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  • 1. First Quarter Review
  • 2. What are the characteristics of a mineral?
    Inorganic – not living
    Crystalline structure/pattern
    Definite chemical makeup – same elements/compounds
    Naturally occurring – not man-made
  • 3. How are minerals used?
    Ore - valuable
    Diamond drill bits
    Cleaning products
    Reclamation: fix the land after mining – return to original or better condition
  • 4. How are rocks classified?
    Texture – mineral grains: coarse, medium, fine
    Mineral composition – mixture of more than 1 mineral, sediment
    Formation – how they are formed, not where they are found
  • 5. The Rock Cycle
    Continual – no beginning, no end
    Rocks can travel any path
    Actions between changes… Look for key words
  • 6. Sedimentary Rocks
    Sediment – bits of rock
    WEDCC: weathering (breaking down to create sediment), erosion (moving of sediment), deposition (dropping of sediment), compaction (squeezing of sediment), and cementation (sediment glued together after the evaporation of mineral solution)
    Can be formed from any type of rock
  • 7. Sedimentary Rock Types
    Organic – once living material: limestone, coral
    Chemical – minerals crystallize out of water - evaporation
    Clastic – cemented together: conglomerate, sandstone, silt, shale
  • 8. Igneous Rocks
    Melting, cooling, and hardening
    Intrusive: magma – below surface, cools slowly, large crystals; coarse-grained texture – granite
    Extrusive: lava, above surface, cools quickly, small crystals, fine-grained or glassy texture – basalt, obsidian
    Stone Mountain - batholith
  • 9. Metamorphic Rocks
    Heat – from mantle
    Pressure – from layers of rock above
    Foliated (banded, layered) and nonfoliated (nonbanded, not layered)
    Composition can actually be changed
    Can be formed from any rock type
    Gneiss, marble, slate, phylite, schist
  • 10. Fossils
    Remains or traces of once living things
    Mold (imprint), cast (rock fills in), petrified (mineral replacement - forests), amber, tar/asphalt (LeBrea Tar Pits)
    Trace fossils – evidence of activity (tail, footprint)
    Index fossils – short lifespan, widespread geographically, numerous: trilobite and ammonite
  • 11. Relative Age/Dating
    Index fossils date rock layers
    Superposition (older on bottom in geologic column)
    Original horizontality – undisturbed
    Uniformitarianism – gradual, consistent – past helps us understand present
  • 12. Absolute Age/Dating
    Exact age in years
    Radioactive decay: rate of decay in radioactive element – unstable to stable (half life)
    Carbon-14: on once living organisms (carbon, organic) – up to 50,000 years
  • 13. Geologic Time
    Breaks geologic time into manageable parts: eon, era, period, epoch
    Based on changes in fossil evidence (life changes)
    Paleozoic (largest mass extinction), Mesozoic (reptiles – dinosaurs), Cenozoic (mammals, now)
    Gaps in time – only a few organisms fossilized
  • 14. Fossil Fuels
    From once living organisms; millions of years to form
    We rely on them
    Photochemical smog (worse in spring, summer), acidic precipitation (rain), worsens global warming/ozone damage
    Nonrenewable - depleting rapidly
    Coal, petroleum (oil), natural gas
  • 15. Alternative Energy
    Expensive to implement
    Less pollution
    Wind (renewable), biomass (organic, renewable), solar (Sun’s radiation, photocell, renewable), hydroelectric (Lake Lanier, dam, renewable), geothermal (renewable), nuclear (fission, nonrenewable, radioactivity?)
  • 16. Conservation
    Use less
    Use what we do have more efficiently
    Water at night, don’t let the water run, carpool, turn the lights off, use energy-saver settings on appliances
  • 17. Causes of Soil Erosion/Pollution
    Building/development (business and residential)
    Business/factory waste
    Human littering
  • 18. Soil Conservation
    Prevent erosion of soil
    Dust Bowl – loss of topsoil due to erosion (wind)
    Cover crops (protect topsoil), contour plowing, crop rotation (prevent nutrient depletion), terracing (flat sections on hills), windbreaks (slow down wind)