Cultural changes ang identity


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Philippine History - Chapter 7 Cultural Changes and Identity

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Cultural changes ang identity

  1. 1. Chapter 7 CULTURAL CHANGES ANG IDENTITY1600-1800
  2. 2. • Efforts to quell the early uprisings and revolts by force and imposition of the principle of “divide and rule” (by exploring the fragmented geogrephic features of the country, it’s multicultural characteristics, and regionalistic tendencies) • Spanish influence made an impact on the indigenous culture through the change in Filipino names, intermarriages, the plaza complex, fiestas, and other religious rituals, forms of amusement, attire and ornaments, house styles, painting and engraving, religion, and education.
  3. 3. • Many Filipinos did not change their names. They used such names as Magiting, Magtanggol, Bayani, Dimagiba, Dimalanta, Gatbonton, Gatmaitan, and others. • Governor-General Narciso Claveria issued a decree in 1849 allowing the Filipinos to change their names to avoid confusion. • A very long list of Spanish names was prepared so that Filipinos could choose th names they wanted to use. • Thus, Spanish names such as Juan, Pedro, Sixto, Teofilo, and surnames such as Cruz, Reyes, Santos, Rivera, Santiago, San Jose, and many more were adopted by most Christian Filipinos.
  4. 4. Spanish Influences • Brought the Filipinos into contact with Western culture. The Spanish way of life introduced: their clothing, cooking, eating habits, forms of amusements, Spanish words, and Christianity-all these resulted in the mixing of Spanish and Filipino cultural elememts. • The combination of the two, so to speak, which was neither native nor Spanish, in the course time, became the dominant culture.
  5. 5. Changes in Filipino Names • Before of the coming of the Spaniards, Filipinos had no surnames. The name of a boy, for example, was taken from his physical appearance or from any natural event. Thus, if a boy look strong, he was named Malakas. If a girl looked beautiful, she was named Maganda. • The Spaniards at first, made little changes in the names of the Filipinos. Those who had Christian surnames chose Spanish names, usually the names of the saints. Thus, a boy was named after a saint, such as Santo Tomas, San Gregorio, or San Andres, and so forth.
  6. 6. Intermarriage • There were very few recorded marriages between Filipino male and a Spanish female. The child of the marriage of a Filipino and a Spaniard was called Spanish mestizo (mestizo Espanol) • Toward the end of the Spanish period, the qualifying word “mestizo” was also used to refer to children of a male Chinese and a native woman, as in mestiza de Sangley. • Those who belonged to the pure indigenous stock were called “Indios” or “Indias”.
  7. 7. Social Life • Beside the church was the municipal building called tribunal where the gobernadorcillo or captain held office. The proximity of the church and the tribunal to each other symbolized the union of Church and State. • The captain could not do anything important without the knowledge and consent of the friar-curate. • If a Fiesta was to be held, the captain had to consult the friar-curate.
  8. 8. • The fiesta was always in honor of the town patron saints. Religious societies were very active in preparation for the fiesta and other religious events. The Pista or fiesta gave the Filipinos a day or so of relaxation from their toils in the farms. • The staging of plays called moro-moro, comedia, and later zarzuela. (theatrical performances) • This practice was passed on from father to children, through generations.
  9. 9. Amusement • Cockfighting was the principal form of entertainment of the Filipino men. • This game was already in the Philippines long before the Spaniards settled in the country. But the Spaniards encouraged cockfighting among the Filipinos. • Many terms used in cockfighting are mostly Spanish innovations such as soltada, kareo, ruweda, sentensiyador, pusta, dihado, llamado, and others.
  10. 10. • Cockfighting was a regular event during fiestas and even to this day. • Lottery, horse race, and bullfighting were all Spanish origin. • Wakes were held with mourners playing cards (with or without stakes) or with juego de prenda • The ninth day after the death of a person was celebrated by staging the duplo. • This was kind of debate in verse between two men or between a man, called bellaco, and a woman called bellaca. • The loser was punished by making him/her sing, dance, or simply let his/her palm be hit lightly by an object pr a piece of wood.
  11. 11. Changes in Clothing • The barong, or what is popularly called today as barong Tagalog. • Filipino male learn to wear hats. • Gobernadorcillo wore salakot with a silver top. • He also wore a coat over a long shirt, and carried a gold-hilted cane. • The well-to-do Filipinos wore slippers or shoes, but the people went about barefooted. • Women still wore saya, tapis, and patadyong. • They learned to wear camisa, made of fine material such as husi or pinya.
  12. 12. The Mestiza Dress • It consisted of an upper transparent part called camisa which is made of silk, hemp, husi or pineapple filaments.
  13. 13. The Antillean House • Rectangular or square house made of strong materials such as first-class wood like narra, ipil, and molave. The roof was made of either nipa or tiles. • The roof was made of red tiles. At the back or at the side of house was the azotea.
  14. 14. The Position of Women • They could not sell the property they inherited from their parents before their marriage without the consent of their husbands. • The friar-curates taught the filipino women to be very obedient to their husbands even if their husbands were cruel and immoral. • They were taught prayers and how to behave in public. • They were taught how to use fork, spoon and knife in formal dinners. • They also taught how to be independent.
  15. 15. A Common Religion • The Spaniards introduced Catholicism to the Filipinos who contrary to earlier views did not readily accept the new religion. • For instance, the Mass, sacrament of baptism, marriage, prayers for the dying, among others,were similar to the ancient rituals. • The intercession through saints were no different from the ancient way of asking deities for favors and guidance. • The colorful cenaculo and processions were just as festive and unifying as the ancient rituals and chanting of epics.
  16. 16. Geographical Identity • A central authority ruled the whole country except the non-Christian areas. • The Christianized Filipinos, who constituted the great majority of the people in the lowlands recognized this central authority and followed the laws promulgated either by the government of Spain or by the governor- general.
  17. 17. The Influence of the Spanish Language • Such contacts led to adoptions of Spanish words among many Filipino languages. • Spanish words like silla, mesa, cama, and many more, were incorporated into the Philippine languages like Hiligaynon, Sugbuhanon, Bicolano, Tagalog, Ilocano, and others. • Tagalog words as sibuyas, kabayo, bintana, balkon, kusina, and others were Spanish words came from words cebolla, caballo, ventana, balcon, and cocina.
  18. 18. Printing and Engraving • Printing by typography was introduced. • Filipinos and Christianized Chinese aided the Spanish friars in their printing work. • One of the earliest printers was Tomas Pinpin. • He was called the “Prince of Filipino printers” • Another Filipino printer who became famous was Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay. • He was not only a printer, but a good engraver. • Domingo Loag was also a printer and an engraver.
  19. 19. Education • With the rise of the middle class many Filipinos were able to go to colleges like San Juan de Letran, San Jose, and the Ateneo Municipal. • Later, Filipinos were admitted to the University of Santo Tomas where they finished courses in law, medicine, pharmacy, and surveying. • Spaniards allowed Filipinos to enroll and colleges where they were taught Latin and Spanish, arithmetic, philosophy, theology, and others.
  20. 20. Impact of Cultural Changes • The overall impact or effects of cultural changes brought by Spain in the Philippines may be described as both positive and enriching , as well as negative and divisive.
  21. 21. Pictures General Narciso Claveria
  22. 22. Fiesta
  23. 23. Cockfighting
  24. 24. Zarsuela
  25. 25. Moro-moro
  26. 26. Barong
  27. 27. Meztisa Dress
  28. 28. Antillean House
  29. 29. Tomas Pinpin