Dare To Prepare

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The North Carolina Ranger Corps' Dare To Prepare Emergency Preparedness Seminar

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Dare To Prepare

  1. 1. A bad beginning makes a bad ending.<br />~Euripides<br />By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.<br />~Benjamin Franklin, Founding Father<br />DARE TO PREPARE<br />Emergency Preparedness Seminar<br />
  2. 2. The Need to prepare is real<br /><ul><li>Disasters disrupt hundreds of thousands of lives every year.
  3. 3. If a disaster occurs, emergency response may not be able to reach you immediately.
  4. 4. You should know how to respond to the disasters that may occur in your area – hurricanes, extreme cold, flooding, or terrorism.
  5. 5. You should be prepared to be self-sufficient for at least 14 days by providing for your own shelter, first aid, food, water, and sanitation. </li></ul>PREPAREDNESS IS INSURANCE<br />
  6. 6. Knowing the Risks<br />It is vital that the individual or family preparing to understand the potential hazards that threaten their community. Assess which disasters pose the highest risk and consider how to mitigate against those threats. This should be included in your emergency preparedness plan.<br />
  7. 7. Disasters<br /><ul><li>Personal
  8. 8. Local
  9. 9. State or Regional
  10. 10. National
  11. 11. Global</li></li></ul><li>THE GREATEST THREATS<br />NORTH CAROLINA<br /><ul><li>Fire
  12. 12. Extreme Heat
  13. 13. Hurricanes
  14. 14. Winter Weather
  15. 15. Floods
  16. 16. Terrorism</li></li></ul><li>Getting started<br />
  17. 17. MAKE A PLAN<br />Every family plan should begin by knowing any pre-existing plans. Check for plans in your:<br /><ul><li>Community
  18. 18. Schools
  19. 19. Work</li></ul>Once plans have been reviewed incorporate them into your family plan.<br />
  20. 20. MAKE A PLAN<br />2 POSSIBLE ACTIONS<br />
  21. 21. Evacuation<br />Evacuation is the best option when your home or shelter is at an extremely high risk of damage and it threatens your life.<br />To evacuate:<br /><ul><li>Pre-plan and practice at least two escape routes from your own home.
  22. 22. Pre-plan and practice at least two evacuation routes from your home to a designated shelter.
  23. 23. Designate at least two shelters outside of your area.
  24. 24. Keep a Ready kit in each family car.</li></li></ul><li>Shelter-in-place<br /><ul><li>Designate an interior room in your home or shelter.
  25. 25. Cover doors, windows, and vents with 2-4 mil. Thick plastic sheeting.
  26. 26. Pre-cut plastic sheeting several inches larger than opening you are covering.
  27. 27. Duct tape plastic at corners first, then on all edges.
  28. 28. Sheltering-in-Place is the best choice for most emergencies unless your home has been damaged or has a high probability of being damaged.</li></li></ul><li>MAKE A PLAN<br />7 pillars of preparedness<br />The 7 Pillars of Preparedness are the essential categories that every plan must consider to be effective at mitigating against an emergency’s hazards. The preparedness defined for each pillar must be addressed and accommodated.<br />
  29. 29. I<br />II<br />III<br />IV<br />V<br />VI<br />VII<br />MAKE A PLAN<br />7 pillars of preparedness<br />FOOD & WATER<br />SHELTER<br />HEALTH & SANITATION<br />COMMUNICATIONS<br />SECURITY<br />COMMUNITY<br />FAITH<br />
  30. 30. Food & Water<br />
  31. 31. Water Needs<br /><ul><li>A person can live just three days without water.
  32. 32. One Gallon of water should be available for each person/per day.
  33. 33. A person will consume 2 quarts of water per day.</li></ul>Other things to consider:<br /><ul><li>Needs vary – physical condition, health, age, and climate will change the amount of water a person needs to consume.
  34. 34. A medical emergency may require more water.
  35. 35. Identify where a natural source of water exists within no more than 1 mile of your home or shelter.
  36. 36. Learn how to treat water from outside sources to make it safe for consumption.
  37. 37. Don’t forget your pets.</li></li></ul><li>Water Storage<br /><ul><li>The safest method of water storage is to store commercially bottled water.
  38. 38. With bottled water, keep it in its original container and observe the expiration date.</li></ul>Other Storage methods<br /><ul><li>Rain barrels & Cisterns
  39. 39. Natural water source – river, stream, lake or pond.</li></ul>Sea water cannot be consumed without distillation and should never be consumed.<br />
  40. 40. Water Storage<br />
  41. 41. Making Water Safe<br />There are several 4 ways to make water safe<br /><ul><li>Heat
  42. 42. Chemicals
  43. 43. Filtration
  44. 44. Distillation</li></li></ul><li>Making Water Safe<br />HEAT<br /><ul><li>Boiling water is a time tested and one of the most effective methods for water decontamination. It is effective in killing 99.9% of all bacteria and fungus.
  45. 45. It only requires water and a consistent heat source.
  46. 46. To make water safe by boiling, it is only necessary to bring the water to a rolling boil. Boiling water for longer only wastes time, water, and energy.
  47. 47. Note: boiling water does not remove heavy metals or chemical contamination.</li></li></ul><li>Making Water Safe<br />Chemicals<br />Treating water with non-scented household bleach is another way to purify water.  The  amount of bleach to mix in water is 1/8 teaspoon of liquid bleach per 1 gallon of water.  Let stand for 15 minutes. If the water has a slight chlorinated smell it is safe to drink.<br />If after treating once, the water is still “dirty,” then treat again. If the water is not clear or you do not smell the scent of chlorine, then do not consume that water and locate another source of water.<br />Like boiling, bleach is effective at destroying 99.9% of viruses and bacteria, but does not remove heavy metals or chemicals from the water.<br />
  48. 48. Making Water Safe<br />Filtration<br />Filtration is the most effective method for purifying water from either a natural or man-made source. It eliminates all 99.9% of all viral and bacterial contaminates and it removes all heavy metals and harmful chemicals. Filtration is also much more expensive and require replacement filters to remain effective.<br />What are a filters advantages?<br /><ul><li>Highly Effective
  49. 49. Portable
  50. 50. Work quickly
  51. 51. Simple to use</li></ul>Cheaper is not better<br />
  52. 52. Making Water Safe<br />Distillation<br />Distillation is a proven method for removing microbes, but also heavy metals, salts, and most other chemicals from contaminated water.<br />Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses. The condensed vapor is free of all impurities and is safe to consume.<br />To Distill, Fill a pot half-way with water. Tie a cup onto the pot’s handle, so that the cup will hang right side up when the lid is upside down, and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips into the cup is distilled.<br />
  53. 53. Managing Water<br />Follow these 5 Water Rules:<br />Allow people to drink according to their needs.<br /><ul><li>A person needs is based on their physical activity, age and health.</li></ul>Never ration water unless ordered to do so.<br /><ul><li>Never drink less than 1 quart of water per day.</li></ul>Drink water that you to be safe first.<br /><ul><li>Do not drink suspicious water until it has been treated</li></ul>Do not drink carbonated beverages instead of water.<br /><ul><li>Carbonated beverages do not meet drinking-water standards.</li></ul>Turn off main water valves.<br /><ul><li>By shutting off the water valve to your house, you will eliminate the possibility of contaminated water infiltrating into your home.</li></li></ul><li>Food Facts<br /><ul><li>An individual can only live 2 weeks without food.
  54. 54. Every member of your family needs a minimum of 1200 calories per day to avoid malnutrition and additional health problems.
  55. 55. A personal engaged in more strenuous activities will need to consume more food to sustain their health.</li></li></ul><li>Food Basics<br /><ul><li>Avoid foods that make you thirsty. Low sodium foods are best.
  56. 56. Stock foods that do not require refrigeration.
  57. 57. Be sure to have a can opener on hand.
  58. 58. During an emergency consume foods in your refrigerator first, freezer second, and pantry third.
  59. 59. Be sure to store foods for anyone with special dietary needs, such as diabetics or infants.
  60. 60. Store foods you know you will eat.</li></li></ul><li>Managing Your Food Supply<br /><ul><li>Never eat foods from can that is swollen, dented, or corroded, even though the product may look safe to eat.
  61. 61. Do not eat any food that looks or smell abnormal.
  62. 62. Do not use powdered formulas with chemically treated water.
  63. 63. Always keep food in covered containers.
  64. 64. Discard any food that has been room temperature for more than 2 hours.
  65. 65. Use only pre-prepared canned baby formula for infants.
  66. 66. Note expiration dates and rotate accordingly.</li></li></ul><li>Preparing FOOD<br />During an emergency an alternative method of cooking may become necessary. Some of these include:<br /><ul><li>Charcoal grills (outdoor use only)
  67. 67. Propane powered camp stoves(outdoor use only)
  68. 68. Self-heating meals or Meals Ready To Eat (MRI)
  69. 69. Fireplace
  70. 70. Chaffing dish with sterno (indoors in well-ventilated area)
  71. 71. All canned foods can be consumed without heating.</li></li></ul><li>Shelter<br />
  72. 72. Shelter<br />In all but the most severe emergencies , your home offers the best shelter.<br /><ul><li>It is familiar and offers comfort
  73. 73. It can be stored with provisions
  74. 74. With proper planning, you can network with neighbors.</li></ul>Unless you are forced from your home by an imminent and life-threatening danger, never leave your home willingly.<br />
  75. 75. Shelter: Taking Stock<br />For anyone planning on remaining in their home during an emergency, it is imperative that any and all repairs be made before a emergency begins.<br />Inspect the following:<br /><ul><li>Roof – look for signs of leaking and repair
  76. 76. Foundation – look for any cracks or damage to your foundation
  77. 77. Windows – make sure all storm windows are closed and windows are locked
  78. 78. Doors – make sure all exterior doors have deadbolts and work properly
  79. 79. Pipes – ensure that pipes function properly and are not damaged</li></li></ul><li>Shelter: Shutting Off Utilities<br />Every person in your family, 12 years and older, must be able to confidently shut-off any and all of the following utilities:<br /><ul><li>Gas
  80. 80. Water
  81. 81. Electric </li></li></ul><li>Shelter: Water Shut-off<br />Family members should know how to shut off waterlines. Label the shut-off valve clearly; it’s the first valve in the line after it enters the house.<br />By shutting off water to your home or shelter, it will eliminate the possibility of contaminated water backing up into your home through the pipes and it will stop the flow of water if your pipes burst due to freezing temperatures.<br />
  82. 82. Shelter: Gas Shut-off<br />If you smell gas after an emergency or you are evacuating to a shelter<br /><ul><li>shut off the meter valve found at the first fitting on the supply pipe coming out of the ground.
  83. 83. Use a wrench to turn the valve either way until it is perpendicular to the pipe.
  84. 84. Keep a wrench attached to the gas meter with a wire. </li></ul>NEVER ATTEMPT TO TURN THE GAS BACK ON. CALL YOUR GAS COMPANY.<br />
  85. 85. Shelter: Electric Shut-off<br />Turn off single breakers first, then switch off the main breaker. To turn back on, switch the main breaker first, then the single breakers. On older panels, pull the main fuse blocks.<br />
  86. 86. Health & sanitation<br />
  87. 87. Health & Sanitation<br />Every emergency preparedness plan must consider health & sanitation as an important factor in enduring a person’s or family’s health during an emergency. During an emergency, municipal services may be disrupted due to power outages due to either a natural or man-made disaster.<br />Services that could be disrupted include:<br /><ul><li>Power
  88. 88. Water
  89. 89. Gas
  90. 90. Sewer & Waste disposal</li></ul>Loss of these services will impact you and your family’s health.<br />
  91. 91. Health: Planning Ahead<br /><ul><li>Any individual who requires any prescription medication must stock at least one month of that medicine for an emergency.
  92. 92. Any member of your family, including pets, who have special needs must be considered before an emergency occurs.
  93. 93. Every member of your family should become CPR / First Aid certified.
  94. 94. A first aid kit should be kept in the home, each family car, and at work.
  95. 95. Regular health check-ups should be kept to maintain your health. </li></li></ul><li>Sanitation<br />During an emergency local municipal services and utilities may be unavailable, including power, gas, water, sewer, and trash collection. It is important that during these periods that proper sanitation is maintained to avoid dangerous health hazards.<br />
  96. 96. Sanitation: <br />Dealing with Garbage:<br /><ul><li>If possible, separate recyclables from other garbage.
  97. 97. Paper products can also be separated to use as kindling for a fire.
  98. 98. Keep all garbage in closed containers and dispose outside. During long term disruptions, it may be necessary to bury garbage in pits.
  99. 99. Never allow garbage to accumulate inside, both for fire and sanitation reasons.</li></li></ul><li>Sanitation <br />Dealing with human waste<br />Human waste harbors deadly bacteria and viruses and must be disposed of properly.<br />If water and sewer services are disrupted, do not use your toilet. The waste water may backup into your house , creating a potentially dangerous health hazard.<br />The best solution is to shut-off your water, and collect waste in a plastic garbage bags. If services are not restored in a timely manner, human waste should be buried in a hole at least 3 feet deep.<br />
  100. 100. Communications<br />
  101. 101. Communications <br />The most important aspect of Communications is to ensure that everyone in your family knows the plan and has access to the plan at home, in the car, and at work/school.<br />YOU MUST PRACTICE THE PLAN.<br />
  102. 102. Communications <br />There are several aspects to successful communications during a crisis or emergency<br />Writea clear and concise plan so that each family member has a copy and can reference it in an emergency.<br /><ul><li>Where will you meet if you are separated?
  103. 103. What emergencies mean go and which mean to stay?</li></ul>Listento local civil authorities on an emergency radio to help assess the level of the crisis and the appropriate course of action.<br />Communicatea message of preparedness to your community.<br />
  104. 104. Communications <br />Ensuring consistent communications:<br /><ul><li>Cell phone communications will remain in effect during all but the most severe emergencies. They should be relied on first in an emergency.
  105. 105. FRS / GRMS radios have a limited range of anywhere from 8 to 30 miles. These radios do not require a license to operate.
  106. 106. Ham Radios offer the operator with long range communications. These units come in both mobile and stationary units. Ham Radios can be used to communicate worldwide. Operators must obtain a license to operate a Ham Radio.</li></li></ul><li>SECURITY<br />
  107. 107. Security <br /><ul><li>Security during an emergency must be considered as part of your emergency preparedness plan.
  108. 108. The average response time for police departments is 6 minutes; Fire departments across the nation average a response time of 5 minutes.
  109. 109. When a widespread emergency is active, response times increase as the demand for police and fire services increase and emergency personnel are allocated where they are needed most.</li></li></ul><li>Security <br />Security is more than just being able to defend yourself with a firearm. Security applies to every aspect of your plan and the other pillars of preparedness. Without considering this, your plan will fail and you will be placing you and your family at great risk.<br />
  110. 110. Security <br /><ul><li>If you chose to own a firearm, ensure that you exercise correct safety measures and that you learn how to properly use the weapon.
  111. 111. If you do not own a dog, get one from a local shelter. Dogs are more effective at deterring criminals than home alarm systems.
  112. 112. Always store ladders in secure location.
  113. 113. Always lock all windows and doors.
  114. 114. Never share how much supplies you have stored for an emergency.</li></li></ul><li>community<br />
  115. 115. Community <br />A strong, well-prepared neighborhood or community instills in the families that reside there the peace of mind that they are part of a network of people, resources and skill sets that are just minutes rather than hours away. <br />Where to start:<br /><ul><li>Your Neighborhood
  116. 116. Your Church
  117. 117. Your Workplace
  118. 118. Your Schools
  119. 119. Your Civic Groups</li></li></ul><li>Building Your Community <br />There are several resources to assist anyone trying to build a more prepared community. It is important to start with realistic expectations and help friends, neighbors and members in your community take steps toward preparedness.<br />Resources<br />Citizens Corps<br />CERT – Community Emergency Response Team<br />USAonWatch – Neighborhood Watch program<br />North Carolina Rangers’ Preparedness Seminars<br />American Red Cross<br />National Safety Council<br />
  120. 120. faith<br />
  121. 121. Faith <br /><ul><li>Studies show that a positive mental attitude directly relates to an individuals ability to cope and survive an emergency.
  122. 122. Faith has been shown to be directly related to a positive mental attitude.</li></li></ul><li>Faith <br />Faith goes beyond just have a belief in God. By preparing and addressing each of the pillars laid out here, it will allow you and your family to have faith and confidence in yourselves and in your community.<br />
  123. 123. Acquiring Skills <br />& Provisions<br />
  124. 124. CPR / FIRST AID<br />CPR / First Aid is the most important skill a person can learn before an emergency happens. Knowing what to do in the event of an injury will help keep you and the person injured calm.<br />Every member of your family, group, and community should become certified in this essential skill<br />Resources<br /><ul><li>American Red Cross
  125. 125. National Safety Council
  126. 126. American Heart Association</li></li></ul><li>Important Skills<br /><ul><li>First Aid / CPR
  127. 127. How to use a fire extinguisher
  128. 128. How to safely use a firearm
  129. 129. How to start a fire without a modern implement
  130. 130. How to shut-off your shelter’s utilities
  131. 131. How to Shelter-in-Place
  132. 132. How to use a FRS/GMRS radio
  133. 133. How to read a map and compass
  134. 134. How to properly use a knife/axe
  135. 135. How to treat/boil water
  136. 136. How to fish/hunt</li></li></ul><li>Essential Supplies To Stay<br /><ul><li>Food for 14 days of non-perishable foods
  137. 137. Water – 1 gal./day per family member for 14 days
  138. 138. First Aid Kit
  139. 139. Fire Extinguisher
  140. 140. Portable Radio
  141. 141. Flashlights (2)
  142. 142. Multi-tool
  143. 143. Work Gloves
  144. 144. Whistle
  145. 145. Waterproof matches
  146. 146. Electric lamps
  147. 147. Waterproof matches
  148. 148. Whistle
  149. 149. Rain Gear
  150. 150. Utility Wrench
  151. 151. Axe
  152. 152. Duct Tape
  153. 153. Plastic Sheeting – 2-4 mil
  154. 154. Large Trash bags (50)
  155. 155. Sharpening tool
  156. 156. Extra Clothing
  157. 157. Sunscreen
  158. 158. Work gloves
  159. 159. Work boots
  160. 160. Blankets
  161. 161. Prescription medications
  162. 162. Toilet Paper
  163. 163. Can Opener</li></li></ul><li>Essential Supplies To Go<br />A ready bag should be placed in each of your family cars. Each vehicle should have a bag with the following.<br /><ul><li>Food/Water for each family member for 5 days
  164. 164. First Aid Kit
  165. 165. Emergency blankets (1 for each family member)
  166. 166. Face respirator (1 for each family member)
  167. 167. Flashlight
  168. 168. Emergency Radio
  169. 169. Batteries for radio and flashlight (3 sets)
  170. 170. Work Gloves
  171. 171. Candles
  172. 172. Whistle
  173. 173. Rope
  174. 174. Small Tarp
  175. 175. Duct Tape
  176. 176. Change of clothes
  177. 177. Personal hygiene items
  178. 178. Cash or travelers checks
  179. 179. Copies of important documents</li></li></ul><li>PAY ATTENTION<br />
  180. 180. Pay Attention <br />By paying attention to the events and threats in our communities, state, nation, and world, you may be able to react more proactively to a threat. <br /><ul><li>Know the signs of the threats exist in your area.
  181. 181. Always update your plan when you acquire new information.
  182. 182. Stay informed on current events.
  183. 183. Get to know your neighbors.
  184. 184. Stay tuned to local media for emergency announcements</li></li></ul><li>
  185. 185. Natural disasters<br />Earthquakes<br />Extreme Heat<br />Floods<br />Hurricanes<br />Landslides<br />Thunderstorms<br />Tornados<br />Tsunamis<br />Volcanoes<br />Wildfires<br />Winter Storms<br />
  186. 186. HURRICANES<br />
  187. 187. HURRICANES: Facts<br /><ul><li>All Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas are subject to hurricanes
  188. 188. Hurricanes can cause catastrophic damage to coastlines and several hundred miles inland
  189. 189. Winds can exceed 155 miles per hour</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: Facts<br /><ul><li>Hurricanes can produce widespread torrential rains
  190. 190. Floods and flash flooding are often have deadly and destructive results
  191. 191. Excessive rain can trigger landslides or mud slides</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: TERMS<br /><ul><li>Tropical depression—an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms
  192. 192. Tropical storm—an organized system of strong thunderstorms
  193. 193. Hurricane—an intense tropical weather system
  194. 194. Storm surge—a dome of water pushed onshore by a hurricane
  195. 195. Storm tide—a combination of storm surge and normal tide</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: BEFORE THE STORM<br /><ul><li>Secure your property; install straps to secure your roof to the structure
  196. 196. Trim trees and shrubs around your home
  197. 197. Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts
  198. 198. Secure boats
  199. 199. Consider building a safe room</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: BEFORE THE STORM<br /><ul><li>Listen to radio or TV for information
  200. 200. Secure your home, close storm shutters, secure outdoor objects
  201. 201. Moor boats if time permits
  202. 202. Ensure a water supply for sanitary purposes</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: WHEN TO EVACUATE<br /><ul><li>If you are directed to by local authorities.*
  203. 203. Live in a mobile home, temporary structure, or high-rise building
  204. 204. Live on the coast, floodplain, or inland waterway
  205. 205. Feel you are in danger</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: shelter-in-place<br /><ul><li>Stay indoors, away from windows
  206. 206. Keep curtains and blinds closed
  207. 207. Seek shelter in a safe room
  208. 208. Absent a safe room, go to:
  209. 209. Small interior, first floor room
  210. 210. Closet or hallway</li></li></ul><li>HURRICANES: shelter-in-place<br /><ul><li>Turn off utilities and propane tanks
  211. 211. Avoid using the phone
  212. 212. Close all interior doors
  213. 213. Lie on the floor under a table or sturdy object</li></li></ul><li>
  214. 214. FLOOD FACTS<br /><ul><li>One of the most common hazards in the United States
  215. 215. Some floods develop slowly
  216. 216. Flash floods develop quickly
  217. 217. Risks are greater in low-lying areas, near water, or downstream from a dam</li></li></ul><li>FLOODS: The Terms<br /><ul><li>Flood/Flash flood watch—flooding is possible
  218. 218. Flood warning—flooding is occurring or will occur soon
  219. 219. Flash flood warning—a flash flood is occurring; seek higher ground</li></li></ul><li>Before the Flood<br /><ul><li>Buy flood insurance
  220. 220. Avoid building in a floodplain
  221. 221. Elevate furnace, water heater, and electric panel
  222. 222. Install check valves in sewer traps
  223. 223. Construct barriers
  224. 224. Seal basement walls</li></li></ul><li>After the Flood<br /><ul><li>Listen to radio or TV for information
  225. 225. Move immediately to high ground
  226. 226. Be aware of streams, drainage channels, and ravines
  227. 227. Do not walk through moving water
  228. 228. Do not drive into flooded areas</li></li></ul><li>After the Flood<br /><ul><li>Listen to radio or TV for information
  229. 229. Avoid floodwaters and moving water
  230. 230. Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded
  231. 231. Stay away from downed power lines</li></li></ul><li>After the Flood<br /><ul><li>Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe
  232. 232. Use caution when entering buildings
  233. 233. Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems
  234. 234. Clean and disinfect damaged property</li></li></ul><li>After the Flood<br /><ul><li>Do not use fresh food that has come in contact with flood waters.
  235. 235. Drink only water that has not been contaminated.
  236. 236. Do not operate electrical equipment in wet areas.
  237. 237. Use battery powered lanterns or flashlights. </li></li></ul><li>TORNADOS<br />
  238. 238. Tornados: The Facts<br /><ul><li>Nature’s most violent storms
  239. 239. Every state is at some risk
  240. 240. Tornadoes may strike quickly with little or no warning
  241. 241. They generally occur near the trailing edge of a thunderstorm</li></li></ul><li>Tornados: The terms<br /><ul><li>Tornado watch—tornadoes are possible; remain alert for approaching storms
  242. 242. Tornado warning—a tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar; take shelter</li></li></ul><li>Tornados: Before the Storm<br /><ul><li>Consider building a safe room.
  243. 243. Identify a small, interior room of your shelter.
  244. 244. Remove any dead or dying trees or limbs around your shelter.
  245. 245. Secure loose debris outside your shelter.
  246. 246. Be alert to changing weather conditions.
  247. 247. Listen to radio or TV for information.</li></li></ul><li>Tornados: Before the Storm<br /><ul><li>Look for approaching storms
  248. 248. Look for danger signs:
  249. 249. Dark, greenish sky
  250. 250. Large hail
  251. 251. Large, dark low-lying cloud
  252. 252. Loud roar</li></li></ul><li>Tornados: During the Storm<br /><ul><li>Go to a shelter
  253. 253. Immediately get out of a vehicle, trailer, or mobile home
  254. 254. If outside, lie flat in a ditch and cover your head.
  255. 255. Do not get under an overpass or bridge.
  256. 256. Never attempt to outrun a tornado.
  257. 257. Watch out for flying debris</li></li></ul><li>Tornados: after the Storm<br /><ul><li>Listen or watch local weather reports that the tornado warning has ended before leaving your shelter.
  258. 258. Flying debris and high winds may have damaged utility lines, so ensure there are no utility hazards before entering home.
  259. 259. Check your home’s structure for damage. If severe, do not enter and call 9-11.</li></li></ul><li>Winter Weather<br />
  260. 260. Winter weather: The Facts<br /><ul><li>Heavy snowfall and/or ice can immobilize an entire region
  261. 261. Winter storms can result in flooding, storm surge, closed highways, blocked roads, downed power lines, and hypothermia</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: The TERMS<br /><ul><li>Freezing rain—rain that freezes when it hits the ground
  262. 262. Sleet—rain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the ground
  263. 263. Winter storm watch—a winter storm is possible in your area
  264. 264. Winter storm warning—a winter storm is occurring or will soon occur</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: The TERMS<br /><ul><li>Blizzard warning—sustained winds and considerable amounts of snow for a period of three hours or longer
  265. 265. Frost/Freeze warning—below freezing temperatures expected
  266. 266. Wind chill advisory - This is issued for cold temperatures and winds, with wind chill temperatures computed to be -25 degrees or less for at least 3 hours.
  267. 267. Wind chill warning - This means life threatening cold with wind chill temperatures computed to be -40 degrees or less for at least 3 hours.</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: Before the storm<br /><ul><li>Add to your disaster supplies kit:
  268. 268. Rock salt to melt ice
  269. 269. Sand to improve traction
  270. 270. Snow shovels
  271. 271. Prepare to rely on alternate heating sources
  272. 272. Winterize your car</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: During the storm<br /><ul><li>Listen to radio or TV for information
  273. 273. Eat regularly and drink ample fluids
  274. 274. Avoid overexertion when shoveling snow</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: During the storm<br /><ul><li>Watch for signs of frostbite
  275. 275. Watch for signs of hypothermia
  276. 276. Conserve fuel
  277. 277. Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters
  278. 278. Drive only if absolutely necessary</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: IF You are Stranded<br /><ul><li>Always have a Ready Kit with you
  279. 279. Pull off the highway
  280. 280. Turn on hazard lights
  281. 281. Remain in your vehicle
  282. 282. Run the engine and heater ten minutes an hour
  283. 283. Exercise to maintain body heat</li></li></ul><li>Winter weather: IF You are Stranded<br /><ul><li>Take turns sleeping
  284. 284. Drink fluids
  285. 285. Conserve battery power
  286. 286. Turn on the inside light at night
  287. 287. If stranded in a remote area, mark large block letters in the snow (SOS or HELP)
  288. 288. Once the blizzard passes, proceed on foot if necessary</li></li></ul><li>
  289. 289.
  290. 290. Man-made disasters<br /><ul><li>Fire
  291. 291. Hazardous Material Incidents
  292. 292. Nuclear Power Incidents
  293. 293. Terrorism
  294. 294. Civil Unrest
  295. 295. Pandemic
  296. 296. Terrorism</li></li></ul><li>Pandemic<br />
  297. 297. Pandemic<br />
  298. 298. FIRE<br />
  299. 299. Fire: The Facts<br /><ul><li>More than 4,000 die and more than 25,000 are injured each year in fires
  300. 300. Many can be prevented
  301. 301. Property loss due to fires is estimated at $8.6 billion a year</li></li></ul><li>Fire: The Facts<br /><ul><li>Fire spreads quickly
  302. 302. Heat and smoke can be more dangerous than flames
  303. 303. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fire deaths</li></li></ul><li>Before the Fire<br /><ul><li>Install smoke alarms on every level of the home
  304. 304. Test and clean smoke alarms monthly
  305. 305. Replace batteries at least yearly</li></li></ul><li>Before the Fire<br /><ul><li>Review and practice escape routes with your family
  306. 306. Make sure windows open easily
  307. 307. Consider escape ladders
  308. 308. Teach family members to stay low to the floor
  309. 309. Clean out storage areas</li></li></ul><li>Before the Fire<br /><ul><li>Never use flammable liquids indoors
  310. 310. Store flammable liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated areas
  311. 311. Never smoke near flammable liquids
  312. 312. Discard materials soaked in flammable liquids</li></li></ul><li>Before the Fire<br /><ul><li>Ensure chimneys are properly insulated and maintained
  313. 313. Be careful when using alternative heating sources
  314. 314. Check on legality of kerosene heaters
  315. 315. Place heaters at least three feet from flammable materials
  316. 316. Use only the fuel designated for your unit
  317. 317. Store ashes in a metal container
  318. 318. Keep open flame away from walls, furniture, drapery</li></li></ul><li>Before the Fire<br /><ul><li>Keep a screen in front of the fireplace
  319. 319. Have heating units inspected and cleaned annually
  320. 320. Inspect all household electrical wires and cords.
  321. 321. Install A-B-C fire extinguishers and learn how to use them
  322. 322. Consider an automatic fire sprinkler system
  323. 323. Schedule a fire safety inspection</li></li></ul><li>During A Fire<br /><ul><li>If your clothes catch on fire:
  324. 324. Stop, drop, and roll
  325. 325. To escape a fire:
  326. 326. Check closed doors for heat before opening
  327. 327. Crawl low under smoke to the exit
  328. 328. Close doors behind you
  329. 329. Once out—stay out—do not reenter
  330. 330. Call 9-1-1</li></li></ul><li>After A Fire<br /><ul><li>Cool and cover burns; call 9-1-1
  331. 331. Do not reenter a building if you detect heat or smoke
  332. 332. Contact your landlord if you are a tenant
  333. 333. Do not open a safe or strong box</li></li></ul><li>Technological Hazards<br />
  334. 334. Technological Hazards<br /><ul><li>Hazardous Materials
  335. 335. Household Chemicals
  336. 336. Nuclear Power Plants</li></li></ul><li>Chemical Hazards<br /><ul><li>Chemicals are found everywhere but can be hazardous if used or released improperly
  337. 337. Hazards can occur during production, storage, transportation, use, or disposal</li></li></ul><li>Hazardous Materials<br />Sources include:<br /><ul><li>Chemical manufacturers
  338. 338. Service stations
  339. 339. Hospitals
  340. 340. Hazardous materials waste sites
  341. 341. Household Chemicals</li></li></ul><li>Nuclear Power Incidents<br /><ul><li>Nuclear power plants operate in most states
  342. 342. Facilities are monitored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
  343. 343. An accident could result in dangerous levels of radiation
  344. 344. If an accident occurs, authorities would activate warning systems</li></li></ul><li>Minimizing Exposure<br /><ul><li>Distance
  345. 345. Shielding
  346. 346. Time</li></li></ul><li>Know the Terms<br /><ul><li>Notification of an unusual event—no radiation, no action
  347. 347. Alert—small amounts of radiation, no action
  348. 348. Site area emergency—listen to your radio for safety information
  349. 349. General emergency—radiation could leak, listen to your radio and follow instructions</li></li></ul><li>Nuclear Power Incidents<br />If you are told to remain indoors:<br /><ul><li>Turn off the air conditioner, ventilation fans, and furnace
  350. 350. Go to a basement or underground room
  351. 351. Do not use the phone unless absolutely necessary</li></li></ul><li>Nuclear Power Incidents<br />If you suspect you have been exposed to radiation:<br /><ul><li>Change clothes and shoes; put exposed clothing in a plastic bag and seal it
  352. 352. Take a thorough shower
  353. 353. Seek medical attention once the all clear has been sounded.</li></li></ul><li>TERRORISM<br />The unlawful use of force or violence committed by a group or individual against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.<br />--U.S. Department of Justice<br />
  354. 354. Terrorism<br />The unlawful use of force or violence committed by a group or individual against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.<br />--U.S. Department of Justice<br />
  355. 355. Terrorists' Goals<br /><ul><li>Mass causalities
  356. 356. Loss of critical resources
  357. 357. Disruption of vital services
  358. 358. Disruption of the economy
  359. 359. Individual and mass panic and fear</li></li></ul><li>Terrorism: The Threats<br /><ul><li>Biological Attacks
  360. 360. Chemical Attacks
  361. 361. Radiological Dispersion Device
  362. 362. Explosives
  363. 363. Nuclear Blast</li></li></ul><li>Biological Attack<br />Types of Agents<br /><ul><li>Bacteria
  364. 364. Viruses
  365. 365. Toxins</li></ul> Delivery methods:<br /><ul><li>Aerosols
  366. 366. Animals
  367. 367. Food and water
  368. 368. Person-to-person</li></li></ul><li>Chemical Attack<br />Types of Chemical Weapons:<br />Mustard Gas<br />Saran <br />Cyanide<br />Chlorine <br />Tabun<br />Dispersal Method:<br />Aerosol<br />
  369. 369. Chem-Bio Attack: Before<br /><ul><li>Ensure that you have a shelter in-place kit for your home or shelter
  370. 370. Make sure to pre-cut shelter plastic to fit over all windows, doors, and vents
  371. 371. Select a inner room as your shelter-in-place room.</li></li></ul><li>Chem-Bio Attack: During<br />In your home of office building:<br /><ul><li>Close doors and windows; turn off ventilation
  372. 372. Seek shelter in an internal room; take disaster supplies
  373. 373. Seal the room
  374. 374. Listen to radio for instructions</li></li></ul><li>Chem-Bio Attack: During<br />If you are in an unprotected area:<br /><ul><li>Move away immediately
  375. 375. Get upwind of contaminated area
  376. 376. Find shelter</li></li></ul><li>Chem-Bio Attack: During<br />If you are exposed to a biological or chemical agent:<br /><ul><li>Remove and bag your clothes
  377. 377. Follow decontamination instructions
  378. 378. Wash with soap and water
  379. 379. Seek medical assistance</li></li></ul><li>Chem-Bio Attack: After<br /><ul><li>Follow decontamination guidelines
  380. 380. Do not leave shelter until authorities announce it is safe
  381. 381. Seek medical assistance</li></li></ul><li>Decontamination Guidelines<br /><ul><li>Use caution when helping others
  382. 382. Remove all clothing
  383. 383. Flush eyes with water
  384. 384. Wash face and hair
  385. 385. Change into uncontaminated clothes
  386. 386. Proceed to a medical facility</li></li></ul><li>Radiological Dispersion Device<br />RDD<br />
  387. 387. Radiological Dispersion Device<br /><ul><li>Often referred to as a “dirty bomb”
  388. 388. Combines a conventional device—such as a bomb—with radioactive material (Alpha & Beta Radiation)
  389. 389. Designed to scatter dangerous and sub-lethal amounts of radioactive material</li></li></ul><li>Radiological Dispersion Device<br />If outdoors:<br /><ul><li>Seek shelter indoors
  390. 390. Move upwind if shelter is not available
  391. 391. Listen for official instructions and follow directions</li></li></ul><li>Radiological Dispersion Device<br />If indoors:<br /><ul><li>Time permitting, close windows, vents, fireplace dampers, exhaust fans, and clothes dryer vents
  392. 392. Seal windows and external doors
  393. 393. Listen for official instructions</li></li></ul><li>Radiological Dispersion Device<br /><ul><li>Do not consume water from a natural source or eat any produce from a garden.
  394. 394. Listen to the radio to determine when it is safe to leave your shelter
  395. 395. Stay away from damaged areas</li>

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