2013 tms decagon_product overview

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Product Overview for Decagon Devices Environment Division
by Team Medical & Scientific Sdn. Bhd.
email : info@tms-lab.com

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2013 tms decagon_product overview

  1. 1. Decagon DevicesEnvironmental ResearchInstrumentsMatt GallowayDecagon Devices, Inc.Pullman, WA USA
  2. 2. Sole Distributor : Team Medical & Scientific Sdn. Bhd.Tel : 03-5122 5108Email : info@tms-lab.com
  3. 3. Decagon History
  4. 4. Now 100+ employees
  5. 5. Decagon’s GoalDevelop, manufacture and marketinnovative instruments for use inenvironmental research
  6. 6. n Decagon’s assets: Scientific Expertise
  7. 7. Decagon’s Assets:改善: Kaizenn Continual improvement: in design,manufacturing, and all processes
  8. 8. Decagon’s Thermal and ElectricalConductivity Probe (TECP):2007 Mars Lander
  9. 9. TECP objectivesn  Learn more about how heatflows in Martian regolithn  Ground-truth for plentiful remotesensing datan  Determine if unfrozen watermay exist under sunlitconditions in trenchn  Answers: “Can liquid wateroccur on Mars?”n  Study vapor phase watertransportn  Examine how ice migrates frompole to polePrototype TECP probe
  10. 10. WP4C Dewpoint Water Potential Metern Measures Water Potential of Soils, Seeds,Organic Matter, etc.directly MPa and Pf (logbase 10 of MPa)n Easy to use, more robust than thermocouplepsychrometersn Temp. controlledn Range: -0.05 to -300MPa
  11. 11. Chilled-mirrorDewpoint TechniqueInfrared SensorOptical SensorMirror is chilled until dew isformed. The temperature at whichsaturation is achieved isdetermined by observingcondensation on a chilled surface(mirror).Advantages•  Wide measurement range•  Rapid measurement ~ 5 min.•  High reliability•  Low MaintenanceSampleMirrorFan
  12. 12. Moisture Release Curves
  13. 13. pF Plot to get Soil Swellingy = -17.02x + 7.0381R2= 0.9889y = -29.803x + 7.0452R2= 0.9874y = -97.468x + 6.8504R2= 0.968833.544.555.566.577.50 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2Water Content (g/g)Suction(pF)L-soilPalousePalouse B
  14. 14. Expansive Soil Classification fromMcKeen(1992)Class Slope ExpansionI > -6 special caseII -6 to -10 highIII -10 to -13 mediumIV -13 to -20 lowV < -20 non-expansive
  15. 15. Vapor Sorption Analyzer (VSA)20Range: -10 to -475 MPa.Accuracy: ±1MPa or ±1%Operating Temperature: 15 to 40°C• Auto-generated moisture releasecurves• Static humidity feature to watchhow soil adsorbs water over time
  16. 16. VSA data0510152025-500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0Water Potential (Mpa)WaterContent(g/100g)BentonitePalouse BNM clayWalla WallaRoyalL-soil05101520250 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1Water ActivityWaterContent(g/100g)BentonitePalouse BNM clayWalla WallaRoyalL-soil
  17. 17. Vapor Sorption AnalyzerDecagon Devices, Inc.Confidential and ProprietaryDo Not Copy or Redistribute22DVS Change In Mass (ref) Plot-0.500.511.522.533.54250 350 450 550 650 750 850Time/minsChangeInMass(%)-Ref0102030405060708090100TargetRH(%)dm - dry Target RH©  S urface  Measurement  S ystems  Ltd  UK  1996-­‐2007DV S  -­‐  The  S orption  S olutionTemp: 25.0 °CMeth: polymer film.saoMRef: 2.28063Static humidity feature to watch wateradsorption vs. time
  18. 18. AccuPAR Ceptometermodel LP-80What does the AccuPAR Measure?n  PAR (Photosynthetically ActiveRadiationn  LAI (Leaf Area Index) calculatedusing PAR measurements aboveand below the canopy, and usingother variables.Decagon invented this type ofinstrument in 1988 (Sunread, Sunscan,PAR-80, LP-80)
  19. 19. What is PAR? n  Acronym forPhotosyntheticallyActive Radiation.n  Defined as the light inthe 400 to 700 nmrange of thespectrum (visiblerange).n  Light that is mostuseful to plants forphotosynthesis.n  Expressed byAccuPAR asµmol m-2 s-1, ameasure of photonflux densityElectromagnetic Spectrum
  20. 20. Leaf Area Index (LAI)What is LAI?n  Defined as: total leaf areaper unit ground arean  Indication of Canopy density,biomassn  Used to monitor growth,infestationn  Often used for ground-truthing Remote Sensing LAIdata
  21. 21. Calculating LAIn Above-canopy PARn Below-canopy PARn x (leaf distribution parameter)n Zenith angle (automatically calculated)n Fb (fraction of beam radiation)AccuPAR calculates LAI based on equationsfrom Goudraan, Norman, and Campbell usingmeasured and supplied data:
  22. 22. Comparison Studies“Comparisons of three Leaf Area Index Meters in aCorn Canopy” by W.W. Wilhelm, K. Ruwe, M.R.Schlemmer in Crop Science 40:1179-1183 (2000)n  Shows that all three types are similar, AccuPAR/SunScan somewhat better than LAI-2000.
  23. 23. Spectral Reflectance Sensors (SRS)•  NDVI  bands:  630  nm  and  800  nm  center  wavelengths  •  PRI  bands:  532  nm  and  570  nm  center  wavelengths  •  NIST  traceable  calibra5on  stored  onboard  •  Cosine  diffusers  for  hemispherical  measurement  •  20°  sealed  field  stops  for  direc5onal  measurements  •  Dimensions:  43  x  40  x  27  mm  •  Epoxy-­‐sealed  sensor  body  –  robust  design  •  SDI-­‐12  digital  sensor  •  Decagon  Em50  and  CSI  datalogger  compa5ble  PRIPRINDVINDVI Hemispherical view sensorsDirectional field stop sensorStacked SRS sensorsNDVI + PRI
  24. 24. How to Measure NDVI and PRIPRINDVINDVINDVIPRIOnly two bands are needed to calculated NDVI or PRI.
  25. 25. Typical canopy reflectance spectrumredNIRredNIRNDVIρρρρ+−=Calculating NDVINIRred•  NDVI is calculated frommeasurements of percentreflectance (ρ) in the red andnear-infrared (NIR) regions ofthe electromagnetic spectrum.•  Percent reflectance is the ratiobetween upwelling (from thecanopy) to downwelling (fromthe sky) radiation. Requires ameasurement of both.•  Red band is related tochlorophyll content (highabsorption), NIR band isrelated to leaf cell structure(high scattering).NDVI values range from -1 to 1.
  26. 26. Gamon & Surfus (1999) New Phyt.570531570531ρρρρ+−=PRICalculating PRI•  PRI (PhotochemicalReflectance Index) wasdesigned to estimate LightUse Efficiency (LUE) bydetecting changes in thexanthophyll cycle•  Xanthophyll pigmentschange rapidly inresponse to environmentalconditionsPRI values range from -1 to 1.
  27. 27. Measurement ConsiderationsImage credit: Chris Gough•  Reflectance measurements require atop-down view of the canopy tomeasure upwelling radiance.•  Up-looking sensors requireunobstructed view of the sky.•  Dual-view instruments (up/down) area convenient way of measuring bothincident and reflected light forcalculating percent reflectance. Theyalso account for changing skyconditions (e.g., clear vs. cloudy skyconditions).•  SRS are lightweight, low power, andhave a small footprint, making themeasy to mount almost anywhere.DownwellingradiationUpwellingradiation
  28. 28. LeafPorometerModel SC-1For measurement ofstomatal conductance• Steady-state technique• Stomatal conductance is aprimary indicator of plant stressunder drought conditions
  29. 29. How does it work?n  A chamber with a fixeddiffusion path is clamped tothe leaf surfacen  Steady-state technique;measures vapor pressure attwo locations in a fixeddiffusion pathn  Calculates flux and gradientfrom the vapor pressuremeasurements and the knownconductance of the diffusionpath.AtmosphereDesiccant
  30. 30. What can I do with a porometer?n Water use and water balancen Use conductance with Fick’s law to determine croptranspiration raten Develop crop cultivars for dry climates/salt affectedsoilsn Determine plant water stress in annual andperennial speciesn Study effects of environmental conditionsn Schedule irrigationn Optimize herbicide uptaken Study uptake of ozone and other pollutants
  31. 31. Case study: Washington StateUniversity wheat•  Researchers using steady state porometerto create drought resistant wheat cultivars– Evaluating physiological response to droughtstress (stomatal closing)– Selecting individuals with optimal response
  32. 32. Case Study: Stress in wine grapesy = 0.0204x - 12.962R² = 0.5119-20.0-18.0-16.0-14.0-12.0-10.0-8.0-6.0-4.0-2.00.0050100150200250300350400450500Mid-dayLeafWaterPotential(bars)Stomatal Conductance (mmol m-2 s-1)
  33. 33. Mini-Disk InfiltrometerFor measurement of SoilHydraulic Conductivityn  Soil Hydrology Studiesn  Erosion Studiesn  Classroom InstructionFEATURES:®  Adjustable suction rate (0.5 to6cm)®  Sintered stainless steel disk®  Removable parts
  34. 34. Dielectric SoilMoisture Sensorsn  Hi-frequency capacitance (FDR)-- Measures the dielectric constantof the soiln  Designed to be buried in soil forlong-term monitoring of soil moisturen  Measurement is made by processorinside probe head
  35. 35. Analog soil moisture sensors10HS: 10 cm probe length,3-15 VDC— large sample area (~1 liter)EC-5: 5cm probe length,2.5-3 VDC— smallest lengthMAS-1: 4-20 mA sensor,5cm probe length— smallest length
  36. 36. Digital SensorsGS3: Water content, EC(0-23 dS/m) andtemperature. For soil or soil-less substrates5TE: Water content, EC(0-23 dS/m) andtemperature. For field soilsonly.5TM: Water content andtemperature. For field soilsAll digital sensors are SDI-12 compatible
  37. 37. Applications: Plant available water
  38. 38. Applications: Irrigation Scheduling
  39. 39. Applications: Hydrologicmonitoring
  40. 40. Applications: Hazardous wastemonitoring
  41. 41. Applications: slope stability
  42. 42. Em50 Data Loggern  Weatherproof,-40° to 45°Cmeasurementn  5 portsn  Uses 5 AA alkaline batteries,low power usage.n  Programmed via RS232 cableconnected to COM Port.n  Measures every minute, thenaverages and stores readingsaccording to how it’sprogrammed. It can store anyinterval between 1min. and 1day.n  Measures other micro-environment sensors thatDecagon sellsStorage Capacity:1MB non-volatile flash(28,672 scans on all 5ports).
  43. 43. VP3 RH/Temp Sensorand Radiation shieldn  Digital sensor for use with Em50loggersn  Measures and logs vapor pressureand temperature with a capacitancesensor and thermistorn  Should be used with a radiationshield for outdoor use
  44. 44. Temperature Sensorn Measures from – 40°C to60°Cn Accuracy: ±0. 5 ° from 5 to40°C; ±1°C outside thisrangen Can be used in air, soil, orliquid. If used in air, aradiation shield should beused.
  45. 45. Leaf Wetness Sensorn  Determines presence andduration of leaf moisturen  Similar technology to EC-5,does not require painting ormaintenancen  All probes are calibrated tosame dryness baselinevoltagen  Water condenses andevaporates from the surfaceat the same rate as it doeson leaves
  46. 46. Leaf Wetness applicationsn Disease prediction
  47. 47. MPS-2 MatricPotential Sensorn For in-situ monitoringof water potentialn Range: -10 to -500kPa(pF 2 to pF 3.71)n Uses capacitancemethod to measurewater content of aknown ceramic matrix
  48. 48. Sensor Theoryn Measure water content of a known porous material witha pre-established SWCC, giving us matric waterpotential.Matrix (Side View) Sensor (Side View)ConfinedEM FieldMetal PlateMetal Plate
  49. 49. MPS-2 Advantagesn  No maintenancen  Good accuracy in plant-availablerangen  Each sensor pre-calibratedn  Also measures Soil temperatureWater Potential is a betterindicator of plant available waterthan water content
  50. 50. Pyranometer / PAR sensorn  Manufactured by ApogeeInstrumentsn  Configured to connect toour Em50n  Measures total solarradiation (W/m2), PARsensor measures µmol/m2/sn  Important for energybalance studies andmicro-climate monitoring.n  Comes with leveling plate
  51. 51. ECRN-100 Rain Gaugen Resolution : 0.2 mmn Double-spoon tippingbucket
  52. 52. Cup Anemometer•  For use with Em50 only, measures bothspeed and direction
  53. 53. Em50R Radio-enabled Loggern  Any number of Em50Rs cantransmit to one Data Stationor Rm1.n  Range is from 1 to 3 km,depending on interference.Range can be increasedwith use of antenna.n  Transmits data whenmeasurement is takenSame specifications as normal Em50, only Em50R has aradio transmitter that sends collected data via telemetry
  54. 54. DataStation•  Collects data from anynumber of Em50Rs•  Can operate on solar poweror AC power•  Download direct to PC orPDA at your convenience•  Has Radio Telemetry testcapability to help withplacing Em50R loggers.
  55. 55. Em50R/DataStation logging scenario
  56. 56. Em50G: What is it?GSM-enabled logger,delivers data via GSMproviders to Decagon’sserverData is available at anyinternet connection
  57. 57. Why the Em50G?• 2.4 Ghz Radio can be problematic (range,wifi interference)• Single point remote locations• Ease of data acquisition via internet
  58. 58. Computer + Software+ Internet Em50GLogger + SensorsGSM/GPRSCell TowerInternetDecagonInternet Server64How does it work?
  59. 59. ECHO UtilityYou can:n  Configure portsn  Name loggern  Set logging intervaln  Download datan  Scan ports- Does not graph- Cannot applycalibrations inprogramFree software thatcomes with anyEm50 and Em5bpurchase
  60. 60. CTD (conductivity, temp., depth sensor)Decagon Devices, Inc.Confidential and ProprietaryDo Not Copy or Redistribute66Water DepthRange 0 to 3.5 mAccuracy ±0.2 % of spanResolution 1 mmElectrical ConductivityRange 0 to 120 dS/m (mS/cm)Accuracy ±5% of readingResolution 1.2% of readingTemperatureRange -40 to + 50 °CAccuracy ±1 °CResolution 0.1 °C
  61. 61. CTD Usesn StreambedsDecagon Devices, Inc.Confidential and ProprietaryDo Not Copy or Redistribute67•  Piezometer wells
  62. 62. ES-2 EC and T sensorn  For monitoring EC andtemperature in liquid waterRange:Electrical Conductivity: 0 to 120 dS/mTemperature: -40 to 50°CResolution:Electrical Conductivity: 0.001 dS/mTemperature: 0.1°CAccuracy:Electrical Conductivity: + 0.01 dS/m or + 10 %(whichever is greater)Temperature: + 1°C
  63. 63. Drain Gauge:Passive Capillary Lysimetern Purpose: tomeasure deepdrainage (fluxand soluteanalysis) belowthe root zoneModel G3 Model G2
  64. 64. Drain Gauge G-2: How it works1.  Drain Gauge is installed below theroot zone2.  Water travels through divergencecontrol tube, then through wick tomeasurement chamber.3.  Water level is continuouslymonitored by depth sensor insidechamber. When 31ml of water fillsthe chamber, it empties via asiphon into a collection chamber.Each siphon event corresponds to1mm of infiltration.4.  Water samples can be extractedfrom collection chamber using asyringe.5.  Excess water exits through theoverflow port, leaving a constantvolume in the sampling reservoir.
  65. 65. Drain Gauge G-2: Chamber
  66. 66. Drainage DataDrain Gauge data(potato field, S. Idaho)010020030040050060070080090055 60 65 70 75 80 85time(days)draingaugeoutput(mV)
  67. 67. Drain Gauge G3n  Sampling Reservoir Volume: 3 Ln  Accuracy: ± 2% of full scalen  Total Length: 1.5mn  Divergence Control Tube (DCT) Length :60 cmn  Construction Material: Stainless Steel or PVCDCTDecagon Devices, Inc.Confidential and ProprietaryDo Not Copy or Redistribute73•  Measure deep drainage flux(past the root zone)•  Analyze water samples•  Also measures EC and Temp.•  Sealed lower portion
  68. 68. Decagon Devices, Inc.Confidential and ProprietaryDo Not Copy or Redistribute74
  69. 69. Thermal Conductivity,Thermal Diffusivity,Thermal Resistivity andSpecific Heat Capacity.n Extendedtemperature range:-50 to 150°C.n Data storage.n Smart sensorsn Can be used withliquid samples.PRO
  70. 70. KD2 Pro Applications:n  Soil thermalproperties (fire, sun)
  71. 71. KD2 Pro Applications:n Insulation
  72. 72. KD2 Pro Applications:n Nanofluids
  73. 73. KD2 Pro Applications:n ThermalBackfill
  74. 74. KD2 Pro Applications:n Petroleum products

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