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3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2
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3D printing for Development Hack Day in Bucharest, session 2

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The rise of 3D printing has been compared to the beginning of the industrial era in how deeply it might impact our society. TechSoup, EESTEC and TechforTrade host Dr. Phil Reeves for a 3D printing …

The rise of 3D printing has been compared to the beginning of the industrial era in how deeply it might impact our society. TechSoup, EESTEC and TechforTrade host Dr. Phil Reeves for a 3D printing hack day.

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  • 1. Session 2ALM materials, processesand economics www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 2. OBJECTIVES SESSION 21. To gain an appreciation of the different materials that can be used by ALM processes for different applications2. To gain an understanding of different Additive Layer Manufacturing technologies3. To gain an understanding of the direct and indirect costs of Additive Manufacturing www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 3. The business cyclewww.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 4. STEP 2 MATERIAL SELECTION www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 5. STEP 2 MATERIAL ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION• What do I want my ALM part to DO! – Mechanical strength (or not), density – Thermal stability – Thermal or electrical conductive (or insulative) – Corrosion resistant – Water or moisture resistant or repellent – Life cycle (how long is the application) – Visual impact (colour / texture / tactility) www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 6. MATERIALS ALM MATERIAL CHOICE Organic materials Ceramic Polymeric Metallic materials materials materials Waxes Alumina ABS Aluminium Cellular material Mullite Polyamide (nylon) Tool Steel Zirconia PEEK Titanium Silicon Carbide Composite loaded PA Inconel Beta-Tri calcium Phosphate Thermosetting epoxies Cobalt Chrome Ceramic (nano) loaded epoxies Copper Silica (sand) PMMA Stainless steel Plaster Polycarbonate Gold / platinum Graphite Polyphenylsulfone Bronze Aluminium loaded polyamide www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 7. IMPLEMENTATION STEP 3 - RM PROCESS SELECTION www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 8. STEP 3 CERAMIC PROCESSESDIRECTAdhesion of ceramic powder – Z-CorporationINDIRECTCeramic loaded photopolymer – Ceram pilot, LAMPLaser sintering of ceramic/polymer matrix - 3D systemsCutting from sheet – CAMLEMExtruded from paste – Freeze cast www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 9. STEP 3 CERAMIC PROCESSESDIRECTAdhesion of ceramic powder – Z-CorporationINDIRECTCeramic loaded photopolymer – Ceram pilot, LAMPLaser sintering of ceramic/polymer matrix - 3D systemsCutting from sheet – CAMLEMExtruded from paste – Freeze cast www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 10. STEP 3 Z-CORPORATION 3D PRINTING• 3D Printing of a binder into a bed of ceramic powder• Similar system used by Therics for biocompatible medical• Similar process used by ProMetal RTC for sand casting cores• Similar process used by Monolite for architectural parts www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 11. (1) Images courtesy of Fabjectory www.fabjectory.com(2) Images courtesy of www.figureprint.com CERAMICS GIFTWARE AND TOYS www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 12. STEP 3 POLYMERIC PROCESSES PROCESSESPOWDERSelective laser sintering- EOS, 3D SystemsIR sintering – Sintermask, Lboro HSS, Desktop FactoryLIQUIDLaser curing of monomer – 3D Systems StereolithographyDMD light during of monomer – Envisiontec PerfactoryJetting of Photocurable monomer – ObjetExtrusion of a semi molten polymer – Stratasys FDMSHEETChemical adhesion of sheet- 3D systems Invision-LD www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 13. STEP 3 POLYMERIC PROCESSES PROCESSESPOWDERSelective laser sintering- EOS, 3D SystemsIR sintering – Sintermask, Lboro HSS, Desktop FactoryLIQUIDLaser curing of monomer – 3D Systems StereolithographyDMD light during of monomer – Envisiontec PerfactoryJetting of Photocurable monomer – ObjetExtrusion of a semi molten polymer – Stratasys FDMSHEETChemical adhesion of sheet- 3D systems Invision-LD www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 14. PROCESSES 3D SYSTEMS – SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING• Powder material which is selectively bonded through localised melting induced by laser energy• Multiple systems of varying sizes and configurations• 20 year old technology www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 15. Images courtesy of CRP Technologies www.crptechnology.com RM APPLICATIONS 3D SYSTEMS – SLS with WINDFORM XT POWDER 250cc world championship motorcycle Body components Motorcycle seat Mudguard & air intake Mudguard www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 16. CASE STUDIES Production parts - aerospace Flame Retardant Material for FAA Requirements Moving assemblies www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 17. EXAMPLE Production parts – military aerospaceF18 – internalducting - 130 partsto replace 1,250 Moving assemblies www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 18. STEP 3 POLYMERIC PROCESSES PROCESSESPOWDERSelective laser sintering- EOS, 3D SystemsIR sintering – Sintermask, Lboro HSS, Desktop FactoryLIQUIDLaser curing of monomer – 3D Systems StereolithographyDMD light during of monomer – Envisiontec PerfactoryJetting of Photocurable monomer – ObjetExtrusion of a semi molten polymer – Stratasys FDMSHEETChemical adhesion of sheet- 3D systems Invision-LD www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 19. PROCESSES 3D SYSTEMS - STEREOLITHOGRAPHY• Photocurable liquid monomer which cures through exposure to a UV Laser source• Multiple systems of varying sizes and configurations• 20 year old technology www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 20. Images and video courtesy of Align www.invisalign.com RM APPLICATIONS 3D SYSTESM STEREOLITHOGRAPHY • Bespoke dental aligners • SLA form tools • Vacuum formed aligner • 25+ SLA 7000’s • Shallow vats • Special formulation resin • Millions of parts per annum • $206-million T/O in 3-years www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 21. STEP 3 POLYMERIC PROCESSES PROCESSESPOWDERSelective laser sintering- EOS, 3D SystemsIR sintering – Sintermask, Lboro HSS, Desktop FactoryLIQUIDLaser curing of monomer – 3D Systems StereolithographyDMD light during of monomer – Envisiontec PerfactoryJetting of Photocurable monomer – ObjetExtrusion of a semi molten polymer – Stratasys FDMSHEETChemical adhesion of sheet- 3D systems Invision-LD www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 22. PROCESSES OBJET - POLYJET• Photocurable liquid monomer which is jetted via a print head and cured through exposure to a UV light source• Secondary water soluble support material is also jetted• New System capable of jetting multiple materials and ‘mixing them’ to produce variable Shore Hardness www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 23. • There are two kinds of Multi-material RP part 1. A part with two or more ‘different’ mechanical properties (currently Durometer) 2. A part where two different materials are combined to create a new ‘third material’ 1. 2. www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 24. • Multiple material RP is Unique to Objet• Multiple material printing can only be achieved using the Polyjet Matrix technology on the Connex Family of printers = + www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 25. Images courtesy of Minerva Laboratories www.minervalabs.co.uk RM APPLICATIONS OBJET – POLYJET• Bespoke hearing aids• Customised to patient• Printed on mass• 3 different coloursBusiness model adopted bymost other major in-earhearing aid manufacturers Clear Rose Skin Tone www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 26. STEP 5 POLYMERIC PROCESSES PROCESSESPOWDERSelective laser sintering- EOS, 3D SystemsIR sintering – Sintermask, Lboro HSS, Desktop FactoryLIQUIDLaser curing of monomer – 3D Systems StereolithographyDMD light during of monomer – Envisiontec PerfactoryJetting of Photocurable monomer – ObjetExtrusion of a semi molten polymer – Stratasys FDMSHEETChemical adhesion of sheet- 3D systems Invision-LD www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 27. PROCESSES STRATASYS – FUSED DESPOSITION MODELLING (FDM)• Thermoplastic is extruded from a nozzle and deposited onto a build platform• Multiple systems of varying sizes and configurations• Range of REAL engineering thermoplastics www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 28. RM APPLICATIONS STRATASYS – FDM Structural components Press tool Electronics housing Robot gripper This is just the same technology as MakerBot – but industrial www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 29. STEP 5 METALLIC PROCESSESDIRECT (bed)Cut from sheet material - Solidica ultrasonic compactionConsolidation of powder with laser – Concept Laser, Phenix, MTT, EOSConsolidation of powder with electron beam - Arcam EBMDIRECT (feed)Jetting of powder into laser beam – Optomec, Trumpf, AccufusionINDIRECTConsolidation of powder with laser - 3D systems Laser formJetting of binder into powder bed – ProMetal, F-Cubic www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 30. STEP 4 METALLIC PROCESSESDIRECT (bed)Cut from sheet material - Solidica ultrasonic compactionConsolidation of powder with laser – MTT, Concept Laser, Phenix, EOSConsolidation of powder with electron beam - Arcam EBMDIRECT (feed)Jetting of powder into laser beam – Optomec, Trumpf, Laser ConsolidationINDIRECTConsolidation of powder with laser - 3D systems Laser formJetting of binder into powder bed – ProMetal, F-Cubic www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 31. METALLIC MTT – SELECTIVE LASER MELTING (SLM) Realizer• Powder bed consolidated by a laser• Old systems - Inert atmosphere and air ‘knife’ designed for reactive materials such as titanium• New systems – Vacuum chamber build area• Also sold outside EU by 3D Systems as Sinterstation Pro SLM www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 32. PARTS MTT – SELECTIVE LASER MELTING (SLM) Realizer Titanium Al6V4 Stainless Steel Cobalt Chrome Aluminium www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 33. STEP 3 METALLIC PROCESSESDIRECT (bed)Cut from sheet material - Solidica ultrasonic compactionConsolidation of powder with laser – MTT, EOS, Concept Laser, PhenixConsolidation of powder with electron beam - Arcam EBMDIRECT (feed)Jetting of powder into laser beam – Trumpf, Optomec, Laser ConsolidationINDIRECTConsolidation of powder with laser - 3D systems Laser formJetting of binder into powder bed – ProMetal, F-Cubic www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 34. METALLIC TRUMPF – DIRECT METAL DEPOSITION (DMD)• Powder blown into the beam of a moving laser• Good for depositing material onto a substrate• Excellent microstructure• Limited geometric freedom• Large foot-print, but slow• Multiple materials and combinations• Limited accuracy and resolution (Near NETT shaped) www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 35. Images courtesy of Trumpf www.trumpf.com PARTS TRUMPF – DIRECT METAL DEPOSITION (DMD) www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 36. STEP - 4 STEP 4 – PROCESS CAPABILITIES & CONSTRAINTS www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 37. STEP - 4 STEP 4 – PROCESS CAPABILITIES & CONSTRAINTS Does the component geometry fit on the machine (X,Y,Z) Laser Cusing Does the technology have the accuracy to manufacture the geometry you desire Does the layer deposition configuration allow for the Arcam EBM manufacture of the geometry you desire (powder bed vs. powder feed)Innoshape DMD Does the technology build in layers thin enough to provide an acceptable part resolution Does the layer thickness provide an acceptable surface Trumpf DMD finish and tactility EOS DMLS www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 38. STEP - 4 STEP 4 – PROCESS CAPABILITIES & CONSTRAINTS What geometric variation do I get between builds on this technology EnvisionTEC Does part position on the machine bed effect geometric tolerances Stratasys FDM Does part position or orientation effect mechanical properties Objet Polyjet Will system variables such as chamber temperature, laser power or calibration of optics effect my final part Will the material-process interface effect the final part, Invision LD such as the age of the material or the amount of recycled material in the system3D Systems SLS www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 39. STEP - 5 STEP 5 PROCESS COST www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 40. STEP - 5 UNDERSTANDING COST (comparison between suppliers) Machine depreciation is a function of build time Cost Build time is a function of part Machine geometry & depreciation material ($) Variable Operational Material usage Overheads Fixed is a function of Labour geometry Material www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 41. STEP - 5 COST vs. QUALITY• Part orientation – Orientation to save on cost could create stair-stepping – Orientation could increase errors in the Z-axis• Chosen Layer thickness and number of layers – Thinner layers will give a better surface and resolution – More layers will increase cost www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 42. STEP - 5 UNDERSTANDING OPERATIONAL OVERHEAD COSTS Cost Operational Machine overheads are a ($) depreciation function of the Variable processes Operational Overheads Fixed Labour Material www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 43. STEP - 5 UNDERSTANDING OPERATIONAL OVERHEAD COSTS• Does the process require a shielding gas• Does the process require special filtration• Does the process require a sacrificial plate to build the parts onto• Do the parts require machining to remove them from the build plate• Does the process need to operate in a controlled or conditioned environment• Does the process need water cooling or compressed air• Will parts require post process machining www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 44. STEP - 5 UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL COSTS Cost Machine depreciation ($) Variable Operational Material usage Overheads Fixed is a function of Labour geometry Material www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 45. STEP - 5 UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL COSTS• How much material is required to consolidate the geometry (cost per kg)• How much material will be required to generate the support structures (orientation dependent)• How much material will be lost during the build cycle and clean-up (trapped voids, re-entrant features)• Can all un-processed material be recycled (Polymers 50% metallics 97%) www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 46. STEP 6 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 47. STEP 6 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS• Supply chain savings• First to market advantage• Lead time compression• Environmental / sustainability benefits• Logistical costs• Transaction costs• Life cycle costs• End of life• Skills www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 48. CASE STUDY LIFE CYCLE COSTS• Supply chain savings• First to market advantage• Lead time compression• Environmental savings• Logistical costs• Transaction costs• Life cycle costs• Skills www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 49. All image courtesy of 3D Systems and The Boeing Company www.3dsystems.com www.boeing.com CASE STUDY LIFE CYCLE COSTS (A) Conventional Duct fabricated from Vac Formed plastic Part Count = 16 (plus glue) (B) Component modified and consolidated for fabrication via Additive Rapid Direct Manufacture Part Count = 1 www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 50. All image courtesy of 3D Systems and The Boeing Company www.3dsystems.com www.boeing.com CASE STUDY LIFE CYCLE COSTS äService Checks reduced from 7 to 1 www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 51. SUMMARY SUMMARY1. The ‘REAL’ business benefits of using AM are in its application as an ‘ENABLING’ technology, rather than as a ‘DISRUPTIVE’ technology.2. aM is suited to new business models and new ways of working (distributes manufacture, home manufacture, co-creation, remanufacturing)3. There are a vast array of ALM processes with many applications www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 52. OBJECTIVES SESSION 21. You should now have an appreciation of the different materials that can be used by ALM processes for RM applications2. You should now have an understanding of different Additive Layer Manufacturing technologies3. You should now have an understanding of the direct and indirect costs of Additive Manufacturing www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 53. THE 3D FOR DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGE www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk
  • 54. QUESTIONS SESSION 2Any Questions www.3d4d-challenge.org www.econolyst.co.uk

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