Team Tibet group 1 presentation

2,374 views
2,239 views

Published on

Team Tibet

Communications 101, Group 1

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,374
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Team Tibet group 1 presentation

  1. 1. tibet<br />Tibet is most notably known for its majestic mountains, the Dalai Lama, and massive political oppression. Almost everyone has heard “Free Tibet” uttered, seen the words written on a placard, or printed on a t-shirt.<br />We invite you to sit back and enjoy our presentation about the lives of the men and women who live there, learn about their clothing styles and immerse yourself in discovering the Five Tibetan Rituals so inherent within the entire culture. <br />The following people are responsible for this presentation:<br />Shameka Spencer Men’s gender roles in Tibet <br />Amy Alison Women’s gender roles in Tibet<br />Keelia Cohoe Traditional Tibetan Clothing<br />Tabetha Brodus Tibetan Clothing and Culture<br />Lauren Cimarusti Tibetan Rituals (Buddhism and the Five Tibetan Rites)<br />Treeza Black Team leader, editor, backup research, final <br /> preparation, and references<br /> Figure 1<br />Himalayan Mountains<br /> Figure 2 <br /> <br />
  2. 2. Men in Tibet<br /> The men in Tibet are nomads<br /> who lead very simple lives.<br /> They are considered to be<br /> the spiritual leaders of the<br /> family. <br /> They are also in charge of<br /> gathering supplies, medicine,<br /> food, and clothing. (Tibetan<br /> Men, 2007)<br />Tibetan Man<br /> Figure 3 <br />
  3. 3. Men in Tibet<br /> Men mostly earn a living as<br /> farmers, craftsmen, or yak<br /> herders. <br /> Alcoholism is a major problem<br /> among many men. <br /> With the relocation of many<br /> nomads into towns, gambling<br /> and fighting are becoming <br /> bigger problems. (Tibetan<br /> Men, 2007)<br />Yak Herder<br /> Figure 4<br />
  4. 4. Men in Tibet<br />In the role of the Tibetan male, <br /> it is the man’s job to educate the<br /> family about Buddha. This means <br /> leading the family in Buddhist <br /> scripture reading, praying and<br /> pilgrimages to holy places. <br /> (Tibetan Men, 2007)<br /> While Tibetan men serve as spiritual<br /> and actual leaders of Tibetan<br /> families; women have quite an<br /> opposite role in Tibetan culture.<br /> Tibetan Monk <br />Figure 5<br />
  5. 5. women in Tibet<br />Women are expected to have<br /> “Infinite Interpretation” which<br /> correlates with the communist<br /> culture of control. They are<br /> taught in their culture only to<br /> listen, and not to speak. Their<br /> style of concentration of listening<br /> under communist control has been<br /> harmful to their self esteem, and <br /> self image. (Human Rights, 2007)<br />The women of Tibet are very strong in their ways.<br /> Figure #6<br />
  6. 6. women in Tibet<br />http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=633836<br />http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=633836<br />http://w<br />Their struggle for freedom and equal treatment has gotten worse over the past fifty years with the Chinese Government. In recent years, they have been forced to go against their Buddhist religion, by having abortions, given sterilization injections, or being denied medical or education to their children , if they do not follow the imposed “one child per household “ rule. They are expected to listen and agree with their treatment. (Human Rights, 2007)<br />Through “Infinite Interpretation,” they are expected to understand and follow the expectation of understanding Chinese rule, silently.<br /> Figure 7<br />
  7. 7. WOMEN IN TIBET<br />While the women are told to be quiet and listen, no matter what their “emotional noise” may be, their cries are being heard around the world.<br />They have been known to take a stand for their rights, and this level of stance creates further distress for them and their family.<br />They are punished for expressing their emotions. (Human Rights, 2007)<br />Arrest of Women<br /> Figure #8<br />
  8. 8. women in Tibet<br />The Buddhist nuns stand strongest in their beliefs. Since their culture has always been to focus on “the receiver and listening”, they have been known to have silent protests where their mouths are covered. This is their way of telling the Chinese government their displeasure. Many nuns have been killed because of this illegal protest. The “emotional noise” they hear makes it harder for the women to abide by the laws. <br />We have shown that the gender roles in Tibetan culture are clearly defined; next we take a look at how Tibetan clothing reflects this division between men and women and helps to define their roles in Tibetan culture.<br />(Human Rights, 2007)<br />Many Tibetan women do not obey Chinese authority and are then hunted by officials to be detained, beaten, raped, and sometimes murdered. <br /> Figure #9<br />
  9. 9. TIBETAN CLOTHING AND CULTURE<br />“Culture is a learned system of knowledge behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, rules, and norms that is shared by a group of people and shaped form one generation to the next”(Beebe,2010 p.g 65).” <br />As previously mentioned, Tibet expresses their culture through traditional attire which represents the history of their customs.<br /> Tibetan Men<br /> Figure #10<br />
  10. 10. Traditional clothingHistory & a sense of community <br />The Chuba is the national attire for Tibet. It is essentially a long cloak made of draped, loose layers of fabric and secured with a belt at the waist. Both men and women wear Chubas. Underneath the chuba additional clothes are worn to keep warm. Both men and women wear shirts, vests and jackets under the Chuba. Men wear long wool breeches tucked into boots. Women wear long, black dresses and a brightly colored apron. (Bosco & Levy, 1996, p. 60).<br /> Historically, Tibetan clothing was an indication of person’s social standing and rules for dressing were outlined by law (Bosco & Levy, p. 61). Clothing serves functionally to keep us warm but also as a <br /> way to “convey a sense of one’s culture” (Beebe, 2010, p. 95). Tibetans are highly ornamental in their dress and not only does their attire indicate social stature, it also brings a sense of culture to <br /> them. For a person to dress in traditional Tibetan clothing would bring them a sense of inclusion within their community (Beebe, 2010).<br />By taking away a person’s choice for dressing, the government was also inherently enforcing a set of non-verbal communication standards. Since a person could not choose how he or she appeared (related to clothing,) a person also had limited means by which to show individuality (Beebe, 2010). <br /> Man in Chuba<br />Figure #11<br />
  11. 11. Traditional clothingHATS AS EMBLEMS AND IDENTIFIERS<br />Hats were an important feature of the traditional Tibetan attire. The hats did more than supply warmth, they also were a way of identifying where a person was from geographically. For example, a person from the north would have a different hat than a person from the south (Bosco & Levy, 1996). Hats were a good way for quick and easily identifiable nonverbal communication between people that fit in with their nomadic lifestyle. Since they were often crossing huge distances, hats served as a way to identify someone from afar.<br />Tibetan men and women both wore hats as a way of keeping warm but hats were also important emblems, that is, a “nonverbal cue that has a specific, generally understood meaning in a given culture” (Beebe, 1996, p. 96). Women’s hats were often made of “wooden frames that were covered in cloth and decorated with precious stones” (Bosco & Levy, 1996, p. 61). A woman’s social stature was indicated by the stones she had on her hat. The more stones she had, and the more precious the stones were, indicated a level of wealth (Bosco & Levy, 1996). <br />Man wearing fur hat<br />Figure #12<br />
  12. 12. Traditional clothingAPRONS INDICATE A WOMAN’S MARITAL STATUS<br />In Tibetan culture, “visual markers of marital status are particularly important because they indicate that a person should not be approached for flirtation, courtship or sex” <br />(Wikipedia, 2011). <br />In the picture at left, both women are wearing traditional Tibetan dress that “you see on many Tibetan women regardless of age. The apron is worn to indicate she is married. Only married women wear them. If a woman becomes a widow or divorced, she no longer wears an apron” <br />(Ruth, 2010). <br />Immediately and from a fair distance, a woman’s marital status is recognized in public. She uses the apron to colorfully display her place in the community and in her family.<br />Women wearing aprons<br />Figure #13<br />
  13. 13. Traditional clothing JEWELRY AND ARTIFACTS<br />Artifacts are “displays of culture” that “affect how we feel about ourselves and how we are perceived by others” (Beebe, 2010, p. 95). Tibetan men and women use rich displays of artifacts, or jewelry, in their day to day lives as well as during special occasions and ceremonies.<br />Silver, coral and turquoise beads, prayer beads, earrings and bracelets are commonly seen on women. In some Tibetan cultures, women wear headdresses. Tibetans wear jewelry as a way of expressing their happiness and importance in a nonverbal display. The jewelry is colorful and vibrant, which is often how Tibetan people are also described (Bosco & Levy, 1996). <br />Women wearing jewelry<br />Figure #14<br />
  14. 14. TIBETAN CLOTHING AND CULTURE<br />Clothing is an important aspect of culture. Clothing can be worn to express one's culture and beliefs. Each region of Tibet has its own individual style of clothing. The clothes are influenced by the culture, religion, and environment. <br />Tibetan clothing consists of a robe and shirt. The Tibetan robe worn by men is broad and is normally fastened under the right arm, while the women’s are slightly narrower with or without sleeves. The robes are often fastened with two cloth belts on the right. Men typically wear white shirts with high collars, while women wear various colors with turndown collars. (TIPA).<br />In contrast to male’s clothing women’s outfits keep traditional styles. <br />A Tibetan outfit has 3 components: a shirt made of thin cotton cloth or silk. A long sleeveless coat and if the wearier is married an apron (bangden) made of colorful striped wool. Practically all middle aged women wear Tibetan dress even when working in the fields. <br /> Praying with Prayer Wheel<br />Figure #15<br />
  15. 15. TIBETAN CLOTHING AND CULTURE<br />A white scarf (kha-btags) is offered during greetings, visits to shrines, marriage and death ceremonies, and other occasions.<br />The tradition was derived from the ancient custom of offering clothes to adorn the statues of deities.<br />Gradually, it evolved into a form of greeting, and the white scarf offering, symbolizing purity, became customary (Tradition-China Culture).<br />Tibetan clothing is a great display of Tibetan culture- it reflects the cultures values and beliefs. Another way Tibetans express themselves is through the practice of Buddhism and other rituals.<br /> <br />Women in Aprons<br />Figure #16<br />
  16. 16. Overview of Buddhism In Tibet<br />Established as the official religion of Tibet in the 8th century. <br />(“Timeline of Tibet”, n.d.)<br />Tibet overtaken by China in 1951; the Chinese government<br />suppressed Tibetan Buddhism.<br />Dalai Lama (spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism) forced<br /> into exile in 1959; he remains in India in exile to this day.<br />Observed by most of Tibetan population today.<br />Chinese government has eased their suppression of the<br />religion in modern Tibet though many Tibetans still desire <br />autonomy from China. <br />(Falkenhelm, Richardson, Shakabpa, & Wylie, 2011)<br /> <br />Stupa on the bank of the Brahaputra River<br />Figure #17<br />
  17. 17. Tibetan Buddhist Rituals<br />The goal of the practice of Tibetan Buddhism is to attain the enlightenment of Buddhahood – it is believed that in this state “all limitations on one's ability to help other living beings are removed” (“Tibetan Buddhism”, n.d.). Thus, one practicing Tibetan Buddhism will be highly focused on helping others and selflessness.<br />According to the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) the following are special features of Tibetan Buddhism: “the status of the teacher or "Lama”, preoccupation with the relationship between life and death, important role of rituals and initiations, rich visual symbolism, elements of earlier Tibetan faiths, mantras and meditation practice” (“Tibetan Buddhism”, 2004).<br />The Dalai Lama is “both the head of state and the spiritual leader of Tibet” (“A Brief Biography”, n.d.) and is considered a teacher of the Buddhist practices. A person following the religion would hold the Dalai Lama and all other lamas in a revered position and look up to them for guidance in their practices of Buddhist rituals. <br />The use of artifacts, defined by Beebe, Beebe, & Ivy (2010) as “clothing or another element of appearance (p. 95), and symbols, defined by Beebe et al. (2010) as “a word, sound, gesture, or visual image that represents a thought, concept, object or experience” (p. 6), is common in Tibetan Buddhism. Visual aids, such as pictures, statues and flags, serve as a reminder of the presence of the spiritual world in our physical domain (“Tibetan Buddhism”, 2004).<br /> <br /> His Holiness, <br /> the 14th Dalia Lama<br />Figure #18<br />
  18. 18. Tibetan Buddhist Rituals<br />One common artifact/symbol used in the practice of Tibetan Buddhism is the prayer wheel. A prayer wheel, or “mani”, are believed to spread spiritual blessings and well being. They are described as being “rolls of thin paper, imprinted with many, many copies of the mantra (prayer) Om Mani Padme Hum, printed in an ancient Indian script or in Tibetan script, are wound around an axle in a protective container, and spun around and around” (“The Prayer Wheel”, n.d.).<br />Mantras, similar to prayers, are considered to possess spiritual efficacy and are either spoken aloud or to oneself silently; repetition of a mantra can induce a trancelike state and aid in meditation (“Mantra”, 2011). The paralanguage, or pitch, rate, volume, and use of silence (Beebe et. Al, 2004, p. 101), when reciting a mantra is very important. Listen to the following example of a mantra and notice how steady and monotone the voice is; the paralanguage of this clip indicates that the reciter is calm and solemn, key components in successful meditation.<br />http://www.dharma-haven.org/tibetan/om-mani-padme-hung.wav<br /> <br /> Prayer Wheels in the Swayambnunath Temple<br />Figure #19<br />
  19. 19. Tibetan Buddhist Rituals<br />Meditation and yoga are two rituals used by Tibetan Buddhists to help attain Budhahood. The Five Tibetan Rituals, which will be discussed in later slides, are a group of yoga exercises commonly used in the practice of Tibetan Buddhism<br />Dr. Boeree (n.d.) gives the following brief explanation of meditation: “Buddhism began by encouraging its practitioners to engage in smrti (sati) or mindfulness, that is, developing a full consciousness of all about you and within you -- whether seated in a special posture, or simply going about one’s life.  This is the kind of meditation that Buddha himself engaged in under the bodhi tree, and is referred to in the seventh step of the eightfold path” (para. 1). So it can be said that meditation in Tibetan Buddhism is a means of attaining self-awareness with a goal of unconscious competence which is a level of awareness where “you know or can do something but don’t have to concentrate to be able to act on that knowledge or draw on that skill” (Beebe et al., 2010, p. 33). This is a key concept in becoming an effective communicator and is intended to improve the self-concept. <br />The practice of meditation in Tibetan Buddhism can also be applied to the concept of spiritual self or “your concept of self, based on beliefs and your sense of who you are in relationship to other forces in the universe” (Beebe et al., 2010, p. 37). Buddhist meditation should ultimately lead to spiritual freedom or nirvana (“Buddhist meditation”, 2011). When communicating with a Tibetan it may be apparent that they are striving for this spiritual freedom of perhaps that they have already attained it.<br /> <br />Tibetan Buddhist Monk<br />Figure #20<br />
  20. 20. The Five Tibetan Rituals<br />What are the five Tibetan rituals?<br />The five Tibetan rituals, or rites, are a series of five yoga exercises used in the practice of Tibetan Buddhism (“Five Tibetan Rites, n.d.). <br />What is the purpose of the five Tibetan rituals?<br />The practice of yoga is used in Tibetan Buddhism to help one attain spiritual freedom and the five Tibetan rites are just one set of the many yoga exercises. The benefits of performing the five Tibetan rites are stated to be not only spiritual but also physical. The physical benefits are said to include looking younger, sleeping better, pain relief, and weight loss. The spiritual benefits include enhanced self-image, a greater sense of well being, and improved emotional health (Kurus, 2001).<br />Brief history of the five Tibetan Rituals<br />The five Tibetan rites were first published in a book by Peter Kelder in 1939. Kelder claims to have learned about them from a retired British Army colonel who had “discovered” them while staying at a Tibetan lamasery (or monastery). The book Kelder wrote is titled “The Eye of Revelation”. (“Five Tibetan Rites”, n.d.)<br />Studying the five Tibetan rituals can be helpful in understanding the culture of Tibet. The kinesics involved in the rituals and other yogic exercises help shape a culture that is rich with unique and healthy individuals.<br /> <br /> The Eye of Revelation<br />Figure #21<br />
  21. 21. The Five Tibetan Rituals<br />The practice of spinning is the first rite. Tibetan Buddhism teaches that spinning causes negative residues to be flung out of the body and also helps achieve balance between the right and left hemispheres of the body. It also stimulates the body’s energy system.<br />Kinesics: arms are held straight out to the side and the body is spun in a clockwise direction, 21 revolutions are desired.<br />The second Tibetan rite is similar to an abdominal exercise performed commonly in American exercise programs. It generates stimulus to the solar plexus which in Tibetan Buddhism is the seat of the emotional body.<br />Kinesics: the body is laid flat across the floor with arms at the side, the legs are lifted off the floor and the head is tucked towards the chest (Clark, 2010)<br /> <br /> The First Rite: Spinning <br /> Figure #22<br /> The Second Rite: Leg Raises<br /> Figure #23<br />
  22. 22. The Five Tibetan Rituals<br />The third Tibetan rite is referred to as the camel. It is said to open the solar plexus as well as the heart. Tibetan Buddhism teaches that all emotional energies enter the body through the solar plexus. This rite is said to reverse the flow of negative energy/emotion and raise the energy of the heart.<br />Kinesics: kneeled with the body erect and hands on the back of the thighs, the head and neck are bent forward towards the chest then the upper body is arched backwards before returning to an erect position; this should be repeated 21 times.<br />The fourth Tibetan rite is also called the tabletop because the body is manipulated in a way that makes it resemble a table. This rite is believed to stimulate the groin and leg areas which stirs the meridians.<br />Kinesics: starting from a sitting position with the head tucked towards the chest and the legs flat on the ground, the body is the lifted/pushed into a position with the arms and back straight and the legs bent at a ninety degree angle. (Clark, 2010)<br /> <br />The Third Rite: Camel<br /> Figure #24<br /> The Fourth Rite: Tabletop<br /> Figure #25<br />
  23. 23. The Five Tibetan Rituals<br />The fifth Tibetan rite is the up & down dog and is used to bring an immediate change to the energy currents of the body. This is the most powerful of the rites and is said to make one feel strong and invigorated.<br />Kinesics: starting flat on the ground on the stomach, the back is then arched and the pelvic area pushed downward to a “sagging” position; the body is then moved to a “V” position with the head tucked towards the chest and the pelvic area lifted upwards.<br />(Clark, 2010)<br /> <br />The Fifth Rite: Up & Down Dog<br />Figure #26<br />
  24. 24. tibet<br />Each of us would like to thank you for taking time to view our presentation. It is our hope that you have learned some new and interesting information about Tibet.<br />We encourage you to try some of the Five Tibetan Rituals. Afterwards, when you are nice and calm, please ponder the following:<br /> How can you compare and contrast Tibetan Non-Verbal Communication with American Non-Verbal Communication?<br /> How does male masculinity effect communication in Tibetan culture?<br /> What types of listening barriers do the Chinese Government show signs of having?<br /> How can a better understanding of Tibetan Buddhist rituals help you communicate more effectively with someone from Tibet?<br /> Do you think it is possible to attain “religious freedom” through the practice of meditation?<br />OM MANI PADME HUNG<br /> <br />
  25. 25. References<br />A Brief Biography. (n.d.). From The office of his holiness the Dalai Lama. Retrieved from http://www.dalailama.com/biography/a-brief-biography<br />Beebe, Steven A., Beebe, Susan J., & Ivey, Diana K. (2010). The Blue Book of Communication Studies: Tacoma Community College Custom Edition. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.<br />Bosco, Don, & Levy, Patricia. (1996). Cultures of the World: Tibet. New York: Marshall Cavendish.<br />British Broadcasting Corporation. (2004). Tibetan buddhism. Retrieved from http://www./bbc/co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/subdivision/tibetan_1.html<br />Buddhist meditation. (2011). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83405/Buddhist-meditation<br />C. G., Dr. (n.d.). The basics of Buddhist meditation. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/meditation.html<br />Clark, R. (2010). The five Tibetan rites. Retrieved February 14, 2011 from http://home.acceleration.net/clark/COOL938/Email.Essays/Tibetan.Yoga/Five.Rites.html Dharma Haven. (2004, <br /> Dec 3). <br />Figure #1. (n.d.) Tibetan logo. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://barney.daltons.net/tibet/write_up/write_up.html<br />Figure #2. (n.d.) Himalayan mountains. Retrieved February 27, 2011 from http://www.tibetpictureswallpaper.net/Tibet_picture_wallpaper_Himalaya_mts.htm<br />Figure #3 & #4. (n.d.) Life on the Tibetan Plateau: Tibetan Men. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.kekexili.typepad.com<br />Figure #5. Tibetan Monk. Retrieved from http://tibet-incense.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/tibetan-monk2.jpg<br />Figure #6. Corrigan, Gina. (n.d.) Tibetan Women Pray at Harvest Festival. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.inmagine.com/searchterms/tibetan_traditional_costume-3.html<br />Figure #7. (n.d.) Tibetan Women. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t+633836<br />Figure #8. Kohl, Annie. (n.d.) Photos of Arrest. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://tibetanuprising.org/2008/03/13/photos-of-arrest/<br />Figure #9. Sillitoe, Craig. (1995). Womens Protest. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.theage.com.au/national/the-exiles-tale-20100911-1562f.html<br />Figure #10. (2011). Responsible tourism in Tibet. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://kekexili.typepad.com/life_on_the_tibetan_plate/2009/04/responsible-tourism-in-tibet.html<br />Figure #11. Wis, Ancheta. (2005). Tibetan herdsman's coat, sheepskin, the hair inside. Wikipedia. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:102_0820.jpg<br />Figure #12. (n.d.). Robe and Belt. Into West China. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://www.intowestchina.com/PIC/2008621786366.jpg<br />Figure #13. Häggström, Mikael (2005). Beggars at Drepung Montesary. Wikipedia. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beggars_at_Drepung_Monastery.png#file2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:102_0820.jpg<br />Figure #14. (n.d.). Woman wearing jewelry. China Tibet Information Center. En.Tibet.CN. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://en.tibet.cn/art/cos/W020050810327869374194.jpg<br />Figure #15. Tibetan culture photos. (2011). Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.chinatourguide.com/tibet/tibetan_culture_photo.html<br />Figure #16. Traditions-China Culture.(2010). Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://traditions.cultural-china.com/en/116T32T130.html<br />Figure #17. (n.d.) Brahmaputra River: Stupa. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 21, 2011from <br />http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/23968/Stupa-on-the-bank-of- the-Yarlung-Zangbo-River-southern<br />Figure #18. (n.d.) Dalai Lama. Retrieved from The Dalai Lama tab athttp://www.dalailama.com/biography/a-brief-biography<br />Figure #19. (n.d.) Prayer wheels. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 17, 2011 from <br />http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/141223/Prayer-wheels-in-the-Swayambhunath-Temple-Kathmandu-Nepal<br />Figure #20. (n.d.) Tibetan Buddhist monk. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 17, 2011 from <br />http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/70970/Tibetan-Buddhist-monk-reading-with-handbell-in-Lamayuru-<br />Figure #21. (n.d.) The Eye of Revelation. Retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4e/Five_Rites.jpg<br />Figures # 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26. (n.d.) Five Tibetan rituals. Retrieved February 19, 2011from http://learnyoga-online.com/MiniWorkshops/TibetanRitesFountainofYouth.htm<br />Five Tibetan Rites. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Tibetan_Rites<br />Human Rights Council, Report by TWA to the United Nation's Human Rights Council. (2006). Retrieved from<br />http://www.tibetanwomen.org/publications/reports/hrc_report-un-2007.03.20.html<br />Kurus, M. (2001). The Five Tibetan Rites: Exercises for Healing, Rejuvenation, and Longevity. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.mkprojects.com/pf_TibetanRites.htm<br />Mantra. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/363001/mantra <br />(n.d.) Buddhism. Wikipedia. Retrieved February 17, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism<br />(n.d.) Tibetan Monks and Medical Research. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://tibet-incense.com/blog/tibetan-monks-and-medical-research/<br />Ruth (2010). Tibet # 7 Ani tsang kung nunnery and Women of Lhasa Part 2. Doramac. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.mydoramac.com/wordpress/?p=4474<br />The prayer wheel: Spiritual technology from Tibet. Retrieved from http://www.dharma-haven.org/tibetan/prayer-wheel.htm<br />Tibet. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 17, 2011 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/594898/Tibet_Tibetan<br />Timeline of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/timelines/tibetan_buddhism.htm<br />Traditions-China Culture. (2010). Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://traditions.cultural-china.com/Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts<br />(2010). Traditions-China Culture. Retrieved February 17, 2011 from http://traditions.cultural-china.com<br />(2011). Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from http://www.tibetanarts.org<br />(2011). Visual markers of marital status. Wikipedia. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_markers_of_marital_status<br /> <br />

×