EUROCALL Teacher Education SIG Workshop 2010 Presentation Nathalie Gettliffe
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EUROCALL Teacher Education SIG Workshop 2010 Presentation Nathalie Gettliffe

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    EUROCALL Teacher Education SIG Workshop 2010 Presentation Nathalie Gettliffe EUROCALL Teacher Education SIG Workshop 2010 Presentation Nathalie Gettliffe Presentation Transcript

    • Reflective teaching as a methodology to assess training of pre-service and in- service teacher for on-line tutoring tasks Nathalie Gettliffe Université de Strasbourg (France)
    • Teacher Education and CALL at the University of Strasbourg  Year 3 Licence: 24 hours ICT and Language Teaching  Year 1 Master of Arts Teaching Foreign Languages: 48 hours  Year 2 Master of Arts Educational Technology and Language Teaching: 400 hours
    • Teacher Education and CALL at the Université de Strasbourg  Year 2 Master of Arts Research: 24 hours  Year 2 Master of Arts Language counsellor: 24 hours  Year 2 Master of Arts Managing language programs: 24 hours (+24 hours)
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Teacher Education in CALL: a growing concern (Hubbard and Levy, 2006)  Training pre-service and in-service teachers in on-line tutoring : a challenge given the instability of on-line tutoring practices
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Various practices to Teacher Development with CALL (Hubbard and Levy, 2006):  Project based learning  Situated learning  Online courses and CMC  Collaborative development  Integration of CALL education throughout degree programs  Communities of practice in CALL education and learning autonomy
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Which practice is effective in Teacher Education in CALL?  How can we assess the effectiveness of a particular practice?  Which methodology can (should) we use to assess the effectiveness of a particular practice?
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  My project:  Assessing a project-based practice with a reflective teaching methodology  Course content: on-line tutoring
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology Reflective pratice is not:  -action research (implementation of an action plan to bring change in some aspects of a teacher’s class with subsequent monitoring of the effects of the innovation)  -developmental research (designing a tool and conducting multiple recursive analyses during the « creative » process)
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Reflective teaching is not:  Reflexivity: research paradigm that uses the capacity of social actors in modern societies to be conscious and able to give accounts of their actions to explore (mostly sociological) issues or researchers biases (De Robillard, 2009)
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Reflective teaching is:  Examining teaching experience as a basis for evaluation and decision making and as a source of change (Bartlett, 1990)  Exploring classroom processes: teacher’s beliefs, focus on the learner, teacher decision making, role of the teacher, structure of a language lesson, interaction in the second language classroom, nature of language learning activities, language use in the classroom (Richards and Lockhart, 1994)
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology Schön, 1987 Educating the reflective practitioner This dilemma of rigor or relevance arises more acutely in some areas of practice than others. In the varied topography of professional practice, there is a high hard ground where the practitioner can make use of research-based theory and technique, and there is the swampy lowland where situations are confusing messes incapable of technical solutions. The difficulty is that the problems of the high ground, however great their technical interest, are often relatively unimportant to clients or the larger society, while in the swamp are the problems of greatest human concern.  Second language acquisition vs teacher education
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Assessing reflective teaching as an effective mode to train teachers in project based-CALL:  Confronting reflective teaching to user’s perceptions (questionnaire and interviews)  Confronting reflective teaching to data analysis
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Reflective teaching can use the following procedures:  Teaching journals, lesson reports, surveys and questionnaires, audio and video recordings, observations, e-portfolios…  Tutors used a portfolio for their reflective teaching (ex ample Group 4)
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  What I used to assess reflective teaching  On-line questionnaire (27 items):  Group, technical challenges; aims; beginning/end; who was in charge; tutor role; number of tasks; tasks sequencing; follow-up from the tutors; evaluation; conclusion  Questionnaire designed from reflective teaching
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Interviews:  similar questions than questionnaire  Two extra questions: was it your first course on- line? how much time did it take you to do the on- line tasks?  Observations of on-line tutoring scenario
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  12 hour course on On-line tutoring  Course content:  Definitions (on-line tutoring) of on-line tutoring  Tasks/role of an on-line tutor  setting up a tutoring scenario and linking it to on-line and off-line resources  On-line tutoring tools (characteristics and limitations)  Learning management system (Dokeos)  Videos of novice, intermediate and experienced on-line tutors  example of an On-line course (English for Academic purposes)  research on On-line tutoring (articles, journals, books).
    • Introduction Issu Research Context Data Discussion Conclusio e Methodology n  Course project  Designing on-line tasks for Master 1 foreign students needing help with their written academic French (pretest and homeworks)  Managing a three week on-line tutoring session with the Master 1 students (scenario)  Evaluating the work of « their » students (30%)
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology Tutors Students Group A: Tomoki N=8 (2 were MM n=3 students) Group B: Lucia N=8 (1 was MM n=3 student) Group C: Christos N=8 n=4 Group D: Xiaolu N=8 n=4
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Project report  Description of on-line scenario  Reflective teaching (issues when designing tasks, issues during the on-line tutoring, changes brought during the on-line tutoring, future changes, what you have learned, what you would like to learn, comments on the help from your informants)  Link your reflective thinking to at least 2 research articles
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Case Study A:  Analysis of scenario  Objectives: to identify main arguments in a text and to write a persuasive structured essay  Activities:  Week 1: read and identify the structure of a text on Applied Linguistics  Week 2: Critique of students work and own work  Week 3: write a short essay (300 words) on a topic on Applied Linguistics
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Resources:  text on the importance of a pedagogical scenario for foreign language learning (8 Pages)  Course components:  Identify the main ideas of a text  How to write sentences summarizing a paragraph  transitions  Connecting words  What is the structure of a paragraph  Evaluation  Three or four links for each course
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Tutoring (Accompagnement):  Virtual office hours Tuesday, Thursday, Sunday via a chat from 7pm to 8pm  Discussion forums for individual and group feedback  Announcements for homework to be done  Corrections and feed-back on all submitted work
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Reflective teaching:  No major group problem. Everyone had a specific task: native speakers gave feedback and designed course content; non-native speaker looked for Internet links and approved course task as an informant  Difficulties: technical challenges; wrong format for the posted homeworks; not enough interaction on the forum; text too long;
    •  Difficulties:  Indications for final work not clear enough; students gave their homework late and group discussions could not take place  Changes to be brought:  Send personal mails to students to remind them of work to be done  Design tasks that can be done independently
    •  What we have learned:  On-line tutoring requires a lot of time to design and follow activities  Need to give detailed explanation so students understand what needs to be done  Need to plan everything  Content needs to be motivating
    •  Research article:  Our main challenge was to motivate students  Celik, C. (2009) « Analyse de pratiques de tutorat dans un campus numérique de maîtrise de FLE à distance » Alsic, vol 11  Decamps, S., Depover, C. et De Lièvre, B. (2009) Moduler l’encadrement tutoral dans la scénarisation d’activités à distance, Actes du colloque EPAL.
    •  What they have learned from research:  Quality of tutoring influences the number of stay- ins/drop-out  Tutoring can help retain students (vs no tutoring)  Pro-active responses helps retain students and help them use fully all resources provided on the LMS  « We should have been more proactive »
    •  User’s point of view  interviews (2)  Motivation: does not like on-line components; late registration  Did understand that writing an esssay in French is not the same that writing an essay in English thank to the tutors feedback  Could not identify who was tutoring  Feedback was not precise enough
    •  User’s point of view  Questionnaire (3)  Problem with understanding when the on-line component started, who was in charge (2), who to contact in case of problems,  Too many activities (3), too difficult, not organized enough  No individual help (2) and no understanding as to how one was being evaluated (2)
    • Overall, the on-line tutors realized that they were not just there to give homeworks and grade them but to create a relationship with the students in order to keep them motivated and on task. Nonetheless, tutors are not attentive enough to individual needs (what can I help you with?)
    •  Group B:  Objectives: improve style and sentence structure  Activities: write a short essay (200 words), identify the key areas of difficulties, write a lesson about it and write a second essay (300 words) to see if improvement; write on a blog about your challenges as a foreign student in Strasbourg
    •  Group C:  Objectives: review grammatical points and understand text writing  Activities: formative tests on grammar; write a complex sentence; write a collaborative text
    •  Group D:  Objectives: understanding grammar points and writing a short text  Activities: grammar lessons and text production
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  My project:  Assessing a project-based practice with a reflective teaching methodology  Course content: on-line tutoring
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Through their reflective teaching portfolio, all tutoring groups identified the main difficulties of on-line tutoring:  Time  Availability  Being proactive  Being precise when giving feedback  Distributing and sharing roles
    • Introduction Issue Research Context Data Discussion Conclusion Methodology  Reflective teaching allows tutors to reflect on changes that need to be brought to their project  Dialogic conversations with research allows them to seek answers  Tutors still need feedback from students to complement reflection as well as teacher’s feedback
    • Final considerations  Ethical questions  Reflective teaching to become researchers