Scrum for Global-Scale Development


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A global development organization—in seven cities on three continents—has developers all using agile practices to develop complex applications. In addition to the common problems faced by distributed teams, they must deal with attrition rates in excess of 50 percent, possible loss of intellectual property, and the need to integrate the work of multiple Scrum teams into a single build. James Lynn describes an organizational structure that includes implementation teams, known as “the Factory.” Developers in the Factory often have little in-depth knowledge of the application or customer. Assisting the Factory are architecture teams that provide oversight, communication, coordination, and technical direction. The architecture teams include new roles such as Code Trolls who develop reference implementations for services and patterns to ensure the production of consistent code to common coding standards and quality measurements. These trolls review code against metrics standards, test case standards, and coverage. Learn how one organization successfully coordinated the efforts of massive, distributed development projects.

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Scrum for Global-Scale Development

  1. 1.     AT12 Session  6/6/2013 3:45 PM                "Using Scrum for Global Scale Development"       Presented by: James Lynn SUTO Consulting                 Brought to you by:        340 Corporate Way, Suite 300, Orange Park, FL 32073  888‐268‐8770 ∙ 904‐278‐0524 ∙ ∙
  2. 2. James Lynn SUTO Consulting A partner with SUTO Consulting (, James Lynn is passionate about delivering value to his clients by improving software development productivity and quality through enhancements to organization, process, and metrics; by transitioning work off-shore or reallocating work on-shore; and by developing business intelligence and metrics in his organization’s SaaS products to increase effectiveness for the end-user, resulting in higher customer satisfaction and improved renewal rates. For the past ten years, Jim has been an agent of change for several organizations in transition from waterfall to agile in the quest to improve performance and as the foundation to migrate heterogeneous applications to a single enterprise architecture. Reach Jim at  
  3. 3. Using Scrum for Global Scale Development Jim Lynn SUTO Consulting Presentation Progress 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1
  4. 4. The Disclaimer • The specific issues have been generalized • The specific solutions have been rationalized • What we are going to talk about is the intersection of these experiences Company A Company B Company C No Individual Company Solution or Results - Contained in the Presentation Background 7 • Based on several companies – Shared common theme of goals and issues – Had a large number of applications • Different technologies, languages, security • Developed in different geographic areas of the company • Documentation was limited, SDLC was tribal and inconsistent within the company , quality hero based A Composite Project is Illustrated in This Presentation 2
  5. 5. Migrating - Standard Architecture • 6 applications needing a refresh – Each developed by a different center – Each different technology and some obsolete – Each center in a different geographical location • Migrate applications to enterprise architecture Large Application • • • • • 6 Project estimated at 20,000 function points Over 110 developer person years effort Selected a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) Investors need a 24 month implementation Nearly all employees will stay on deployed solutions – Only 10% of staff will move to the migration 3
  6. 6. Application Goals • Create foundation for next 10 years – Refreshed technology – Standards for security, communications, technology – Add mobile delivery – Adequate documentation to support • Improve the product quality • Reduce the cost for maintenance • Reduce the redundancy of services Project Objectives • Unify the geographic development centers – SDLC, documentation, communication • • • • Introduce agile development Introduce UML for documentation Common tools, documentation, architecture Introduce Metrics for management and communication • Transform the organization while supporting current clients and employees 4
  7. 7. Issues to Consider • Attrition rates in India could exceed 30% • Little documentation on existing applications • Engage contractors for most of implementation – They would have no background in applications – Needed a short process to get them productive – As the application evolves transition to employees • Communication with over 100 people • 20,000 FP large risk of project failure – Needed to demonstrate the migration – Investors and clients Architecture • Selected Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) – Atomic stand-alone , loosely coupled – No calls between services – Services and objects are orchestrated • Standardize on Unified Modeling Language (UML) – Visual models of object oriented systems – Pictures are better than words for communicating • Standardize service communication using Extensible Markup Language (XML) 5
  8. 8. Scrum of Scrums A Common Agile Approach for Large Teams 11 Agile and Global Issues • • • • • • • Most large developments are NOT co-located Time zones, communication Customer interaction Testing and defect resolution Multiple teams on a single Build lines High attrition issues and keeping teams coherent Transition the work from contractors to employees Only 20 Employees Would be Available at the Start 6
  9. 9. 3 Dimensions to the Team 13 Project Organization • Implementation Teams (121 people) – – – – Limited application exposure Contractors 15 – 8 person teams – 1 manager All offshore 3 different locations • Architecture Team (50 people) – Provides all technical leadership – Customer for the implementation teams – Mostly onshore (40/10) • Project Management Office (PMO) (4 people) Employees Were all in Architecture Team 7
  10. 10. Implementation Teams 5 • Contractors – no product experience – Need to transition to employees • Focused on producing high quality code – Using Style Guides, Testing Standards – Work assignment/coordination from Architecture Team – Based on work packages • Product owner for each team comes from Architecture team – multiple teams • Performance and quality held to common standards Also known as The Factory Implementation Teams • Highly skilled developers • Develop Services – UML Documents – Using Reference implementations • Support specific Architecture teams • Architecture team responsible for accepting output of Factory 8
  11. 11. Factory Sprint Team Scrum Master 5 Developers 2 Test Engineers Factory Sprint Team • 8 members per team • 15 factory teams established • 1 team was an integration/test team only • Teams in 2 Cities in India & Philippines • New employees joined the factory • Growth to architecture teams • Factory metrics and management by a Factory Manager Onboarding – A Factory Team Process Tools & Technology Training Hands on (Mock Sprint) Evaluation 2 Weeks onboarding process Factory 18 9
  12. 12. Team Bilbo Onboarding Effort (Hrs.)/FP 20 15 10 17.3 Goal 10.24 11.63 9.77 5 • Standard ~ 10.24 hours/fp • Based on 15fp/dev-mo • Goals always improved 0 History POC Manage scale & grades Demo Sprint Sprint -xxx Sprint – yyy Mock sprint evaluation Production sprint evaluation Defects /FP 0.2 0.16 0.15 0.1 • 1 defect 600loc • Goal was 1/Kloc • Moving to 1/10Kloc 0.05 0.1 0.09 Goal .054 0 History POC Manage scale & grades Demo Sprint Sprint -xxx Sprint – yyy Mock sprint evaluation Production sprint evaluation 19 Factory – Supported by Specialist PMO QMO Factory Manager Team Darth Team Orrin Team Dengar Team Jarael Team Paploo Team Skywalker City 1 – Star Wars Characters Architects & BAs Team Nimrodel Team Legolas Team Bilbo Team Tango Team Eowyn Team Gimli City 2 – Lord of Rings Code Quality Evangelist 20 10
  13. 13. Factory Metrics • Evaluated teams like “machines” against standards and control limits • Presented by Factory Manager • Focusing on productivity and quality • Teams not compared to each other • Leveraged the best for the rest • Weekly metric • Monthly metrics • Goals always improve Factory Support • The Factory is a structure that specializes – Producing production deployable software – According to user requirements – Through an assembly process • Supported by the Specialist in the Architecture Teams and the PMO 11
  14. 14. Architecture Team 4 • Employees/Contractors • Specialist – – – – Code Quality Evangelist Test Architects Business Analysis Technical Architects & DBAs • • • • BAs and Architects formed Sprint Teams Sequenced work packages Provided direction to the Factory Accepted the results of sprints • Central control of the Intellectual Property Code Quality Evangelist • Dedicated Team within the Architecture Group – All off-shore to be closer to the Factory • Highly skilled in the language and environment • Established coding style guides • Developed reference implementations – Classes, services, UX and design patterns • Develop training materials for factory • Review the code and provide direction and mentoring to implementation teams. They trawl through the code • Responsible for the factory teams to produce high quality consistent code -mentors Trawling became Troll and thus the Code Troll 12
  15. 15. Code Trolls • We needed our 100+ developers to produce – Code that meet the standards – Could be maintained and appeared as if only one person wrote the code • More money in maintenance than development • Worked w/Architects to insure we could build • Set the standards and review exceptions – i.e. Cyclomatic Complexity – maintenance indicator • Tasked to develop a tool to review all code – Created a tool called – Sledge Hammer • Identify Factory staff that could be Code Trolls SLEDGE Hammer • NCover & NDepend used to find potential trouble in the code base and reported to the Code Trolls via import into the Sledge Hammer tool • Trolls review source code and make recommendations to sprint teams – work with each team • Second set of eyes reviews the code during sprints • Recommendations get added to the product backlog • Trolls coordinate with the Technical Architects on recommendations to ensure they are sensible • Recommendations are tracked and managed through the Sledge Hammer tool. 13
  16. 16. Code Troll Role in Factory • Fixes/refactors by the sprint team MUST be reviewed by a Code Troll and be VERIFIED before it is accepted. • New Code/Changed code gets reviewed after sprint is delivered. Code Troll Tasks & Activities During a Development Sprint Cycle Code Quality Metrics Code Generated on Day 7 & Review Day 10 Code Quality Data Moved to Code Quality Improvement Management System Sledge Hammer Tool Development Sprint Cycle Recommendations Code Quality Review Sprint Teams Test Architects • • • • • • • Create sprint test guidance Own the test architecture Review test cases Insure all the sprint test cases support goals Manage the Integration sprint team Automated testing Enter defects in the backlog for architect scheduling • Review and verify requirements delivered • Coordinate Build lines with architects 14
  17. 17. Technical Architects/DBAs & BAs • • • • • Includes UX/UI team Document Requirements Design work packages Ensure sprint teams deliver desired requirements Architecture communication Requirements & Design Verification Verify Implementation Design Work Packages Product Backlog Architects & BAs Sprint Teams Architecture Communication Production Shippable Incremental Build Factory Work Package • UML package – Reusable code identified – Reference implementations are included – Common solutions • Video of the UX/UI elements – UX/UI Style Guide • • • • Contains all of the requirements Sized and sequenced for sprint implementation BA and Architect support the WP during the sprint BA and Architect are customers for sprint acceptance 15
  18. 18. BA & Architects w/WP Scope Definition • Senior BA – Provides a scope definition of each package • Lead Solutions Architect - Reviews/Approves the scope definition of each package Package Reviews • Senior BA – Validate that the requirement and use case for each package is correct and meets our define standards • UI Lead – Validate that the mock UI for each package follows defined standards • Architect – Validate requirements and use cases are clear and follows defined standards Package Approvals • Lead Solutions Architect –Perform final approval on requirements, use cases and UI for each package Package Handoff • BA – Handoff requirements and use cases for each package • Architect – Handoff design artifacts for each package • Scrum Master – Accepts approved package for development Sprint Reviews • BA – Verify that all requirements are meet prior to sprint demo. Review the test case coverage for each package. • Architect – Verify that the design of each package is correct. 31 Architecture Sprint - Process Flow Package Analysis (Day 1-2) Joint Application Design (JAD) Development (Day 3- 11) Scope Sequence , UI/UX movies, Reviews (Day 11 -14) Review/Approval by Leads Approval (Day 15) Approval Lead Solution Architect Architecture Teams JAD Backlog Package Acceptance Factory Backlog 32 16
  19. 19. Project Management 3 • Project scheduling and tracking – Planning was done on a 90 day rolling wave • 1 planner dedicated to the factory and metrics • Scope watchdog – highlighted scope creep • Coordinated communication – Conducted audits for documents and results – Acted as the honest brokers – Management communication – Customer communication • Risks and Action Register The PMO • Managed the connections to organizations outside of development – Transformation of processes to include UML/XML – Training for other organizations • Owner of the build lines and release schedule – Periodic releases for clients and internal stakeholders – Manages the Change Control Board 17
  20. 20. Factory Sprint - Process Flow Requirement Analysis (Day 1-2) Work Package Analysis Development (Day 3- 11) Work Package Handoff Approve Sprint Scope Demo Code Walk-through Post Questions on design & requirements BA/, Architect Test Case Execution and Bug Fixes Estimate Scope & Seek Approval Sprint Teams Demo (Day 15) Testing (Day 11 -14) Development, Code Review & Test Case Creation 2 No Scope affected Yes Provide Clarification Log Change Request Sprint Acceptance CCB Review Retrospective 35 Take Away 1 • Architects wanted to write code • Code Trolls were very effective • The Factory – High degree of employee satisfaction • Liked the routine of the sprints • Liked that software developers were the clients – Needed firm plans for transition of employees – Needed to add training for “what” we were building • Maintained library of reusable code and reference implementations – Needed standards and tools for easy reuse – CMS to manage content 18
  21. 21. Learning • Managing the build lines was a full time job – Multi Factory building on a line – 1 Final Integration line • Clients struggled with build lines that had partial functions – so many things going on • Communication always needed to be monitored – Establish overlap hours for meetings • Difficult for companies to adapt agile without a plan and executive buy in and commitment • Selecting the right contractors to help train staff was key Questions 19
  22. 22. Jim Lynn Notes • Certain images and/or photos in this presentation are the copyrighted property of 123RF Limited, their Contributors or Licensed Partners and are being used with permission under license. These images and/or photos may not be copied or downloaded without permission from 123RF Limited. 40 20