IPv4 Depletion and
IPv6 Adoption Today
Community Use Slide Deck
Courtesy of ARIN
February 2014
2

History of the Internet Protocol
• Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
–
–
–
–

Developed for the original Internet (ARP...
3
4

IPv4 Depletion Situation Report
Each RIR received its last /8 from IANA on 3 February 2011

The IANA free pool of IPv4 ...
5

Global IPv4 Depletion

IANA IPv4 Space in /8s
6

Regional IPv4 Depletion

APNIC reached its final /8 in 2011 & RIPE NCC in 2012
ARIN, LACNIC, & AFRINIC to follow
7

ARIN’s IPv4 Inventory
ARIN still has IPv4 addresses remaining
IPv4 inventory
published on
ARIN’s website:
www.arin.net
...
8

Why so little IPv4 left?
• The community-developed policies
that manage how IPv4 is allocated
and assigned did:
– Exten...
9

ARIN’s IPv4 Countdown Plan
• Process for final IPv4 requests
– Divided into 4 phases
– Length of each could vary
• Glob...
10

The Solution to IPv4 Depletion
11

IPv6 over time

ARIN IPv6 Allocations and Assignments
12

IPv6 Deployment
• RIRs allocating since 1999
• Thousands of organizations
have received an IPv6 allocation
to date
• A...
13

Prepare for IPv6
• The good news
– Lots more addresses
– IPv6 adoption = easier & more efficient network
management
– ...
14

Everyone needs an IPv6 Plan
• Each organization
must decide on a
unique IPv6
deployment plan
right for them
– Timeline...
15

How can you get started?
• Dual-Stack your networks
– IPv6 not backwards compatible with IPv4
– Both will run simultan...
16

How can you prepare?
• Talk to your ISP about IPv6 services
– You want access to the entire Internet

• ISPs must conn...
17

What else can you do?
• Audit your equipment and software
– Are your devices and applications IPv6
ready?

• Encourage...
18

What Can Governments Do?
• Government and the Internet
community need to coordinate to
support and promote
– IPv6 awar...
19

Your IPv6 Check List
IPv6 address space
IPv6 connectivity (native or tunneled)
Operating systems, software, and
networ...
20

Learn More
www.GetIPv6.info
IPv6 Info Center
www.arin.net/knowledge/ipv6_info_center.html

www.TeamARIN.net
21

Operational Guidance
www.InternetSociety.org/
Deploy360/
www.NANOG.org/archives/
bcop.NANOG.org
www.hpc.mil/cms2/index...
22

Thank You
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IPv4 Depletion and IPv6 Adoption Today

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This presentation describes the impending depletion of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and the importance of adopting the next version of the Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). This issue impacts everyone and must be understood and acted upon to ensure the continued growth and operation of the Internet. More educational materials from ARIN are available at: https://www.arin.net/knowledge/general.html

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  • This presentation describes the impending depletion of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and the importance of adopting the next version of the Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). This issue impacts everyone and must be understood and acted upon to ensure the continued growth and operation of the Internet.
  • IPv6 provides a much larger pool of IP addresses. IPv6 is not backwards compatible with IPv4. The much larger IPv6 numbering system is meant to one day completely replace IPv4, but this will take many years. In the meantime, much of the Internet will run IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously. This is necessary to ensure all users, regardless of the protocol version they are using, will be able to interact with all content on the Internet.
  • IPv4 address space has been used for decades to grow the Internet. When engineers deployed IPv4 in 1981, four billion IP addresses seemed like plenty. As the world caught on to the commercial possibilities of the Internet, though, engineers realized that the number of IP addresses simply wasn’t enough for all the laptops, mobile devices, web servers, routers, and other devices coming online. The first allocation of IPv6 address space by a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) to a provider was made in April of 1999.
  • Each RIR received its last /8 from IANA on 3 February 2011 which brought the total number of available IPv4 address in the IANA free pool down to 0%. Now the RIRs are left with their final existing inventories.
  • The IANA pool of IPv4 address space depleted on February 3, 2011. This slide shows the steady depletion of that pool over time.
  • Each RIR will run out of IPv4 address space but it is impossible to predict exactly when. APNIC has already reached its final /8 on 15 April 2011. The RIPE NCC reached its final /8 on 14 September 2012. The other three registries, ARIN, LACNIC, and AFRINIC will follow suit in the coming years.
  • ARIN still has IPv4 addresses available for the community. You can see the most current inventory on the ARIN website at www.arin.net.
  • The community-developed policies that manage how IPv4 is allocated and assigned did extend the life of the IPv4, but IPv4 depletion is unavoidable. There simply are not enough addresses to meet growing need of the global Internet.
  • ARIN has reviewed and refined its procedures to create an IPv4 Countdown Plan explaining how IPv4 requests will be processed as the remaining IPv4 address pool is distributed. There are a number of variables that could accelerate or slow the rate at which ARIN moves through each phase. Some IPv4 space may be returned to IANA in accordance with global policy and new policies and/or larger requests could change intended plans and lead to faster depletion of the remaining IPv4 address pool.
  • The solution to the IPv4 address depletion is simple: IPv6. IPv6 will allow the Internet to grow far into the future. If you have not yet developed an IPv6 deployment plan, now is the time.
  • Many organizations have already received IPv6 address space. ARIN has been allocating and assigning IPv6 blocks for many years.
  • The RIRs began distributing IPv6 address space in 1999. Although thousands of organizations have obtained IPv6 resources to date, IPv6 has not been widely adopted. Some people predicted in the 1990s that the only true driver for IPv6 adoption would be the depletion of the IPv4 resource. Many people would agree those assessments were accurate, as today we see increased energy to adopt IPv6 in anticipation of imminent IPv4 depletion. ARIN has Internet number resource distribution policies for service providers, community networks, and end-user organizations.
  • IPv6 provides a much larger address pool to meet the increasing addressing needs of the Internet today and in the future. Soon, organizations that require larger contiguous blocks of address space will only be able to receive them in IPv6. Contiguous blocks of IP address space are necessary for activities like building out new large networks and adding new customers to existing networks without causing additional burden on the Internet routing infrastructure. Adopting IPv6 leads to easier and more efficient network management. IPv6 also has built in security features that are much easier to use than similar features in IPv4. The only bad news is that we’ve all got some work to do to prepare for IPv6 and have our networks ready for this new and improved protocol.
  • Everyone needs to have a detailed plan for IPv6 deployment sooner rather than later. Each organization must decide on an IPv6 adoption plan that is right for them. Requirements to make website, e-mail, and other communication services available via IPv6 will be different for each organization, depending on how the network is set up and what services are deployed. IPv6 deployment timelines and investment levels will vary for each organization.
  • Nearly all organizations rely on the Internet for at least part of their core operations and services. To ensure these services can communicate with everyone on the Internet going forward, your network infrastructure must be dual-stacked. IPv6 is not backwards compatible with IPv6 and they will likely run simultaneously for the foreseeable future. Dual-stacking now will ensure all users will continue to be able to see your website, use your web-based services, and communicate with you via e-mail. You may manage these services internally or through a vendor. Either way, speak to those who are responsible for your network operations about adding IPv6 accessibility to them. Content providers must begin upgrading their capabilities to include IPv6 so all customers are able to reach them. If you operate a website, it is important to act now and make sure all Internet users are able to reach you, even those with an IPv6-only address.
  • In addition to provisioning new customers using IPv6, there is work to be done by Internet Service Providers to ensure their existing IPv4 customers are able to interact with new IPv6-only content on the Internet. ISPs must establish protocol translation and/or tunneling services for their customers. Talk to your ISP and make sure they are planning this now.
  • Audit your equipment and software. Make sure all devices and applications are IPv6 capable. Check your operating systems, software, network management tools, routers, firewalls, and middleware devices. Equipment vendors who distribute a hardware or software product that interacts with IPv4 networks should be making sure it is also capable of interacting with IPv6. If you find a vendor who does not yet support IPv6, encourage them to make the transition and to introduce IPv6 support into their product cycles as soon as possible and by specifically including IPv6 support in RFPs and contracts. Training your IT staff to support IPv6 is extremely important. Many will be able to self-train using free resources, however formal training is available through training vendors if needed.
  • IPv6 awareness and education are important initiatives for governments. Coordinating with industry, creating incentives, and promoting IPv6 adoption are all very important and helpful ways for governments to assist with the transition to a dual-stacked Internet. Officially adopting IPv6 and making government services available over both versions of the Internet Protocol sends a very strong message and ensures services remain available to all.
  • Organizations will need IPv6 address space to dual-stack their services. IPv6 address space is available either directly from an RIR or from an Internet Service Provider. To connect to the IPv6 portions of the Internet, you will need to get connectivity natively from your service provider, or through another organization that provides IPv6 tunneling services. It is important going forward to make IPv6 support a consideration when making any new purchases of network equipment and software. To upgrade your services to support both IPv4 and IPv6 you may need to acquire new equipment or update what you currently have with firmware updates. It is important your IT staff be trained to support IPv6. Many will be able to self-train using already available resources, however formal training is available through training vendors if needed.
  • Learn more about what steps you can take to prepare for IPv6. A wide range of information is available at the provided links.
  • Learn more about what steps you can take to prepare for IPv6. A wide range of information is available at the provided links.
  • Please contact info@arin.net with any questions, comments, or suggestions.
  • IPv4 Depletion and IPv6 Adoption Today

    1. 1. IPv4 Depletion and IPv6 Adoption Today Community Use Slide Deck Courtesy of ARIN February 2014
    2. 2. 2 History of the Internet Protocol • Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) – – – – Developed for the original Internet (ARPANET) in 1978 4 billion addresses Deployed globally & well entrenched Allocated based on documented need • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) – Design began in 1993 when IETF forecasts showed IPv4 depletion between 2010 and 2017 – 340 undecillion addresses – Completed, tested, and available since 1999 – Used and managed similar to IPv4
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4. 4 IPv4 Depletion Situation Report Each RIR received its last /8 from IANA on 3 February 2011 The IANA free pool of IPv4 addresses reached 0%
    5. 5. 5 Global IPv4 Depletion IANA IPv4 Space in /8s
    6. 6. 6 Regional IPv4 Depletion APNIC reached its final /8 in 2011 & RIPE NCC in 2012 ARIN, LACNIC, & AFRINIC to follow
    7. 7. 7 ARIN’s IPv4 Inventory ARIN still has IPv4 addresses remaining IPv4 inventory published on ARIN’s website: www.arin.net Updated daily @ 8PM ET
    8. 8. 8 Why so little IPv4 left? • The community-developed policies that manage how IPv4 is allocated and assigned did: – Extend the life of the IPv4 – BUT…IPv4 depletion is unavoidable • Not enough addresses to meet growing need of the global Internet
    9. 9. 9 ARIN’s IPv4 Countdown Plan • Process for final IPv4 requests – Divided into 4 phases – Length of each could vary • Global policy to return space to IANA • Faster depletion due to: – Large requests – Policy changes X.XX https://www.arin.net/resources/request/ipv4_countdown.html
    10. 10. 10 The Solution to IPv4 Depletion
    11. 11. 11 IPv6 over time ARIN IPv6 Allocations and Assignments
    12. 12. 12 IPv6 Deployment • RIRs allocating since 1999 • Thousands of organizations have received an IPv6 allocation to date • ARIN has distribution policies for – Service Providers – Community Networks – End-User Organizations
    13. 13. 13 Prepare for IPv6 • The good news – Lots more addresses – IPv6 adoption = easier & more efficient network management – Designed with security in mind • The bad news – We’ve all got some work to do
    14. 14. 14 Everyone needs an IPv6 Plan • Each organization must decide on a unique IPv6 deployment plan right for them – Timeline will vary – Investment level will vary
    15. 15. 15 How can you get started? • Dual-Stack your networks – IPv6 not backwards compatible with IPv4 – Both will run simultaneously for years • Servers must be reachable via both IPv4 and IPv6 – Mail – Web – Applications • Do you operate a website? • • Ensure content will be available to all customers Even new Internet users with an IPv6-only address
    16. 16. 16 How can you prepare? • Talk to your ISP about IPv6 services – You want access to the entire Internet • ISPs must connect customers via IPv4-only, IPv4/IPv6, & Via IPv6-only • Must plan for IPv4/IPv6 transition services – Many transition technologies available • Research options • Make architectural decisions
    17. 17. 17 What else can you do? • Audit your equipment and software – Are your devices and applications IPv6 ready? • Encourage vendors to support IPv6 – If not already, when will IPv6 support be part of their product cycle? • Get training for your staff – Free resources available
    18. 18. 18 What Can Governments Do? • Government and the Internet community need to coordinate to support and promote – IPv6 awareness – IPv6 education • Governments should consider: – Regulatory and economic incentives to encourage IPv6 adoption – Required IPv6 compatibility in procurement procedures – Official IPv6 deployment within agencies
    19. 19. 19 Your IPv6 Check List IPv6 address space IPv6 connectivity (native or tunneled) Operating systems, software, and network management tool upgrades Router, firewall, and other hardware upgrades IT staff and customer service training
    20. 20. 20 Learn More www.GetIPv6.info IPv6 Info Center www.arin.net/knowledge/ipv6_info_center.html www.TeamARIN.net
    21. 21. 21 Operational Guidance www.InternetSociety.org/ Deploy360/ www.NANOG.org/archives/ bcop.NANOG.org www.hpc.mil/cms2/index.php/ ipv6-knowledge-base-general-info
    22. 22. 22 Thank You

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