• Efforts to quell the early uprisings and revolts by
force and imposition of the principle of “divide
and rule” (by exploring the fragmented
geogrephic features of the country, it’s
multicultural characteristics, and regionalistic
• Spanish influence made an impact on the
indigenous culture through the change in Filipino
names, intermarriages, the plaza complex,
fiestas, and other religious rituals, forms of
amusement, attire and ornaments, house styles,
painting and engraving, religion, and education.
• Many Filipinos did not change their names. They
used such names as Magiting, Magtanggol,
Bayani, Dimagiba, Dimalanta, Gatbonton,
Gatmaitan, and others.
• Governor-General Narciso Claveria issued a
decree in 1849 allowing the Filipinos to change
their names to avoid confusion.
• A very long list of Spanish names was prepared so
that Filipinos could choose th names they wanted
• Thus, Spanish names such as Juan, Pedro, Sixto,
Teofilo, and surnames such as Cruz, Reyes,
Santos, Rivera, Santiago, San Jose, and many
more were adopted by most Christian Filipinos.
• Brought the Filipinos into contact with
Western culture. The Spanish way of life
introduced: their clothing, cooking, eating
habits, forms of amusements, Spanish words,
and Christianity-all these resulted in the
mixing of Spanish and Filipino cultural
• The combination of the two, so to speak,
which was neither native nor Spanish, in the
course time, became the dominant culture.
Changes in Filipino Names
• Before of the coming of the Spaniards, Filipinos
had no surnames. The name of a boy, for
example, was taken from his physical appearance
or from any natural event. Thus, if a boy look
strong, he was named Malakas. If a girl looked
beautiful, she was named Maganda.
• The Spaniards at first, made little changes in the
names of the Filipinos. Those who had Christian
surnames chose Spanish names, usually the
names of the saints. Thus, a boy was named after
a saint, such as Santo Tomas, San Gregorio, or San
Andres, and so forth.
• There were very few recorded marriages
between Filipino male and a Spanish female.
The child of the marriage of a Filipino and a
Spaniard was called Spanish mestizo (mestizo
• Toward the end of the Spanish period, the
qualifying word “mestizo” was also used to
refer to children of a male Chinese and a
native woman, as in mestiza de Sangley.
• Those who belonged to the pure indigenous
stock were called “Indios” or “Indias”.
• Beside the church was the municipal building
called tribunal where the gobernadorcillo or
captain held office. The proximity of the
church and the tribunal to each other
symbolized the union of Church and State.
• The captain could not do anything important
without the knowledge and consent of the
• If a Fiesta was to be held, the captain had to
consult the friar-curate.
• The fiesta was always in honor of the town
patron saints. Religious societies were very
active in preparation for the fiesta and other
religious events. The Pista or fiesta gave the
Filipinos a day or so of relaxation from their
toils in the farms.
• The staging of plays called moro-moro,
comedia, and later zarzuela. (theatrical
• This practice was passed on from father to
children, through generations.
• Cockfighting was the principal form of
entertainment of the Filipino men.
• This game was already in the Philippines long
before the Spaniards settled in the country.
But the Spaniards encouraged cockfighting
among the Filipinos.
• Many terms used in cockfighting are mostly
Spanish innovations such as soltada, kareo,
ruweda, sentensiyador, pusta, dihado,
llamado, and others.
• Cockfighting was a regular event during fiestas
and even to this day.
• Lottery, horse race, and bullfighting were all
• Wakes were held with mourners playing cards
(with or without stakes) or with juego de prenda
• The ninth day after the death of a person was
celebrated by staging the duplo.
• This was kind of debate in verse between two
men or between a man, called bellaco, and a
woman called bellaca.
• The loser was punished by making him/her sing,
dance, or simply let his/her palm be hit lightly by
an object pr a piece of wood.
Changes in Clothing
• The barong, or what is popularly called today as
• Filipino male learn to wear hats.
• Gobernadorcillo wore salakot with a silver top.
• He also wore a coat over a long shirt, and carried
a gold-hilted cane.
• The well-to-do Filipinos wore slippers or shoes,
but the people went about barefooted.
• Women still wore saya, tapis, and patadyong.
• They learned to wear camisa, made of fine
material such as husi or pinya.
The Mestiza Dress
• It consisted of an upper transparent part
called camisa which is made of silk, hemp,
husi or pineapple filaments.
The Antillean House
• Rectangular or square house made of strong
materials such as first-class wood like narra,
ipil, and molave. The roof was made of either
nipa or tiles.
• The roof was made of red tiles. At the back or
at the side of house was the azotea.
The Position of Women
• They could not sell the property they inherited
from their parents before their marriage without
the consent of their husbands.
• The friar-curates taught the filipino women to be
very obedient to their husbands even if their
husbands were cruel and immoral.
• They were taught prayers and how to behave in
• They were taught how to use fork, spoon and
knife in formal dinners.
• They also taught how to be independent.
A Common Religion
• The Spaniards introduced Catholicism to the
Filipinos who contrary to earlier views did not
readily accept the new religion.
• For instance, the Mass, sacrament of baptism,
marriage, prayers for the dying, among
others,were similar to the ancient rituals.
• The intercession through saints were no different
from the ancient way of asking deities for favors
• The colorful cenaculo and processions were just
as festive and unifying as the ancient rituals and
chanting of epics.
• A central authority ruled the whole country
except the non-Christian areas.
• The Christianized Filipinos, who constituted
the great majority of the people in the
lowlands recognized this central authority and
followed the laws promulgated either by the
government of Spain or by the governor-
The Influence of the Spanish Language
• Such contacts led to adoptions of Spanish
words among many Filipino languages.
• Spanish words like silla, mesa, cama, and
many more, were incorporated into the
Philippine languages like Hiligaynon,
Sugbuhanon, Bicolano, Tagalog, Ilocano, and
• Tagalog words as sibuyas, kabayo, bintana,
balkon, kusina, and others were Spanish
words came from words cebolla, caballo,
ventana, balcon, and cocina.
Printing and Engraving
• Printing by typography was introduced.
• Filipinos and Christianized Chinese aided the
Spanish friars in their printing work.
• One of the earliest printers was Tomas Pinpin.
• He was called the “Prince of Filipino printers”
• Another Filipino printer who became famous
was Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay.
• He was not only a printer, but a good engraver.
• Domingo Loag was also a printer and an
• With the rise of the middle class many Filipinos
were able to go to colleges like San Juan de
Letran, San Jose, and the Ateneo Municipal.
• Later, Filipinos were admitted to the University of
Santo Tomas where they finished courses in law,
medicine, pharmacy, and surveying.
• Spaniards allowed Filipinos to enroll and colleges
where they were taught Latin and Spanish,
arithmetic, philosophy, theology, and others.
Impact of Cultural Changes
• The overall impact or effects of cultural
changes brought by Spain in the Philippines
may be described as both positive and
enriching , as well as negative and divisive.