Child Abuse and Early Intervention

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A Literature Review on the Efficacy of Early Intervention and Prevention Programs on Child Abuse.

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Child Abuse and Early Intervention

  1. 1. Child Abuse andChild Abuse and Early Intervention:Early Intervention: A Literature ReviewA Literature Review Theresa Berlinski Argosy University 1
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction What is child abuse? What risk factors and indicators are associated with child abuse? What are the effects of child abuse? What are the benefits of early intervention and prevention? HYPOTHESIS: Prevention methods have a greater potential to decrease the prevalence of child abuse and neglect than the efforts of early intervention programs. 2
  3. 3. Definition of Child AbuseDefinition of Child Abuse Child abuse is present when a child’s physical or mental health or welfare is harmed or threatened by a parent or another person Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Emotional Abuse 3
  4. 4. Definition of NeglectDefinition of Neglect Neglect consists of a failure to adequately accommodate the needs essential for a child’s health and welfare . Physical Neglect Emotional Neglect Medical Neglect Educational Neglect 4
  5. 5. Literature Findings:Literature Findings: Effectiveness of Early InterventionEffectiveness of Early Intervention ProgramsPrograms 5 • Prevention methods that are implemented prior to the onset of abuse have a higher rate of success than intervention methods implemented after the abuse has already commenced (Farrington & Murray, 2010). • Frequent visitation of nurses to socially- disadvantaged women during the period from pregnancy until the child is two years old is proven to be effective at preventing the onset of abuse (Burrell, Crowne, Dodge, Duggan, & McFarlane, 2010). • The prevalence of conduct disorder and delinquency peaks during mid-to-late adolescence. Risk factors that predict conduct disorder and delinquency are previous instances of physical, emotional, educational and mental abuse (Farrington & Murray, 2010).
  6. 6. Literature Findings:Literature Findings: Effectiveness of Early InterventionEffectiveness of Early Intervention ProgramsPrograms 6 • Children maltreated in multiple developmental periods had more externalizing and internalizing problems and lower IQ scores than children maltreated in only one developmental period (Jaffee & Maikovich-Fong, 2011). • Teachers and teacher training are critically important in responding to instances of child abuse and neglect (Farrell and Walsh, 2010). • The high prevalence of and inadequate reporting of abuse and neglect are a result of the perception that reporters are intruding in the private lives of families (Levi & Portwood, 2011).
  7. 7. Literature Findings:Literature Findings: Effectiveness of Early InterventionEffectiveness of Early Intervention ProgramsPrograms 7 • Nearly 17% of child abuse victims are victimized again within 5 years of the initial report of abuse (Gelles, Hwa-ok, Solomon, & White, 2010 p.23). • Being known to Child Protective Service agencies or having prior abuse history is a prime predictor of re-reporting as well as a higher risk of child maltreatment (Hershkowitz, 2011). • Emotional neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment (Iwaniec, Sneddon, & Stewart, 2010).
  8. 8. Conclusion:Conclusion: Intervention is good,Intervention is good, but prevention is better.but prevention is better. 8 • Intervention methods are just putting a bandage on the issue of child abuse and neglect (Mathieson, Reynolds, & Topitzes, 2009). • Scholarly reviews tend to indicate the most favorable approach by comparing and contrasting the intervention concepts of working directly with the child versus the family resulting in a disregard of the quality of strategy, execution, and assessment of the intervention itself (Mathieson et al, 2009).
  9. 9. ReferencesReferences  Burrell, L., Cheng, T. L. Crowne, S., Dodge, R.A.B., Duggan, A. K., & McFarlane, E. (2010). The importance of early parenting in at-risk families and children’s socio-emotional adaptation to school. Academic Pediatrics. 10, 5, p330-7.  Chang, J. J., Theodore, A. D., & Martin, S. L. (2008). Psychological abuse between parents: Associations with child maltreatment from a population-based sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(8), p819-829.  Farrell, A. & Walsh, K. Working Together for Toby. (2010). Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 35, 4, p53-62.  Farrington, D. P. & Murray, J. (2010). Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency: Key findings from longitudinal studies. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 55, 10, p633-645.  Gelles, R. J., Hwa-ok, B., Solomon, P. L., & White, T. (2010). Effect of child protective services system factors on child maltreatment rereporting. Child Welfare. 89, 3, p33-55, p23.  Hershkowitz, Irit. (2011). The effects of abuse history on sexually intrusive behavior by children: An analysis of child justice records. Child Abuse & Neglect. 35, 1, p40-49, p10.  Iwaniec, D., Sneddon, H., & Stewart, M. C. (2010). Prevalence of childhood abuse in mothers taking part in a study of parenting their own children. Child Abuse Review. 19, 1, p39- 55, p17.  Jaffee, S. R., & Maikovich-Fong, A. (2011). Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children's behavior and cognitive abilities. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52, 2, p184-194.  Levi, B. H. & Portwood, S. G. (2011). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. 39, 1, p62-69, 8p  Mathieson, L. C., Reynolds, C. A., & Topitzes, J. W. (2009) Do early childhood interventions prevent child maltreatment? A review of research. Child Maltreatment. 14, 2, p182-206. 9
  10. 10. ReferencesReferences  Burrell, L., Cheng, T. L. Crowne, S., Dodge, R.A.B., Duggan, A. K., & McFarlane, E. (2010). The importance of early parenting in at-risk families and children’s socio-emotional adaptation to school. Academic Pediatrics. 10, 5, p330-7.  Chang, J. J., Theodore, A. D., & Martin, S. L. (2008). Psychological abuse between parents: Associations with child maltreatment from a population-based sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(8), p819-829.  Farrell, A. & Walsh, K. Working Together for Toby. (2010). Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 35, 4, p53-62.  Farrington, D. P. & Murray, J. (2010). Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency: Key findings from longitudinal studies. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 55, 10, p633-645.  Gelles, R. J., Hwa-ok, B., Solomon, P. L., & White, T. (2010). Effect of child protective services system factors on child maltreatment rereporting. Child Welfare. 89, 3, p33-55, p23.  Hershkowitz, Irit. (2011). The effects of abuse history on sexually intrusive behavior by children: An analysis of child justice records. Child Abuse & Neglect. 35, 1, p40-49, p10.  Iwaniec, D., Sneddon, H., & Stewart, M. C. (2010). Prevalence of childhood abuse in mothers taking part in a study of parenting their own children. Child Abuse Review. 19, 1, p39- 55, p17.  Jaffee, S. R., & Maikovich-Fong, A. (2011). Effects of chronic maltreatment and maltreatment timing on children's behavior and cognitive abilities. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 52, 2, p184-194.  Levi, B. H. & Portwood, S. G. (2011). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. 39, 1, p62-69, 8p  Mathieson, L. C., Reynolds, C. A., & Topitzes, J. W. (2009) Do early childhood interventions prevent child maltreatment? A review of research. Child Maltreatment. 14, 2, p182-206. 9

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