem Sovling 105& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Day Two &16&October&2013& !  Planning Adjustments !  Team Breakouts !  Final Plan Review and Lunch !  Program Risks !  PSI Objectives !  Plan Rework (if necessary) !  Planning Retrospective and Moving Forward 106& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 53&
  56. 56. 10/16/13& Business Context !  Executive leadership shares state of business !  No set format (e.g. SWOT – strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) 107& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Product / Solution Vision !  Product Management presents vision and high priority features 108& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 54&
  57. 57. 10/16/13& Architecture Vision and Development Practices !  Vision for architecture !  Updates on agile tooling and practices 109& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Team Deliverables !  PSI Objectives !  Sprint plans !  Risks 110& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 55&
  58. 58. 10/16/13& Normalized Story Points !  Normalized story points provide basis for estimating within/across programs !  One time calibration !  Start with 8 points for each full time developer and tester – gives “velocity” !  Subtract 1 for each vacation day and holiday !  Pick small story that would take ½ day to code, ½ day to test – call it 1 !  Estimate all others relative 111& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PSI Objectives !  May just be features (not down to story level) !  May be other – milestones (e.g. trade show), !  Business owners assign value on scale 1 to 10 PSI& && && HIP Sprint / Iteration 112& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 56&
  59. 59. 10/16/13& Program Plan !  Plan Shows –  Feature delivery –  Dependencies –  Milestones 113& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Program Plan Sprint&1& Sprint&2& Sprint&3& Milestones/ Event& Sprint&4& Sprint&5& Trade&Show& Features& Feature&A& Feature&B& Team&One& Story&One& Story&Five&& And0so0forth0 Team&Two& Story&Two& Story&Six& Team&Three& Story&Three& Feature&E& Story&Seven& Team&Four&& Feature&D& Story&Eight& Story&Ten& Story&Four& Story&Nine& Shows&dependencies& 114& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 57&
  60. 60. 10/16/13& Draft Plan Review !  Look at: –  Velocity –  Flow –  PSI objectives –  Risks –  Impediments –  Dependencies 115& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Managers Review and Problem Solving !  Any adjustments? !  Any bottlenecks? !  Anything to sacrifice? 116& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 58&
  61. 61. 10/16/13& Planning Adjustments !  Based on review, adjust !  Changes to priorities, plan, scope, resources 117& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Business Owners !  Authority over program budget allocation !  Participate in PSI Planning and Inspect and Adapt !  Attend system demo 118& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 59&
  62. 62. 10/16/13& Final Plan Review !  Focus on team objectives and risks !  Review by all teams !  Business owners accept/reject plan 119& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Program Risks !  Remaining program risks and impediments discussed !  ROAM –  Resolved – not a concern –  Owned – someone has responsibility –  Accepted – nothing more can be done –  Mitigated – plan for adjustment as necessary 120& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 60&
  63. 63. 10/16/13& Commitment !  Confidence vote –  Fist of five (1 – no confidence, 5 – high confidence) !  Two part commitment –  Team does everything in their power to meet objectives –  Team escalates immediately if not meeting objectives (for any reason) Ready& Plan Commit 121& Execute Demo Retrospect &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Exercise !  Two minutes planning / then execute !  !  Color !  Italic !  Bold AGILE 12342 NNNYN NYNNY IS 42 NN NY FUN 341 YNY NNY !  Bold must be done by two people !  Italics must be done by one person (very specialized). 122& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 61&
  64. 64. 10/16/13& ExecuGon ' 123& &&& &16&October&2013& Scrum of Scrums !  Continuous coordination of teams !  Scrum Masters and Release Train Engineer !  Twice a week !  Time-boxed with “Meet After” Ready& 124& Plan Commit Execute Demo &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Retrospect &16&October&2013& 62&
  65. 65. 10/16/13& Product !  Product management and product owners !  Once a week 125& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Continuous Inter-team Coordination !  Teams visit other teams !  Including backlog grooming, sprint planning, daily standups, demo !  Sprint goals align teams to each other 126& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 63&
  66. 66. 10/16/13& Continuous System Integration !  Integrate entire user story !  Avoid physical branching (could use tags) !  Develop by intention –  Define interfaces –  Integrate –  Then add functionality 127& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& System Demo !  After sprint demos !  Every 2 weeks !  System Team/Product Management demonstrates to business owner and stakeholders Ready& Retrospect Demo Plan Commit Execute 128& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 64&
  67. 67. 10/16/13& HIP Sprint !  Hardening, Innovation, Planning (HIP) –  Enables cadence, delivery reliability !  Hardening – tests not practical every iteration !  Innovation – spikes, hackathons, infrastructure improvements !  Planning – PSI Planning PSI& && && HIP Sprint / Iteration 129& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& HIP Sprint !  One week – harden and innovation !  Second week – –  Release planning preparation –  Continuous education –  Inspect and adapt –  PSI Planning Ready& 130& Plan Commit Execute Demo &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Retrospect &16&October&2013& 65&
  68. 68. 10/16/13& Inspect and Adapt 131& !  PSI Demo to stakeholders !  Quantitative measurements !  Problem solving workshop &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PSI Demo !  Product management / system team demos !  Everyone can attend Ready& 132& Plan Commit Execute Demo &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& Retrospect &16&October&2013& 66&
  69. 69. 10/16/13& Quantitative measurements !  Completion of PSI objectives !  Percentage of business value achieved !  Measure percentage versus acceptable band 133& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PSI Performance Summary !  Productivity –  Features planned and accepted !  Quality –  Open defects –  % Test automation 134& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 67&
  70. 70. 10/16/13& Problem Solving Workshop !  Address large impediments limiting velocity !  Perform root cause analysis Ready& 135& Plan Commit Execute Demo Retrospect &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& PSI Planning !  Input – vision, milestones, to ten features !  Output – PSI objectives and program board 136& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 68&
  71. 71. 10/16/13& Agile' Architecture ' 137& &&& &16&October&2013& Agile Architecture !  Intentional guidance and emergent design !  Spans all three levels !  Roles –  Enterprise architect – at portfolio level –  System architect – at program level (overall guidance) !  Architectural Runway 138& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 69&
  72. 72. 10/16/13& Principles of Agile Architecture !  Design Emerges !  Architecture is a collaboration !  Bigger system, longer runway !  Build simplest architecture that can possibly work !  When in doubt, code it or model it !  They build it, they test it !  No monopoly on innovation !  Implement architectural flow 139& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Emergent Design and Architecture !  Complexity and changing requirements makes centralized decision making inefficient !  Design by those who implement specific functionality !  At scale, some intentional architecture necessary –  Excessive redesign slows time-to-market –  Some capabilities can/should be anticipated –  Teams not always able to synchronize, thus creating divergence –  Cross-cutting architectural and user requirements 140& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 70&
  73. 73. 10/16/13& Intentional Architecture !  Just in time architectural elaboration !  Assumes incremental implementation !  Relies on feedback from teams !  Three phases: –  Current intent – building now –  Near term – may be building next –  Future intent – may build 141& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Architectural Runway !  Architectural features !  Research with “up-front” spikes 142& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 71&
  74. 74. 10/16/13& Design Simplicity !  Common language to describe system !  Solution model close to domain model !  Follow good old design principles 143& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Code or Model to Validate !  Implement prototypes !  Mix of actual and mock functionality and interfaces !  Model if too big to code 144& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 72&
  75. 75. 10/16/13& They build it, they test it !  System architects (and teams) must create environment to verify system behavior !  Design for testability 145& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& No monopoly on innovation !  Some from architects, some from teams !  HIP sprints – cadence for innovation 146& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 73&
  76. 76. 10/16/13& Implement architectural flow !  Architectural epics may span multiple ARTs 147& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Enterprise Architect !  Holistic vision of solutions !  Drives architectural Kanban !  Facilitates re-use of ideas, components, patterns 148& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 74&
  77. 77. 10/16/13& Architectural Epics !  Architectural Epics !  Cut across: –  Time – affect multiple releases –  Scope – affect multiple products, systems, solutions, –  Organization – affect multiple teams, programs, business units !  Arise from: –  New opportunities –  Changes in technology –  Common infrastructure to avoid redundancy 149& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Architectural Flow !  Like business flow !  Funnel, backlog, analysis, implementation 150& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 75&
  78. 78. 10/16/13& Other'(OpGonal) ' 151& &&& &16&October&2013& Overall'Flow'(1)' Opportunity' '' '' 152& Epic'' '' Authority& && approves&& High&level& es9mates& and& business& analysis&& Features'' '' Analysis&by& && porjolio& management& team&& PSI' '' Sprint' Stories' backlog' PSI& Per& Sprint& && Planning& team& planning& team&& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 76&
  79. 79. 10/16/13& Overall'Flow'(2)' Sprint' backlog' '' Tested' stories' '' Team& && analyzes,& develops,& tests&& && '' Sprint& Demo&& && && 153& Product' '' Owner' accepted' && System& Demo&& System' '' demo' accepted' && Final& tes9ng& (if&any)& Ready' for' release'' && && && && && && &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Architectural'Flow' Architectural' Opportunity' '' 154& '' Architectural' Epics'' Architectural& && approval,&high& level&es9mates&& '' Features'' Analysis&by& system& architects&& Priori9zed& with&user& features&& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 77&
  80. 80. 10/16/13& Leadership !  Leader as –  Expert –technically focused –  Conductor –central decision maker, orchestrator –  Developer – creates team jointly responsible for success (servant leaders) 155& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Corrective Action Plan !  Perform root cause analysis !  State problem clearly and succinctly –  Pick one root cause and state as problem !  Brainstorm a solution !  Take responsibility –  Identify stories needed for solution !  Specify measureable results !  Set achievable deadlines !  Monitor progress 156& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 78&
  81. 81. 10/16/13& The Power of “ba” !  We, work, knowledge are all one !  Self-organizing –  Shared context in which individuals interact 157& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Not'An'Ending,' But'a'Beginning ' 158& &&& &16&October&2013& 79&
  82. 82. 10/16/13& Objective Review !  Introduce SAFe –  Concepts –  Roles –  Principles !  Lean (a little) 159& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& !  Go'and'become'SAFe'' ' !  Thank'you'' !  Please'fill'out'evaluaGons' 160& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 80&
  83. 83. 10/16/13& A'Workshop ' (If&there’s&9me) & 161& &&& &16&October&2013& Vision'/'Charter' !  Sam’s'Lawn'Mower'Repair'and'CD'Rental'Store' !  Vision'& –  The&rental&process&creates&minimum&waste&and&offers&more& services&to&customers.& !  Mission'& –  Create&a&custom&soNware&package.&&& !  ObjecGves& –  Within&two&months&aNer&project&ini9a9on,&clerks&will&spend&50%& less&9me&per&transac9on&on&both&CD&checkZouts&and&returns.& –  Within&three&months&aNer&project&ini9a9on,&customers&will&be&able& to&reserve&CDs&prior&to&ren9ng&them.&& !  Principles&& –  Customer&sa9sfac9on&is&of&primary&importance.&& –  Clerk&convenience&is&secondary.& 162&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 162& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 81&
  84. 84. 10/16/13& Epic'Example' !  Business&Epics&& –  CheckZin&and&CheckZout& –  Customer&Services& –  Mul9ple&Stores& !  Architectural&Epics&& –  Mul9ple&Stores&&&& 163& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& Features'Example' !  Example&Z&Sam’s&Lawn&Mower&Repair&and&CD&Rental& Shop&& –  CheckZin&and&CheckZOut&& !  Check&out&and&check&in& !  Credit&card&charging&to&eliminate&cash&& –  Customer&Services&& !  Reserva9on&system&for&CDs&& !  CD&catalog&of&all&CDs&so&renters&can&select&ones&to&rent&or&reserve& !  Hookup&with&a&video&rental&store&to&offer&combined&reserva9ons.&& –  Mul9ple&Stores& !  Way&to&return&a&CD&to&any&store&& !  Way&to&determine&which&stores&have&par9cular&CDs&& 164&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 164& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 82&
  85. 85. 10/16/13& Sam’s'Lawn'Mower'and'CD'Rental'Store' !  Es9mate&WSJF&for&the&features&& !  Break&up&features&into&stories&& !  Es9mate&and&schedule&stories&& 165& &Copyright&©&2007&Net&Objec9ves.&All&Rights&Reserved.&& &16&October&2013& 83&

×