3. Harmony Tonality
Rhythm Timbre Dynamics
4. Deﬁnition: Notes of different durations organised into groups and placed in time often in relation to a pulse
Keywords: Pulse, Beat, Time Signature,
Metre, Bar, Barlines, Simple TIme, Compound
Cross Rhythm: Cross rhythm – A
rhythmic arrangement which contradicts
expected metrical accents by introducing
a different pattern of groupings.
Anacrusis: An unaccented note or a group of
notes which precede the ﬁrst strong beat in a
phrase of music. music.
Syncopation: The use of accents on
weak beats or between beats, creating
tension between the accents of the pulse and
the accents of the rhythm.
Hemiola: A speciﬁc form of syncopation, often
used in Baroque music, particularly at important
cadences. The most usual form occurs when a
piece in triple time places accents on alternate
beats, giving a temporary duple feel to the music.
5. Deﬁnition: Scale(s) that the melody and harmony are derived from.
Major Scale Whole tone scale - A scale
Tonality consisting of six whole tones. All
intervals are equal so there is no
Minor Scale: Harmonic, Natural, feeling of a key note.
Modes: Aeolian, Dorian, Phrygian, Chromatic Scale - A scale of
Lydian, Mixolydian, Ionian, twelve notes
Modulation: Change of key within a
composition Pentatonic: A scale of 5 notes.
Atonal: Having no tonal
centre Diatonic: Notes used a derived from a
6. Deﬁnition: Melody is a sequence of single notes; the main, most prominent line or voice in a piece of music, the line that the listener
follows most closely. When accompanied, the melody is often the highest line in the piece and stands out. Melody is often the most
memorable aspect of a piece.
Contour: Shape of
a melody, pointed, Range:Distance between the lowest
smooth note and highest note.
Sequence: Repetition of a
Phrasing: length of a melody, phrase at a higher or lower
normally related to a human pitch. The rhythm amd
taking a breath. melodic pattern are the
same in each phrase
Melisma: Ornamentation of a syllable
7. Deﬁnition: Texture is the relationships between the different ‘lines’ (instruments) within a piece.
Solo Vs Tutti
Monophonic: One solo line or Scoring: Division of music between
voice, may have multiple instruments or how they are
instruments but all will be in arranged.
Polyphonic: Music with independent
lines playing simultaneously.
8. Deﬁnition: A series of chords or progression.
Harmony Pedal Note: A
normally in the
bass with the
Chord: Two or harmony changing
more notes played above it
Speed at which the
Triad: A three note Chord
Cadences: Perfect, plagal, Imperfect,
9. Deﬁnition: Volume changes from soft to loud in Music.
Terraced Dynamics : Blocks
of loud and soft sound with Dynamics Diminuendo - Get softer over time
movement between. From
Decrescendo - Get softer over time
Crescendo - Get louder over time
10. Deﬁnition: A sound; normally an instrument. Also means all the different sounds an instrument can make
Range: How high or low and Timbre Envelope - Entire sound
consisting of attack through to
instrument can play. decay
Decay - Dying away os a Sound
Tessitura: The area within a range
of a voice or instrument where a
piece mainly lies; A piece with a
high tessitura means its average Attack - Beginning of a Sound
pitch towards the top of its range
Technique: The skill used by a player
or singer performing.
Idiomatic: Refers to the capabilities of an instrument; Also
what sets it apart from other instruments: E.g a Trombone
can glissando because of how its made.
11. Deﬁnition: A sound; normally an instrument. Also means all the different sounds an instrument can make
Sonata Form: An expansion of binary form. A
Binary: Two distinct first section (exposition) introduces two or more
sections. normally each themes, the first in the tonic, the second in the
section repeats AABB Form dominant or a closely related key. The next section
(the development section) develops the themes in
new keys, and the final section (the recapitulation)
restates the themes, but ends in the original key.
Sonata form emerged in the Classical period, and
was often used for the first movement of solo
sonatas, symphonies, chamber music and concertos.
Rondo: Multiple sections with the
main section returning between
Ternary: Three sections where the
contrasting sections. ABACADA
third is a repeat of the ﬁrst. ABA
12 Bar Blues: Chord
progressions follows Strophic: Song form; Verse/chorus/Verse/
something similar to this Chorus/Bridge/Verse/Chorus/Chorus
V Through Composed - Music where there are no repeats
and ideas change and develop from beginning to end.