Organizations and Project Management
Outline <ul><li>Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organ...
<ul><li>Systems: sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Organizations <ul><li>Two or more people working together to achieve something (that often cannot be accomplished alone) <...
Organizational structure <ul><li>System of relations, governing activities of employees, reliant upon one another to meet ...
Organizational structure <ul><li>Since it is based upon relationships, it changes, even when it looks fixed </li></ul><ul>...
Ex. Functional Structure <ul><li>Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Level Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle ...
Ex. Project Organization Structures <ul><li>Hierarchies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups/teams still report to managers up th...
Organizational Culture <ul><li>Not a model for management but a theory that explains workplace behavior </li></ul><ul><li>...
Elements of Organizational Culture <ul><li>Symbols: décor, signs, clothing  </li></ul><ul><li>Language:  use of terminolog...
Levels of Organizational Culture <ul><li>Underlying assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unspoken and unconscious but guide a...
Stakeholders <ul><li>Stakeholders – people involved in or impacted by the project </li></ul><ul><li>Project teams must hav...
Leadership and Management styles <ul><li>Think of a manager you worked for and how s/he treated subordinates: </li></ul><u...
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Organizations and Project Management

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Organizations and Project Management

  1. 1. Organizations and Project Management
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership & Management </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Systems: sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysis: a problem solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into components, and then identifying and evaluating problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Management: managing the business, technological , and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and changing a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this relate to the course project? </li></ul></ul>Systems
  4. 4. Organizations <ul><li>Two or more people working together to achieve something (that often cannot be accomplished alone) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vision? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mission? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Organizational structure <ul><li>System of relations, governing activities of employees, reliant upon one another to meet common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in position descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Pictured in position relationships shown on organizational charts </li></ul><ul><li>Revealed in distribution of authority and communication channels </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational structure <ul><li>Since it is based upon relationships, it changes, even when it looks fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Varies from the simple to complex </li></ul><ul><li>Can be formal or informal </li></ul><ul><li>May be centralized or decentralized </li></ul><ul><li>Marked by specialization and coordination </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ex. Functional Structure <ul><li>Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Level Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Level Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontal and vertical components </li></ul><ul><li>Also Distinguished by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governing rules –often rigid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized functional units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain of command </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority: right of supervisor to direct subordinates; flows from chain of command; vested in position, not person </li></ul><ul><li>Power: ability to influence the behavior of others; may derive from: management, ability to reward, expertise, and/or respect </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ex. Project Organization Structures <ul><li>Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups/teams still report to managers up the hierarchy (ex. Portfolio manager, area manager, CEO, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staff have varied skills to complete jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Often provide services to other organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. IT consulting firms, engineering firms, service contractors, architectural firms, audit/accounting/management firms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about the middle ground? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrixed organizations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Organizational Culture <ul><li>Not a model for management but a theory that explains workplace behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Often operates unconsciously but guides action and affects ability to change </li></ul><ul><li>Exists alongside formal organizational structure, can be at odds with it </li></ul><ul><li>Learned responses of an organization in adapting to an external environment and integrating internally its experiences </li></ul>
  10. 10. Elements of Organizational Culture <ul><li>Symbols: décor, signs, clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Language: use of terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of behavior: meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Slogans: sayings </li></ul><ul><li>Heroes: those who embody the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Mythology: stories that are repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonies: special events, celebrations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Levels of Organizational Culture <ul><li>Underlying assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unspoken and unconscious but guide action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Espoused values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stated in mission, ethical codes, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible evidence of assumptions in behavior, rituals, myths, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Stakeholders <ul><li>Stakeholders – people involved in or impacted by the project </li></ul><ul><li>Project teams must have an understanding of the project stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must understand the organization and the client’s stakeholders if they will be impacted by the IT project </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Leadership and Management styles <ul><li>Think of a manager you worked for and how s/he treated subordinates: </li></ul><ul><li>Did s/he build team spirit? </li></ul><ul><li>Did s/he monitor work closely? </li></ul><ul><li>Did s/he punish mistakes? </li></ul><ul><li>Did s/he permit you to share in goal setting and decision-making? </li></ul>

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