Earths Interior Andie

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  • 1.
    • What does the inside of the Earth look like?
  • 2.
    • How do we determine the composition of the Earth?
    • Scientists cannot see the interior so they must use other ways to figure it out!
    • Earthquakes have many different types of waves
      • These waves travel at different speeds through solids and liquids
      • Some waves don’t travel at all through liquids.
    • Measuring these waves tells us what is in the Earth’s core and where the materials change.
  • 3.  
  • 4. Earth Layers
    • The Earth is divided into four main layers.
      • *Inner Core
      • *Outer Core
      • *Mantle
      • *Crust
  • 5. The Earth’s Crust
    • The crust is the thinnest layer on Earth
    • There are two types of crust
        • Oceanic crust – made mostly of the igneous rock basalt. Found under the ocean. Relatively thin.
        • Continental crust – made mostly of granite. Found under the continents. Relatively thick.
  • 6. Special parts of the Crust
    • Lithosphere
      • Crust is the upper part of the lithosphere
      • Broken up into large plates
    • Asthenosphere
      • Upper part of mantle, below lithosphere
      • 130 – 160 km thick
      • Cooler part of the mantle that the lithospheric plates slide on top of.
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. The Earth’s Mantle
    • Located directly above the outer core
    • Starts below the crust
    • Is the largest layer
    • 80% of the Earth’s volume & 68% of Earth’s mass
  • 10. The Earth’s Mantle
    • Composed of more iron than the crust.
    • Density, pressure, and temperature all increase the deeper you go in the mantle
    • Temperature ranges from 870 C – 2200 C
  • 11.  
  • 12. Special layers of the mantle
    • Lithosphere – crust plus the upper, solid part of the mantle. Forms plates.
    • Asthenosphere – just under the lithosphere. Slow moving “Silly putty” layer on which the lithospheric plates slid. (Solid rock that flows very slowly.)
  • 13.  
  • 14. Currents in the Mantle
  • 15. The Earth’s Core
    • The Earth’s Core
    • Composed of the inner and outer core
    • Both are made of iron and nickel
  • 16.
    • How do scientists know that there is a solid inner core?
  • 17.  
  • 18. The Earth’s Outer Core
    • The Outer Core - Liquid
    • Surrounds the inner core
    • Temperature ranges from 2200 C – 5000 C near inner core
    • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel
  • 19.  
  • 20. The Earth’s Inner Core
    • The Inner Core - Solid
    • Temperature reaches 5000 C
    • Solid iron and nickel
      • Usually both would be liquid but are solid in the core because of the incredible pressure
    • The solid core is the source of Earth’s magnetic field
  • 21. What do you know about these layers?