Learning Theories Group Project: Cognitive Theory


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This is a group project from Team 7 in the course EME2040; fall semester, 2011. It was created to explore Cognitive Theory in an educational setting ,and stimulate thought about ways of applying this theory in the classroom.

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Learning Theories Group Project: Cognitive Theory

  1. 1. Cognitive Theory Introduction to Technology for Educators Fall 2011 Team 7 Stephanie, Alexandra, Stephanie, Richard, Caitlynn
  2. 2. Key Theorists <ul><li>Allan Paivio : Dual Coding Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stated that people process information in two ways, image and language. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner : Theory of Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stated that people use eight “intelligences” to perceive and understand the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard Mayer : Theory of Multimedia Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The brain does not interpret a multimedia presentation of words, pictures, and auditory information in a mutually exclusive fashion.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New information must be integrated with prior knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Key Theorists <ul><li>Robert Gagne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identified 5 major categories of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 events of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gain attention of the learners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inform learners of the objective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulate recall of prior learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>present the stimulus or lesson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide learning guidance and instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elicit performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assess performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enhance retention and transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Bloom : Bloom’s Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a practical way to classify curriculum goals and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloom identified 6 levels in the cognitive domain: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Key Points <ul><li>Cognitive revolution (1960s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitivism replaces Behaviorism as the “dominant paradigm”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the inner mental activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a shift from behaviorism which views mental activity as irrelevant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental activities (thoughts and interpretation of information) and behavior are not mutually exclusive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information input > information is processed > leads to output (behavior and/or other outcomes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking and remembering are, in their own ways, very similar to visible behaviors. As such, they can be measured. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Classroom Implications <ul><li>What the teacher does under this theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Without technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use single, coherent representations to avoid students to split attention between two places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link new material with what is currently known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the limits of attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Provide opportunities for both verbal and imaginary encoding, that helps students to remember.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional materials should include demonstration, illustrative examples, and constructive feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloom's Taxonomy can be used to write learning objectives and come up with interesting projects for the students to demonstrate mastery of a concept. This helps change instructional methods to help students master the content covered in class. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Classroom Implications <ul><li>What the teacher does under this theory: </li></ul><ul><li>With technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide organized instructions through concept maps of other graphic representation (multimedia and/or text description) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With technology, a teacher can provide multimedia content  that helps students with different learning styles retain information and stimulate thought for the higher levels in Bloom's Taxonomy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers can show demonstrative videos, present visual and audio content in PowerPoint presentations, create tutorials through video blogs, and provide students with technological outlets for their own original ideas, discussions, and debates. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Classroom Implications <ul><li>What the student does under this theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Without technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can participate in open discussions and debates as a class and share their original ideas, point of views, and philosophical questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can use more traditional media for projects like display boards, writing a story or report, and interactive group activities. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Classroom Implications <ul><li>What the student does under this theory: </li></ul><ul><li>With technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can use technology in the Synthesis and Evaluation stages by creating projects based on the concepts they learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They could use podcasts, PowerPoint presentations, and Microsoft Moviemaker to present their ideas in a multimedia setting to other students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can even participate in open discussions and debates with students from other school or all over the world through Skype. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. So what does this mean for you? <ul><li>Cognitive theory facilitates students’ development in their thinking skills. It engages them in a process of investigating an issue and finding its solution. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps teachers to recognize the individual differences in students’ cognitive structures by merging new knowledge with the old knowledge they already have; based on their experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Before allowing the students to complete the task at hand, ask questions about the instructions just given as a “quiz” to simulate recall. </li></ul><ul><li>The assignments must always have some educational value to the students. NO BUSY WORK. Students should be given ample time to work in groups and have discussions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions and give clarification to individual students and to the whole class. Remind students of instructions and procedures periodically. </li></ul>
  10. 10. So what does this mean for you? <ul><li>Leave room for creativity and individuality in each of the assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom's taxonomy is very useful in a class setting. Most teachers find that their assignments usually fall into the first two levels, Knowledge and Comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Personally, I love the idea of providing students with the opportunity to apply what they learn, create their own original ideas, and openly discuss important themes. </li></ul><ul><li>The levels Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation help organize these concepts of furthering the students' understanding of what they learn and provide a useful tool/reminder for me as I'm thinking of projects for them.  </li></ul><ul><li>Always be sure to grade the assignment and inform students why they received the grade they earned. This will help them correct mistakes and/or ineffective techniques/habits. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Credits <ul><li>HTTP://WWW.TANDFONLINE.COM.EZPROXY.LIB.UCF.EDU/DOI/FULL/10.1080/00098655.2011.568989#CIT0025 </li></ul><ul><li>  SWELLER, J.  1988. COGNITIVE LOAD DURING PROBLEM SOLVING: EFFECTS ON LEARNING.  COGNITIVE SCIENCE , 12: 257–85. [CROSSREF] ,  [WEB OF SCIENCE ®] </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-theory-of-multimedia-learning-mayer.html </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom: Sixth Edition By: Shelly, Gunter, and Gunter </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.techlearning.com/article/blooms-taxonomy-blooms-digitally/44988 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.plutokids.in/pluto-as-a-school.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2011/04/117_51729.html </li></ul>