Exploring Usability Testing

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It is not enough to verify that software conforms to requirements by passing established acceptance tests. Successful software products engage, entertain, and support the users' experience. Goals vary from project to project, but no matter how robust and reliable your software is, if your users do not embrace it, business can slip from your hands. Rob Sabourin shares how to elicit effective usability requirements with techniques such as story boarding and task analysis. Together, testers, programmers, and users collaborate to blend the requirement, design, and test cycles into a tight feedback loop. Learn how to select a subset of system functions to test with a small group of users to get high value information at low cost. Learn how usability testers can take advantage of naïve questions from novice users as well as the tunnel vision and bias of domain experts. Rob shares examples of usability testing for a variety of technologies including mobile and web-based products.

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Exploring Usability Testing

  1. 1. TI Half-day Tutorials 5/6/2014 8:30:00 AM Exploring Usability Testing Presented by: Rob Sabourin AmiBug.com Brought to you by: 340 Corporate Way, Suite 300, Orange Park, FL 32073 888-268-8770 ∙ 904-278-0524 ∙ sqeinfo@sqe.com ∙ www.sqe.com
  2. 2. Rob Sabourin AmiBug.com Rob Sabourin, P. Eng., has more than thirty years of management experience leading teams of software development professionals. A well-respected member of the software engineering community, Rob has managed, trained, mentored, and coached hundreds of top professionals in the field. He frequently speaks at conferences and writes on software engineering, SQA, testing, management, and internationalization. Rob wrote I am a Bug!, the popular software testing children's book; works as an adjunct professor of software engineering at McGill University; and serves as the principle consultant (and president/janitor) of AmiBug.Com, Inc. Contact Rob at Contact Rob at rsabourin@amibug.com.
  3. 3. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 1 © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 1 Exploring Usability Testing Robert Sabourin President AmiBug.Com, Inc. Montreal, Canada rsabourin@amibug.com WELCOME Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 2
  4. 4. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 2 • Robert Sabourin , Software Evangelist • President • AmiBug.Com Inc. • Montreal, Quebec, Canada • rsabourin@amibug.com • www.amibugshare.com Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 3 Exploring Usability Testing • Pain points? – What hurts? – How Much? © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 4
  5. 5. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 3 SOME PHILOSOPHY Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 5 Conforming to requirements Suiting purpose Delivering value to stakeholders © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 6
  6. 6. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 4 Edsger W. Dijkstra • “Program testing can be used to show the presence of bugs, but never to show their absence” © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 7 NON-FUNCTIONAL TESTING Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 8
  7. 7. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 5 Non-Functional Testing Quality Factors Attributes Characteristics Reliability Other “-ilities” © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 9 Non-Functional Testing Challenges Goals • Elicit • Articulate • Quantify Subjective • Needs or wants? • Relative or absolute? • What is good enough? Tests • Tricky to orchestrate • Difficult to interpret results • Challenging to baseline or regress 10© 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1
  8. 8. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 6 Non-Functional Agile Challenges Time • Analysis • Model • Prepare • Run • Interpret Change • Baselines • Goals Software • Continuous integration • Incomplete product builds 11© 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 ISO 9126 Quality Factors •Attributes of the effort needed for use, and on the individual assessment of such use, by a set of users •Learnability •Understandibility •Operability Usability © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 12
  9. 9. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 7 Quality Factors © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 13 Product Backlog Constraints Tom Gilb, Competitive Engineering, suggests defining Scale: "What is measured" Meter: "How to measure (method)" Target: "Level we're aiming for. Success" Constraint: "Level we're seeking to avoid. Failure" Benchmark: "Where we are today" 14© 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1
  10. 10. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 8 Non-Functional Testing 15© 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 NET PROMOTER SCORE Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 16
  11. 11. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 9 Net Promoter Score © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 17 Net Promoter Score © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 18
  12. 12. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 10 Net Promoter Score •11 values •0 not at all likely •10 extremely likely Response Scale © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 19 Net Promoter Score • respondents giving a 9 or 10 score Promoters • respondents giving a 7 or 8 score Passives • respondents giving a 0 to 6 score Detractors © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 20
  13. 13. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 11 Net Promoter Score •The difference between the percentage of Promoters and Detractors •Is not expressed as a percentage •Is an absolute number lying between -100 and +100 •uTest suggests “any positive number is good” (ref: TK Maxx Mobile Usability Testing Results Report) NPS © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 21 Net Promoter Score © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 22
  14. 14. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 12 © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 23 SYSTEM USABILITY SCALE Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 24
  15. 15. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 13 System Usability Scale • Measures usability in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction • SUS can be read as a percentage • SUS can be used as a benchmarking mechanism • SUS can be used to compare the current system to competitors’ systems • SUS can be used to compare the current system to future versions SUS - System Usability Scale © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 25 System Usability Scale © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 26
  16. 16. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 14 System Usability Scale 1. I think that I would like to use this system frequently 2. I found the system unnecessarily complex 3. I thought the system was easy to use 4. I think that I would need the support of a technical person to be able to use this system 5. I found the various functions in this system were well integrated 6. I thought there was too much inconsistency in this system 7. I would imagine that most people would learn to use this system very quickly 8. I found the system very cumbersome to use 9. I felt very confident using the system 10. I needed to learn a lot of things before I could get going with this system © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 27 SUS Questions System Usability Scale © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 28 SUS Responses
  17. 17. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 15 System Usability Scale • For odd items: subtract one from the user response. • For even-numbered items: subtract the user responses from 5 • This scales all values from 0 to 4 (with four being the most positive response). • Add up the converted responses for each user and multiply that total by 2.5. This converts the range of possible values from 0 to 100 instead of from 0 to 40. © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 29 Scoring SUS System Usability Scale © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 30 Scoring SUS
  18. 18. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 16 EXPLORATORY TESTING Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 31 Exploratory Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 Learning DesignExecution 32
  19. 19. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 17 Charter Statement • Statement of mission • Ties to purpose • Focuses work • Confirms understanding • Delineates scope • Analogy to test story © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 33 Charter Statement • Short, terse • To the point • Inclusions • Exclusions • Limits © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 34
  20. 20. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 18 eBay Usability Charters © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 35 eBay Usability Charters © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 36
  21. 21. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 19 eBay Usability Charters © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 37 eBay Usability Charters © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 38
  22. 22. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 20 Pairing Testers With … Non Functional Testing •Usability Gurus •SMEs •Human Factors Experts © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 39 Heuristics © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 40
  23. 23. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 21 Heuristics Guide Exploration Rules of thumb Fallible but useful © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 41 WHITEBOARDING Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 42
  24. 24. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 22 Prototype Styles • Paper and pencil • Comic books style story boards • Wire frame models • Mock ups • Prototypes • Site maps • User flow • Wire flow • Story boards • Wire frame • Page description diagram • Functional specification © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 43 Whiteboarding © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 44
  25. 25. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 23 Whiteboarding What is Whiteboarding? Collaboration Coordination Conceptualization © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 45 Tony Buzan Mind Maps © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 46
  26. 26. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 24 Whiteboarding © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 47 Whiteboarding UserMindMap © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 48
  27. 27. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 25 Buying a Book Usage Scenarios © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 49 Whiteboarding StoryBoard © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 50
  28. 28. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 26 Wrap-O-Matic Usage Scenarios © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 51 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 52
  29. 29. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 27 Buying a Book Usage Scenarios © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 53 © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 Slide 54
  30. 30. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 28 © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 Slide 55 © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 56
  31. 31. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 29 Social Networking Usage Scenarios © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 57 © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 58
  32. 32. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 30 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 59 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 60
  33. 33. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 31 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 61 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 62
  34. 34. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 32 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 63 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 64
  35. 35. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 33 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 65 Scenario Based Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 66
  36. 36. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 34 TOFT Testing • Task Oriented Functional Testing – Can the user accomplish useful tasks correctly? © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 Slide 67 USABILITY HEURISTICS Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 68
  37. 37. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 35 Jakob Nielsen • Usability heuristics • Rules of thumb • General principles of user interface design • www.nngroup.com © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 69 Usability Heuristics • Visibility of system status – Always keep users informed – Provide appropriate feedback – Respond in a reasonable timeframe © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 70
  38. 38. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 36 Usability Heuristics • Match between system and the real world – Speak the users' language – Use familiar concepts – Follow a natural order © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 71 Usability Heuristics • User control and freedom – Provide means to exit from unwanted states – Provide undo and redo capabilities © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 72
  39. 39. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 37 Usability Heuristics • Consistency and standards – Same words mean same thing in different contexts – Follow environment conventions © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 73 Usability Heuristics • Error prevention – Prevents problems from occurring – Eliminate error-prone conditions – Have a confirmation option © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 74
  40. 40. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 38 Usability Heuristics • Recognition rather than recall – Making objects visible – Make instructions available © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 75 Usability Heuristics • Flexibility and efficiency of use – Accelerators for the expert user – Make common options adaptable © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 76
  41. 41. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 39 Usability Heuristics • Aesthetic and minimalist design – Dialogues should contain relevant information © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 77 Usability Heuristics • Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors – Use plain language for error messages – Constructively suggest solutions © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 78
  42. 42. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 40 Usability Heuristics • Help and documentation – Easy to search – Focused on the user's task – Offer concrete steps to be carried out – Short and to the point © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 79 USABILITY SEVERITY LEVELS Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 80
  43. 43. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 41 Usability Severity © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 81 ISO 9421 Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 82
  44. 44. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 42 Usability ISO 9421 •the extent to which the intended goals of use are achieved Effectiveness •the resources that have been expended to achieve the intended goals Efficiency •the extent to which the user finds the use of the product acceptable Satisfaction •can user be harmed Safety © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 83 Usability ISO 9421 •the extent to which the system is complete in design and meets its desired goals Completeness •Is the capability of a software product to enable the user to learn how to use it Learn-ability •the extent to which the product fits into normal course of daily life Convenience •Confusing or vague usability. Misleading information that might also result in providing no usability at all Ambiguity © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 84
  45. 45. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 43 USABILITY TEST FRAMEWORK Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 85 Usability Test Framework Basic Usability Test Steps • Select representative users • Complete defined set of tasks • Facilitator observes user behaviour • Interview user after task is completed • User is asked to think aloud (recorded) • Review findings to identify concerns • Generate actionable recommendations © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 86
  46. 46. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 44 Usability Test Framework User groups •Select 5 or 6 users for each group •All should attempt the same tasks •Complex applications may need many groups •Groups can be based •Domain (subject matter) expertise •Experience level (task or professional) •Solution familiarity © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 87 Usability Test Framework Where to perform usability tests? • Control lab • Conference room with recording equipment • Work area with • Local • Distributed with local observer • Distributed without local observer © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 88
  47. 47. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 45 Usability Test Framework Prepare Usability Scenario •Identify project usability test objectives •Select relevant user tasks •Keep user instructions short and to the point •Do not over complicate instructions •Use the language of the user not the language of the system •Make task parameters specific •Use a logical flow © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 89 Usability Test Framework Running a test •Let participants make mistakes •Take note of questions •Take note of decisions points •Take note of alternative selections © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 90
  48. 48. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 46 Usability Test Framework Think Aloud Approach • the user verbalizes actions and decisions • user verbalizes questions concerns or ambiguities Retrospective Think Aloud • records and eye tracking software record event • review with user and ask them to explain their actions © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 91 Usability Test Framework Reporting Findings • List of usability concerns • Summary of user questions • Description of users behaviour • Tasks of concern • Too long • Awkward • Unsuccessful • Time to complete • Feedback • Expected • Unexpected © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 92
  49. 49. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 47 Usability Test Framework Measures and metrics •Effectiveness •Efficiency •Satisfaction •Error frequency •Memorability © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 93 Usability Test Framework Measures and metrics • Successful task completion • Error rates • Time on task • Subjective comments • Likes • Dislikes • Recommendations © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 94
  50. 50. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 48 Usability Test Framework Facilitating a test • Make participant comfortable with environment and technology • Give participants a change to ask questions • Explain process • Ask participants about the amount of experience they have with the technology • Ask participants about the amount of experience they have with the domain • Review task description with participant • Explain facilitators involvement © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 95 FORMS AND WORKFLOWS Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 96
  51. 51. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 49 Form Design Principles • Minimize pain • Illuminate path • Consider context • Ensure consistent communication © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 97 Luke Wroblewski Web Form Design Eye Tracking © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 98
  52. 52. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 50 Form Usability • Number and location of errors • Severity of errors • Completion rates • Time to complete forms • Satisfaction scores • Subjective comments © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 99 Awkward Form Path © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 100
  53. 53. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 51 Clear Form Path © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 101 Form Usability • Eye tracking – What people looked at – Number of eye fixations – Length of eye fixations © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 102
  54. 54. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 52 Form Usability Checklist Any unnecessary questions Succinct questions Sincere voice Natural language Logical groups of information Structure form as a conversation Ask optional questions separately © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 103 Form Usability Checklist Name the form Name sections of the form Clear scan line Spacing between sections Minimal distractions Start page guidance for long forms Indicate progress © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 104
  55. 55. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 53 Progress Indication © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 105 Input Validation Suggest valid answers Illustrate valid format Validate syntax after user enters data Indicate limits or ranges of inputs Provide smart defaults Hide unneeded controls © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 106
  56. 56. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 54 Error Messages Provide clear error messages Indicate if error blocks completion Guide users to resolve error Provide visual emphasis of error Use red text and icons for errors Indicate successful completion © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 107 DO IT YOURSELF USABILITY TESTING Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 108
  57. 57. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 55 Do it yourself © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 109 Do it yourself A morning a month Get insights from users Watch real users © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 110
  58. 58. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 56 Do it yourself Recruit diversely Find important problems Improve design © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 111 Do it yourself Three testers Test on site Observe shared screens © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 112
  59. 59. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 57 Do it yourself Observers take notes User questions recorded Action decided at lunch © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 113 SOME MOBILE USABILITY CONCERNS Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 114
  60. 60. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 58 Mobile Usability •Small Screens •Limited bandwidth •Fingers •No Flash Like GUI Difficulties © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 115 Mobile Usability •Bad first impression •Operator errors •Negative feedback / reviews •Competitor fills gap Risks © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 116
  61. 61. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 59 Mobile Usability • Important stuff on top • Easy to find stuff • Single column layout • Minimize navigation • Light data Guidelines © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 117 Mobile Usability • Finger taps • Avoid fancy web gui technologies • Minimize forms • Minimize feature sets • Separate mobile web resources • Fast Guidelines © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 118
  62. 62. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 60 Mobile Usability •In the lab •Beta •Crowd source Mobile Usability Test © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 119 Mobile Usability • Vary and control • Technologically • OS • Browser • Device • Carrier • Bandwidth Mobile Usability Test © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 120
  63. 63. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 61 Mobile Usability • Geographically • Continent • Country • City • Language • Locale Vary and control © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 121 Mobile Usability • Demographically • Age • Gender • Education • Employment • Industry • Computer savvy • Domain expertise Vary and control © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 122
  64. 64. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 62 LEAN UX Exploring Usability Testing © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 123 Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 124
  65. 65. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 63 Lean UX • Cross functional teams • Small teams • Dedicated teams • Collocated teams • Progress equals Outcomes • Problem focused teams Lean Principles © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 125 Lean UX • Remove waste • Small batch size • Continuous discovery • GOOB Get out of the building • Shared understanding • No Rock Stars Gurus or Ninjas Lean Principles © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 126
  66. 66. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 64 Lean UX • Externalize Your Work • Making over Analysis • Learning over Growth • Permission to Fail • Getting out of the Deliverables Business Lean Principles © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 127 Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 128 Assumptions Hypotheses Outcomes Personas Features
  67. 67. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 65 Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 129 •Business •User Assumptions Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 130 We believe that creating this experience for these personas will achieve this outcome. We will know this to be true when we see this feedback or measure. Hypotheses
  68. 68. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 66 Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 131 Outcomes More business More referrals More fun Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 132 Personas • Sketch and Name • Demographic • Pain points & needs • Potential solutions
  69. 69. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 67 Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 133 •Capabilities •Tactics •Products Features are Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 134 •Business •Customer •User Features serve
  70. 70. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 68 Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 135 Features drive customer behaviour Lean UX © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 136 Process
  71. 71. © 2013 Robert Sabourin 69 Thank You • Questions? © 2013 Robert Sabourin EUT v1.1 137

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