Plagiarism
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Plagiarism, definition, forms, reasons, sources, detection and how to avoid

Plagiarism, definition, forms, reasons, sources, detection and how to avoid

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  • 1. Document provided by Turnitin.com and Research Resources. Turnitin allows free distribution and non-profit use of this document in educational settings. www.plagairism.org Plagiarism Professor Tarek Tawfik Amin Public Health Cairo University amin55@myway.com http://www.joycevalenza.com/
  • 2. Definition:Definition: Plagiarism viewed ascopying another’swork, or borrowing someone else’soriginal ideas. But termslike“copying” and “borrowing” can disguisetheseriousnessof theoffense: According to theMerriam-Webster On Line Dictio nary, to “plagiarize” means o To steal and passoff (ideasor wordsof others) asone'sown o To use(other'sproduction) without crediting thesource o To commit literary theft o To present asnew and original an ideaor product derived from an existing source. Plagiarism isan act of fraud. It involvesboth stealingsomeone else’swork and lyingabout it afterward. www.plagiarism.o rg
  • 3. But can words and ideas really be stolen? But can words and ideas really be stolen? In theU.Sand many other countries, the expression of original ideasisconsidered intellectual property, and isprotected by copyright laws, just likeoriginal inventions. Almost all formsof expression fall under copyright protection aslong asthey are recorded in somemedia(such asabook or acomputer file). www.plagiarism.org
  • 4. Copyright lawsCopyright laws • Copyright lawsexist to protect our intellectual property. • It isillegal to reproducesomeoneelse’sexpression of ideasor information without permission (includes music, images, written words, video, and avariety of other media). • At onetime, awork wasonly protected by copyright if it included acopyright trademark (the© symbol). According to lawsestablished in 1989, however, works arenow copyright protected with or without the inclusion of thissymbol. • Anyonewho reproducescopyrighted material improperly can beprosecuted in acourt of law.
  • 5. Copyright lawsCopyright laws Are all published works copyrighted? Actually, no. TheCopyright Act only protectsworksthat expressoriginal ideasor information. You could borrow liberally from thefollowing without fear of plagiarism: 1- Compilationsof readily availableinformation, such as thephonebook 2- Workspublished by governments 3- Factsthat arenot theresult of original research (carrots contain Vitamin A) 4- Worksin thepublic domain (provided you cite properly)
  • 6. Public domainPublic domain What is the “public domain?” • Worksthat areno longer protected by copyright, or never havebeen, areconsidered “public domain.” This meansthat you may freely borrow material from these workswithout fear of plagiarism, provided you make proper attributions. How do Iknow if something is public domain or not? • In general, anything published morethan 75 yearsago isnow in thepublic domain. Workspublished after 1978 areprotected for thelifetimeof theauthor plus70 years.
  • 7. All of the following are considered plagiarism All of the following are considered plagiarism • Turning in someoneelse’swork asyour own • Copying wordsor ideasfrom someoneelse without giving credit • Failing to put aquotation in quotation marks • Giving incorrect information about thesource of aquotation • Changing wordsbut copying thesentence structureof asourcewithout giving credit • Copying so many wordsor ideasfrom asource that it makesup themajority of your work, whether you givecredit or not. www.turnitin.co m
  • 8. How serious is the problem?How serious is the problem? “A study of almost 4,500 studentsat 25 schools, suggestscheating is. . . asignificant problem in high school - 74% of therespondentsadmitted to oneor moreinstancesof serioustest cheating and 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Overhalf of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet.” Based on theresearch of Donald L. McCabe, RutgersUniversity Source: “CIA Research.” Center for Academic Integrity, DukeUniversity, 2003 <http://academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp>.
  • 9. Two categories of plagiarismTwo categories of plagiarism • Intentional • Copying afriend’swork • Buying or borrowing papers • Cutting and pasting blocksof text from electronic sources without documenting • Media “borrowing”without documentation • Web publishing without permissionsof creators • Unintentional • Carelessparaphrasing • Poor documentation • Quoting excessively • Failureto useyour own “voice”
  • 10. ExcusesExcuses It’s okay if I don’t get caught! I was too busy to write that paper! (Job, big game, too much homework!) My teachers expect too much! I’ve got to get into ??? U.! My parents expect “A”s! This assignment was BORING! Everyone does it!
  • 11. Types of PlagiarismTypes of Plagiarism I. Sourcesnot cited: “TheGhost Writer” : Thewriter turnsin another’swork, word-for-word, ashisor her own. “ThePhotocopy”: copiessignificant portionsof text straight from a single source, without alteration. “ThePotluck Paper”: disguiseplagiarism by copying from several different sources, tweaking thesentences to make them fit together whileretaining most of theoriginal phrasing. “ThePoor Disguise” : Although retained theessential content of thesource, heor shehas altered thepaper’sappearance slightly by changing key wordsand phrases. “TheLabor of Laziness” : Paraphrase most of thepaper from other sourcesand makeit all fit together, instead of spending thesameeffort on original work. “TheSelf-Stealer”: “borrows” generously from hisor her previouswork, violating policiesconcerning theexpectation of originality.
  • 12. Types of PlagiarismTypes of Plagiarism II. SourcesCited (but still plagiarized!) “TheForgotten Footnote”: Mentionsan author’snamefor a source, but neglectsto include specific information on the location of thematerial referenced. “TheMisinformer”: Providing inaccurate information regarding thesources, making it impossibleto find them. “TheToo-Perfect Paraphrase”: Properly citesasource, but neglectsto put in quotation marks text that hasbeen copied word-for- word, or closeto it. “TheResourceful Citer”: Thewriter properly citesall sources, paraphrasing and using quotationsappropriately. The catch? Thepaper contains almost no original work! “ThePerfect Crime”: It doesn’t exist.
  • 13. Examples of plagiarismExamples of plagiarism Original SourceMaterial: Ibrahim, S. A. (2009). Health inequities: A global concern. American Journal of Public Health 99 (7): p. 7. • Furthermore, in reacting to the global economic downturn, many nations, including the wealthy ones, are downsizing their commitments to health and social expenditures. History teaches us that in times like these, we often balance the books on the backs of the poor, the disenfranchised, and the minorities. But we need a new vision. It is imperative that we use the current crisis as an opportunity to reshape the global community. Everywhere in the world, the engine of economic prosperity runs on human capital and innovation, and nothing impacts human capital and innovation more than health. A fatherlost to AIDS in South Africa represent a lost opportunity to provide forthe future of a family. A son ordaughterlost to tuberculosis in India orChina represents a lost opportunity to raise the next computergenius whose creativity we may need to achieve better world connectivity. An African-American child in innercity Chicago lost to crime or imprisonment represents a lost opportunity to develop the next visionary leader. Student Version A: Plagiarism – Near Verbatim Text with No Attribution Many nationsaredownsizing their commitmentsto health and social expenditures. A new vision is needed. Wemust employ thecurrent crisisto reshapetheglobal community. Acrosstheworld, economic prosperity runson human capital and innovation, and nothing affectshuman capital and innovation morethan health. A child lost to tuberculosisin Indiaor Chinaisa lost opportunity to raisethenext mathematical geniuswhosecreativity wemay need to reach improved world connectivity. An African- American child in inner city Los Angeleslost to crimeor imprisonment isalost opportunity to develop thenext visionary leader.
  • 14. Examples of plagiarismExamples of plagiarism Original SourceMaterial: Ibrahim, S. A. (2009). Health inequities: A global concern. American Journal of Public Health 99 (7): p. 7. • Furthermore, in reacting to the global economic downturn, many nations, including the wealthy ones, are downsizing their commitments to health and social expenditures. History teaches us that in times like these, we often balance the books on the backs of the poor, the disenfranchised, and the minorities. But we need a new vision. It is imperative that we use the current crisis as an opportunity to reshape the global community. Everywhere in the world, the engine of economic prosperity runs on human capital and innovation, and nothing impacts human capital and innovation more than health. A fatherlost to AIDS in South Africa represent a lost opportunity to provide forthe future of a family. A son ordaughterlost to tuberculosis in India orChina represents a lost opportunity to raise the next computergenius whose creativity we may need to achieve better world connectivity. An African-American child in innercity Chicago lost to crime or imprisonment represents a lost opportunity to develop the next visionary leader. Student Version B: Plagiarism – Mere Cosmetic Changes In responding to theglobal economic recession, many countries, including therich ones, arelesscommitted to spending money on health and social concerns. Asthehistory booksteach us, wefrequently balancethebooks on thebacksof theminoritiesand the impoverished. A new vision is necessary. It isimperativethat we usethecurrent crisisasan opportunity to restructurethe international community. Health has thestrongest impact than anything elseupon innovation and human capital. For example, afather in Africawho diesfrom AIDS translatesinto losing achancefor providing for hisfuturefamily; a child who diesfrom starvation in Indiaor Viet Nam translatesinto losing achancefor thenext genius scientist (Ibrahim, 2009). www.cornell.edu.us
  • 15. Examples of plagiarismExamples of plagiarism Original SourceMaterial: Ibrahim, S. A. (2009). Health inequities: A global concern. American Journal of Public Health 99 (7): p. 7. • Furthermore, in reacting to the global economic downturn, many nations, including the wealthy ones, are downsizing their commitments to health and social expenditures. History teaches us that in times like these, we often balance the books on the backs of the poor, the disenfranchised, and the minorities. But we need a new vision. It is imperative that we use the current crisis as an opportunity to reshape the global community. Everywhere in the world, the engine of economic prosperity runs on human capital and innovation, and nothing impacts human capital and innovation more than health. A fatherlost to AIDS in South Africa represent a lost opportunity to provide forthe future of a family. A son ordaughterlost to tuberculosis in India orChina represents a lost opportunity to raise the next computergenius whose creativity we may need to achieve better world connectivity. An African-American child in innercity Chicago lost to crime or imprisonment represents a lost opportunity to develop the next visionary leader. Student Version C: Acceptable AsIbrahim (2009) notes, although countriesmay spend lesson health and social concerns, given thecurrent economic climate, wemust “usethecurrent crisisasan opportunity to reshapethe global community” (p. 7). Deathsdueto such health and social issuesasHIV, tuberculosis, or starvation, may deprivecountries- developed or undeveloped - from futurefamily providers, political or social leaders, or scientific geniuses(Ibrahim, 2009).
  • 16. Plagiarism and academic integrityPlagiarism and academic integrity • When you copy you cheat yourself and limit your own learning. • Theconsequencesarenot worth therisks! • It isonly right to givecredit to authors whoseideasyou use • Citing givesauthority to theinformation you present • Citing makesit possiblefor your readers to locateyour source • Education isnot an “usvs. them” game! It’sabout learning to learn! • Cheating isunethical behavior Is your academic reputation valuable to you? JoyceValenza
  • 17. Real life consequences:Real life consequences: • Damaged thereputation of two prominent historians, Stephen Ambroseand DorisKearnsGoodwin, • Kearnsleft television position and stepped down asPulitzer Prizejudgefor “lifting” 50 passagesfor her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (Lewis) • Senator Joseph Biden dropped his1987 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. (Sabato) • Copied in law school and borrowed from campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy • Boston Globejournalist MikeBarnicleforced to resign for plagiarism in hiscolumns (“Boston Columnist . . .”) • Scandal of Asim Kuraj in Croatia: Professor of Obg/yn • CNNArticle AP. 26 No v. 2001 • Channel OneArticleAP. 27 Nov. 2002 Joyce Valenza
  • 18. Consequences (cont’d)Consequences (cont’d) • New Yo rk Times senior reporter Jayson Blair forced to resign after being accused of plagiarism and fraud. • “Thenewspaper said at least 36 of the73 articleshehad written had problemswith accuracy, calling thedeception a"low point" in thenewspaper'shistory.” “New York TimesExposesFraud of Own Reporter.” ABCNews Online. 12 May, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/newshour_index.html Joyce Valenza
  • 19. What are the punishments forplagiarism?What are the punishments forplagiarism? Aswith any wrongdoing, thedegreeof intent and thenatureof theoffense determineitsstatus. In an academic setting, it ismost often handled by theindividual instructorsand theacademic institution involved. If plagiarism involvesmoney, prizes, or job placement, it constitutesacrime punishablein court.
  • 20. PunishmentsPunishments I-Academic Punishments • Most collegesand universitieshavezero tolerancefor plagiarists. • You arelesslikely to betreated with any leniency than if you plagiarized copyrighted material. • A plagiarized paper almost alwaysresultsin failurefor theassignment, frequently in failure for thecourse, and sometimesin expulsion. www.turnitin.com
  • 21. PunishmentsPunishments II- LegalPunishments • Most casesof plagiarism areconsidered misdemeanors, punishableby finesof anywhere between $100 and $50,000 – and up to oneyear in jail. • Also beconsidered afelony. For example, if a plagiarist copiesand earnsmorethan $2,500 from copyrighted material, he/shemay faceup to $250,000 in finesand up to ten yearsin jail. III- Institutio nalPunishments • Most corporationsand institutionswill not tolerateany form of plagiarism. Peoplehavelost their jobsor been denied positionsasaresult of plagiarism.
  • 22. Internet and PlagiarismInternet and Plagiarism 1- TheInternet now makesit easy to find thousandsof relevant sourcesin seconds, and in thespaceof afew minutesplagiaristscan find, copy, and pastetogether an entireterm paper or essay. 2- Theonlinepaper mills(cheat sites). Homeworks, assignments, projectsand paper-based solutionsareall readily availableon paying somefees.
  • 23. Document provided by Turnitin.com and Research Resources. Turnitin allows free distribution and non-profit use of this document in educational settings. www.plagairism.org Plagiarism checkers http://www.dustball.com/cs/plagiarism.checker/ http://www.plagiarismchecker.com/ http://plagiarisma.net/ http://www.articlechecker.com/ http://www.academicplagiarism.com/
  • 24. Avoiding plagiarismAvoiding plagiarism 1- Citation 2- Quotation 3- Paraphrasing 4- Summarizing
  • 25. 1- Citation1- Citation A “citation” istheway you tell readersthat certain material in your work camefrom another source. It givesyour readerstheinformation necessary to find that sourceagain, including: • Information about theauthor • Thetitleof thework • Thenameand location of thepublisher • Thedateyour copy waspublished • Thepagenumbersof thematerial you areborrowing
  • 26. CitationCitation Why should Icite sources? • Giving credit to theoriginal author by citing sourcesistheonly way to useother people’swork without plagiarizing. But thereareanumber of other reasonsto citesources: • Citationsarehelpful to find out moreabout your ideasand where they camefrom. • Not all sourcesaregood or right – your own ideasmay often be moreaccurateor interesting than thoseof your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking therap for someoneelse’sbad ideas. • Showstheamount of research you’vedone. • Citing sourcesstrengthensyour work by lending outsidesupport to your ideas.
  • 27. Citation examplesCitation examples Saudi Arabiahaswitnessed enormouseconomic advancement in therecent decades. Thistransition haspromoted theadoption of westernized dietary habitsand sedentarism with considerablenegativeimpact on community health. Thesechangesarethought to beimportant contributorsfor recent epidemic of non-communicablediseasesand their complications.1,2 A seriesof studiesnoted that cigarettesmoking among youth isacomplex behavior with several identifiabledeterminantsincluding: interpersonal factors(such asfamily and peer influence), intrapersonal factors(self- esteem), individual motivational and attitudinal determinantsaswell as cultural settings(Goddard 1990; O’Loughlin et al. 1998; Kandel et al. 2007). Go ddard, E. (1 990). Why children start smo king? Office o f po pulatio n census and surveys (so cial survey divisio n). Lo ndo n: HMSO 1. Alwan A. Noncommunicablediseases: amajor challengeto public health in theRegion. East Mediterr Health J. 1997;3:6–16. 2. Al-NozhaM, Arafah M, Al-Mazrou Y, et al. Coronary artery diseasein Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2004;5:1165–1171.
  • 28. 2- Quoting2- Quoting Taking theexact wordsfrom an original sourceis called quoting. You should quotematerial when you believethe way theoriginal author expressesan ideaisthe most effectivemeansof communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an ideafrom an author, but do not need hisor her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting.
  • 29. QuotingQuoting Quotations are the exact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word forword. Quotations must be cited! Use quo tatio ns when: • You want to add thepower of an author’swordsto support your argument • You want to disagreewith an author’sargument • You want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages • You arecomparing and contrasting specific pointsof view • You want to notetheimportant research that precedesyour own Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
  • 30. ExamplesExamples For example, let’ssay you want to quotefrom the following passagein an essay called “United Shareholdersof America,” by Jacob Weisberg: “ Thecitizen-investor serveshisfellow citizensbadly by hisinclination to withdraw from thecommunity. He tendsto servehimself badly aswell. Hedoesso by focusing hispursuit of happinesson something that very seldom makespeoplehappy in theway they expect it to.”
  • 31. Examples of quotingExamples of quoting In hisessay, “United Shareholdersof America,” Jacob Weisberg insiststhat “The citizen-investor serveshisfellow citizensbadly by hisinclination to withdraw from the community. Hetendsto servehimself badly. . . by focusing hispursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makespeople happy in theway they expect it to.”
  • 32. Using FootnotesUsing Footnotes Footnotesarenotesplaced at thebottom of apage. They citereferencesor comment on adesignated part of the text aboveit. This is an illustration of a footnote.1 The number “1” at the end of the sentence corresponds to the note below. See how it fits in the body of the text? 1 At the bottom of the page you can insert your comments about the sentence preceding the footnote.
  • 33. 3-Paraphrasing3-Paraphrasing A paraphraseisarestatement in yourown words of someoneelse’s ideas. Changing afew wordsof the original sentencesdoesNOT makeyour writing a legitimateparaphrase. You must changeboththewords and thesentence structure of theoriginal, without changing the content. Paraphrased passagesstill require citationbecausethe ideascamefrom another source, even though you are putting them in your own words.
  • 34. ParaphrasingParaphrasing If I change a few words, I’m okay, right? Wrong! Paraphrasingoriginal ideas withoutdocumenting your source,is plagiarism too! JoyceValenza
  • 35. ParaphrasingParaphrasing Paraphrasewhen: • You plan to useinformation on your note cardsand wish to avoid plagiarizing • You want to avoid overusing quotations • You want to useyour own voiceto present information Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
  • 36. 4-Summarizing4-Summarizing • Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) of one orseveral writers into yourown words, including only the main point(s). • Summaries are significantly shorterthan the original and take a broad overview of the source material. • It is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to theiroriginal sources. Summarizewhen: • You want to establish background or offer an overview of atopic • You want to describeknowledge(from several sources) about atopic • You want to determinethemain ideasof asinglesource Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
  • 37. Preventing plagiarism in researchPreventing plagiarism in research In aresearch paper, you haveto comeup with your own original ideaswhileat thesametimemaking reference to work that’salready been doneby others. - But how can you tell wheretheir ideasend and your own begin? - What’stheproper way to integratesourcesin your paper? - If you changesomeof what an author said, do you still haveto citethat person? Confusion about theanswersto thesequestionsoften leadsto plagiarism. www.turnitin.com
  • 38. Preventing plagiarismPreventing plagiarism  Consult yourinstructor  Plan yourpaper  Take Effective Notes  When in doubt, cite sources  Make it clearwho said what  Know how to Paraphrase  Evaluate YourSources
  • 39. Works CitedWorks Cited • “Boston Columnist ResignsAmid New Plagiarism Charges.” CNN.co m 19 Aug. 1998 3 March 2003 <http://www.cnn.com/US/9808/19/barnicle/> • Fain, Margaret. “Internet Paper Mills.” Kimbal Library. 12 Feb. 2003. <http://www.coastal.edu/library/mills2.htm> • Lathrop, Ann and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Englewood, CO: LibrariesUnlimited, 2000. • Lewis, Mark. “DorisKearnsGoodwin And TheCredibility Gap.” Fo rbes.co m 2 Feb. 2002. < http://www.forbes.com/2002/02/27/0227goodwin.html> • “New York TimesExposesFraud of own Reporter.” ABC NewsOnline. 12 May, 2003. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/newshour_index.html> • Sabato, Larry J. “Joseph Biden'sPlagiarism; Michael Dukakis's'Attack Video' – 1988.” Washingto n Po st Online . 1998. 3 March 2002. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/politics/special/clinton/frenzy/biden.htm>
  • 40. Thank youThank you