Freedom and independence
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Freedom and independence



Phil. History Chapter 13 - Freeedom and Independence (Jean Sonar and Rutchille Mallari

Phil. History Chapter 13 - Freeedom and Independence (Jean Sonar and Rutchille Mallari



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Freedom and independence Freedom and independence Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 13 Freedom and Independence 1898-1899
  • • The U.S. take-over of Intramuros on August 13, 1898, to the exclusion of the Filipino forces who had earlier laid siege to the city, muddled the issue of who were the real victors of the battle: was it the Americans or the Filipinos that were responsible for the Spanish surrender?
  • The Dictatorial Government • He was to establish a dictatorial form of government because such a government was very effective in a critical period such as what the country was experiencing. (May 24, 1898) • Aguinaldo made it that this form of government was temporary in nature and that in the future the people may modify.
  • Mabini Enters the Scene • He was according to the informant, a bright young man who could be relied upon times of crisis. • Mabini was brought before Aguinaldo in his office. He was thin and obviously sick. (paralyzed from the waist down to his lower limbs) • When Aguinaldo heard Mabini’s voice, he smiled. • Mabini’s voice was firm, had a deep conviction and it had a courage.
  • The Declaration of Independence • On June 5, Aguinaldo ordered that June 12 be set aside for the proclamation of independence. He asked Julian Felipe to compose a march which would be played during the independence day ceremonies. • It was entitled “Marcha Filipina Magdalo” • June 12, The Philippine flag designed by Aguinaldo and sewn in Hong Kong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo was officially hoisted for the first time to the accompaniment of the “Marcha Filipina”.
  • • The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and read in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista. • The Declaration of Independence was signed by ninety-eight persons. • Colonel L. M. Johnson attended the ceremonies on Dewey’s behalf.
  • Local Government Reorganized • Mabini prepared the decree of June 18 which provided for the reorganization of the government in provinces that were already taken from the Spaniards. • The right to vote was given to men of high moral character and good standing in his community. • They bwere the ones who would elect the town head, the cabeza of each barrio, and the delegate for justice and civil registry, and the delegate for taxes and property.
  • • The town chief acted as president of the Assembly; the cabeza of the poblacion or town proper as the vice president; and the delegate for justice and civil registry as the secretary. • Mabini thought that there should be a Revolutionary Congress. • The main function of the Congress was “to propose…measures concerning the preservation of internal order and external security of these islands.”
  • The Administration of Justice • In a supplementary decree of June 20, Mabini provided for the administration of justice in areas under the Filipino government. • Under the setup, the town chief was automatically assigned as the town judge.
  • The Revolutionary Government • The decree, prepared by Mabini, changed the title of the Chief of State from Dictator to President. • The June 23 decree also provided for the creation of Congress. • Provinces which could not hold any election for delegates to Congress, because they were still under Spaniards, would be represented by appointive delegates to Congress.
  • The Malolos Congress • The Basilica of Barasoain was filled with people on the morning of Sept.15, 1898. • In the afternoon, the members of Congress elected the following officers: • President: Pedro A. Paterno • Vice President: Benito Legarda • First Secretary: Gregorio Araneta • Second Secretary: Pablo Ocampo
  • The Malolos Constitution • Mabini prepared a draft of the constitution called Constitutional Plan of the Philippine Republic and submitted it to Congress. • Felipe G. Calderon prepared his version of the constitution with the advice of Cayetano Arellano. • The final version of the Constitution was promulgated by Aguinaldo on January 21, 1899.
  • The Constitution: it’s importance • The government that was established was “popular, representative, and responsible”. It was divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The Constitution also provided for national and individual rights not only of Filipinos, but also for foreigners. • The Malolos Constitution is unique for three reasons:
  • • 1. Assembly or the legislative branch was more powerful than the executive or the judicial branch. • 2. It provided that when the Assembly was not in session, a permanent commission, composed of members of the Assembly would sit as a legislative body. • 3. The Constitution established a unicameral legislature.
  • The First Philippine Republic • January 2, 1899 reorganized Aguinaldo’s Cabinet. • President of the Cabinet and Secretary of Foreign Affairs: Apolinario Mabini • Secretary of the Interior: Teodoro Sandico • Secretary of War: Baldomero Aguinaldo • Secretary of Finance: Mariano Trias • Secretary of Welfare, Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry and Commerce: Gracio Gonzaga
  • Education • Aguinaldo included an item for education amounting to P35,000. • The curriculum included subjects such as Latin grammar, universal geography, English, French, history, mathematics, physics, chemistry, philosophy, and natural laws. • In October 1898, a decree was issued creating the Literary University of the Philippines. • The subjects taught were medicine and surgery, civil and criminal law, pharmacy, and notariat.
  • • Dr. Joaquin Gonzales was appointed as the first president of the university and was later succeeded by Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero. • The university did not last very long. The Philippine-American War broke out and led to the disbandment of the professors.
  • Periodicals of the Revolution • The Revolutionary Government founded it’s official organ, El Heraldo de la Revolucion, which came out on Sept.29, 1898. • Later, it’s name changed to Heraldo Filipino then to Indice Official, and finally to Gaceta de Filipinas. • The most famous of these newspapers was a La Independencia, it’s editor and part-owner was Gen. Antonio Luna.
  • • Great Filipino writers in Spanish wrote in it’s columns like Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jose Palma, Rafael, Epifanio de los Santos, Jose Abreu, Mariano V. del Rosario, Salvador V. del Rosario, Rosa Sevilla, and Florentina Arellano. • Other nationalistic newspapers that were circulated were La Republica Filipina in Mandaluyong, La Libertad in Manila, Ang Kaibigan nang Bayan in Malolos, Columnas Volantes in Lipa, Batangas. La Federacion in Cabatuan, Iloilo, La Revolucion in Jaro, Iloilo, La Oportunidad in Tagbilaran, Bohol and many others.
  • The Treaty of Paris • On December 10, 1898, the Spanish and American peace commissioners signed the Treaty of Paris. By this treaty, Spain turned over the Philippines to the United States for the sum of $20,000,000 as payments for the improvements made by Spain in the Philippines. • U.S. agreed to permit Spaniards to ship commodities to the Philippines for a period of ten years on the same terms as those of the United States.
  • • Many Americans were also against the treaty and even established the Anti- Imperialist League which was very vocal against the move of the United States to colonize the Philippines. • On february 6, the Senate voted to pass the Treaty of Paris. The American imperialists who propagated the falsehood that the Filipinos started the hostilities won the day.
  • Pictures Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Apolinario Mabini
  • Julian Felipe
  • Philippine Flag
  • Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista
  • Barasoain Church
  • Marcha Filipina
  • Malolos Constitution