Outline Professional citing and quotation Reference vs. Bibliography Citing printed vs. Internet publications Quoting authors vs. Interviewees/informants/participants Referencing styles- Harvard, APA, Vancouver, etc.
WHAT IS CITING?•The act of referring to or giving formal credit to an originalsource.•In scholarly/academic work, the terms citing andreferencing are synonyms – when you cite an author youare making reference to him or her.•Citing an information source used in an academic workmeans to employ a standardised method ofacknowledging that source and full details of the sourcemust be given in the reference section.
WHY CITE?•To provide evidence for authors’ arguments and to addcredibility to their works by demonstrating a variety ofliterature reviewed/consulted on a given subject.•To give credit to / acknowledge authors for their ideas.•To guide readers to locate and further explore thesources the author(s) consulted.•To be ethical and avoid plagiarism, piracy and otherintellectual property malpractices
INTRODUCTIONS, PREFACES,FOREWORDS, ANDAFTERWORDS• When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword,or Afterwords in-text, cite the appropriate authorand year as usual.•(Funk & Kolln, 1992)
WHAT IS A QUOTATION?•NB: Because words and phrases taken out of context may give amisleading impression of the whole, care must be taken in selectingquotations.•Direct quotations must be accurate. (Citation style used matters)•A passage quoted incorrectly is a misquotation.•Some publications provide guidelines on how to differentiatebetween author and interviewee quotations.Words or passages reproduced from a written work or repeated verbatim froman oral statement word for word.
Direct QuotationsDirect quotations are another persons exact words--eitherspoken or in print--incorporated into your own writing.• Use a set of quotation marks to enclose each directquotation included in your writing.• Use a capital letter with the first word of a directquotation of a whole sentence. Do not use a capital letterwith the first word of a direct quotation of part of asentence.• If the quotation is interrupted and then continues in yoursentence, do not capitalize the second part of thequotation.
Examples of Direct QuotationsMr. and Mrs. Allen, owners of a 300-acre farm,said, "We refuse to use that pesticide because itmight pollute the nearby wells.”Mr. and Mrs. Allen stated that they "refuse to usethat pesticide" because of possible waterpollution."He likes to talk about football," she said,"especially when the Super Bowl is coming up."
Indirect QuotationsIndirect quotations are not exact words butrather rephrasing or summaries of anotherpersons words.Do not use quotation marks for indirectquotations.Example: According to their statement to the local papers, the Allens refuse to use pesticide because of potential water pollution.
BRIEF QUOTATION MARKSIn –text•Use double quotation marks to enclose briefquotations(fewer than 40 words) into textExampleShe stated, “The placebo effect…manner”( Miele, 1993, p.276).
Block quotationsA quotation that extends more than four typed lines(any quotations of 40 or more words), should be setapart from the main text by indention one inch from theleft margin (the equivalent of two half-inch paragraphindentations) and/or printed in a smaller type sizewithout quotation marks Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parentheticalcitation should come after the closing punctuationmark.
EXAMPLEStart the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same placeyou would begin a new paragraph.Joness (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style,especially when it was their first time citingsources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a stylemanual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Quotation within a QuotationUse single quotation marks for a quotationenclosed inside another quotation.Example:The agricultural reporter for the newspaperexplained, "When I talked to the Allens last week,they said, We refuse to use that pesticide. "
Omitted words in a quotationIf words are omitted from a quotation, an ellipsismark to indicate the omitted words is used. If youneed to insert something within a quotation, usea pair of brackets to enclose the addition.Full quotation:The welfare agency representative said, "We areunable to help every family that wed like to helpbecause we dont have the funds to do so."
Omitted Material with EllipsisThe welfare agency representative said,"We are unable to help every family . . .because we dont have the funds to do so."Added material with bracketsThe welfare agency representativeexplained that they are "unable to helpevery family that [they would] like to help."
REFERENCES VSBIBLIOGRAPHYReferences is a list of works that are citedby the author(s) in the document.Such a list of works is normally put at theend of a chapter or the article.•Unlike a bibliography, references shouldrelate only to works cited within the article,chapter, etc.
A BIBLIOGRAPHYA bibliography is a list of works consulted whilewriting an article, chapter, book, etc. and NOTcited in the text. It usually appears at the end ofthe work. In scholarly writing, one can have onlyreferences in his/her work.Note:a) the different types of bibliographies-See ex.from Africanab) some institutions recommend that unpublishedworks can only be put in footnotes and not in ref.or bib.
BIBLIOGRAPHY ORREFERENCES?Publication manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation. (2009). 6th ed. Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). Generalformat. Retrieved fromhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
CITING PRINTED VSINTERNETThe APA 6th Publication Manual instructs authors using and citingWeb sources to observe the following guidelines:•Provide URL references to specific documents rather than home ormenu pages.•Provide URLs that work.•To cite an entire Web site (but not a specific document on the site),simply give the sites URL in the text.•Breaking URLs: After a slash and before a period .
REFERENCING STYLESReference styles/formats vary by institution, publisher and sometimes by field of study
EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING STYLES•APA (American Psychological Association)•MLA (Modern Language Association)•Chicago (University of Chicago)•Vancouver (recommended by the Council ofScience Editors (CSE), is used in medical andscientific papers and research)•Harvard (recommended by both the BritishStandards Institution and the Modern LanguageAssociation)
APA STYLE•APA is the documentation style recommended bythe American Psychological Association• It is used in many social science and relatedcourses (anthropology, education, linguistics,political science, psychology and sociology)•APA requires information to be cited in twodifferent formats-within text and in a reference listat the end of the paper
FORMATING-FONT· Times New Roman typeface should be used.· Title should be set in upper case, bold, 14-font size.· Block quotations and footnotes should be set in 10-fontsize.· The abstract, acknowledgements, and the main body ofthe essayshould be set in 12-font size.· If there is a dedication, it should be in upper case, bold,12-font size.
PARAGRAPHS / LINE SPACING· The first line of all paragraphs should beindented one tab key from theleft-hand margin.· The main body text should be left aligned.· In the main body, use 1.5-line spacing.· Leave one line space before a heading.· Do not leave a line after the heading.· Do not leave a line between paragraphs.
PAGE NUMBERS· Page numbers should be placed on the rightside at the bottom of thepage.· Each page in the dissertation, from the bodyonward, should benumbered in consecutive order. This includes thetext, references, andappendices.· Preliminary pages carry lowercase Romannumerals.
SPELLINGS· British or American spellings may beused; as long as they are usedconsistently throughout the paper.
BULLETS· Bullets should be aligned with theparagraph i.e. they should beindented one tab key from the margin.
REFERENCES· The word ‘references’ should be leftaligned, bold, uppercase, 12- fontsize.· There should be one line spacebetween the heading and the firstreference, and between subsequentreferences.
EXAMPLE: REFERENCESBrown, J. D. (1998). Understandingresearch in second language learning .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2AKU-IED requires all student assignments/dissertations to have 1.5 line spacing.3 ‘one’ line or ‘a’ line for AKU-IED ppurposes means 1.5 line spacing.
APPENDICES· If the paper has only one appendix, it is labeled asAPPENDIX (Uppercase, bold, centered, 12-font size).· If it has more than one appendix, each is labeled witha capital letter such as APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B etc.· Font size for the title and the text should be 12.· Text should be justified.· If, for example, there is more than one appendix forAPPENDIX A, then it will be titled APPENDIX A1,APPENDIX A2, etc.· Sub-title: Uppercase and Lowercase, bold,centered
FOOTNOTES· Footnotes should be numbered withsuperscript, smaller font (size 10)Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 etc.).Example: Item analysis 1The item analysis for each section was carried out asfollows:1This section of the report has been edited in order tomaintain test confidentiality.
PAGE SETUP· For the purpose of binding, a leftmargin of 1.5 inches is required· Other margins should be one inch· These margin regulations should bemet on all pages
APA STYLE…•When using APA format, follow the author-date methodof in-text citation. This means that the authors last nameand the year of publication for the source should appearin the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a completereference should appear in the reference list at the end ofthe paper.Example : BookQuenivet, N. N. R. (2005). Sexual offenses in armed conflict. NewYork: Transnational Publishers.Example : Print journalDebattista, C. (2002). Legislative techniques in internationaltrade:madness or method?. The Journal of Business Law, 24, 626-637. London :Sweet & Maxwell
IN-TEXT CITATION CAPITALIZATION,QUOTES, AND ITALICS/UNDERLINING•Always capitalise proper nouns, including authornames and initials: D. Jones. If you refer to the titleof a source within your paper, capitalise all wordsthat are four letters long or greater within the title ofa source: Permanence and Change. Exceptionsapply to short words that are verbs, nouns,pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing NewMedia, There Is Nothing Left to Lose .
IN-TEXT…CONT’D•When capitalizing titles, capitalise both words in ahyphenated compound word: Natural-BornCyborgs.•Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon:"Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of HitchcocksVertigo."•Italicise or underline the titles of longer workssuch as books, edited collections, movies,television series, documentaries, or albums:
EXAMPLE•The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard ofOz; Friends. Put quotation marks around the titlesof shorter works such as journal articles, articlesfrom edited collections, television series episodes,and song titles: "Multimedia Narration:Constructing Possible Worlds"; "The One WhereChandler Cant Cry."
CITING AN AUTHOR ORAUTHORSA Work by Two Authors:Name both authors in the signal phrase or in theparentheses each time you cite the work.Use the word "and" between the authors nameswithin the text and use the ampersand in theparentheses.Example:Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
A WORK BY THREE TOFIVE AUTHORS•List all the authors in the signal phrase or inparentheses the first time you cite the source.•(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)•In subsequent citations, only use the first authorslast name followed by "et al." in the signal phraseor in parentheses. (Kernis et al., 1993)•In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
SIX OR MORE AUTHORS•Use the first authors name followed by et al. inthe signal phrase or in parentheses.•Harris et al. (2001) argued...•(Harris et al., 2001)
UNKNOWN AUTHOR•If the work does not have an author, cite thesource by its title in the single phrase or use thefirst word or two in the parentheses.•Titles of books and reports are italicised orunderlined; titles of articles, chapters, and webpages are in quotation marks.
EXAMPLE•A similar study was done of students learning toformat research papers ("Using APA," 2001).Note:•In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for theauthor, treat it as the authors name(Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use thename Anonymous as the author.
ORGANIZATION AS AN AUTHOR•If the author is an organization or a governmentagency, mention the organization in the signalphrase or in the parenthetical citation the first timeyou cite the source.•According to the American PsychologicalAssociation (2000),...
IF THE ORGANISATION HASA WELL-KNOWNABBREVIATION•Include the abbreviation in brackets the first timethe source is cited and then use only theabbreviation in later citations.Example:•First citation: (Makerere University Library[MakLib], 2000)•Second citation: (MakLib, 2000)
TWO OR MORE WORKS•When your parenthetical citation includes two ormore works, order them the same way theyappear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon. (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)•Authors With the Same Last Name: Toavoid confusion, use first initials with the lastnames.•(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THESAME AUTHOR IN THE SAMEYEAR•If you have two sources by the same author in thesame year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with theyear to order the entries in the reference list. Usethe lower-case letters with the year in the in-textcitation.•Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...
UNKNOWN AUTHOR ANDUNKNOWN DATE•If no author or date is given, use the title in yoursignal phrase or the first word or two of the title inthe parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d."(for "no date").•Another study of students and research decisionsdiscovered that students succeeded with tutoring("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
ELECTRONIC SOURCES•Cite an electronic document the same as anyother document by using the author-date style.Example:Kenneth (2000) explained...
IF PARAGRAPHS ARE NOTNUMBERED BUT…• the document includes headings, provide theappropriate heading and specify the paragraphunder that heading. Note that in some electronicsources, like Web pages, people can use the Findfunction in their browser to locate any passagesyou cite.Example:According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Mattersection, para. 6).
CITING INDIRECT SOURCES•If you use a source that was cited in anothersource, name the original source in your signalphrase. List the secondary source in your referencelist and include the secondary source in theparentheses.•Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p.102). Note: Set off the citation with a comma. Also,try to locate the original material and cite the originalsource.
EXERCISE•Book•Electronic journal article (Retrieve anyfrom the online journals)Using APA 6th, Harvard and Vancouver style formats, create a hypotheticalreference list for the following sources.