Effective search of bibliographic databases

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  • 1. E ffective search of bibliographic . databases Dr Tarek Amin Professor of Public Health Cairo University amin55@myway.com
  • 2. Objectives Orienting the audience of the model for- 1 information searching using medical . bibliographic databases Identify the appropriateness of different- 2 medical databases Orienting the audience about the effective- 3 . strategy for searching bibliographic databases
  • 3. Introduction/rationale o o o o The rapid increase in medical information poses a challenge for keeping up with the latest developments in the field. Information searches can be difficult without a basic knowledge of the way information is organized and indexed. In preparing scientific studies and in making clinical decisions, the key issue is to effectively scrutinize previous literature. That is why familiarity with medical information sources and the ability to use them effectively is important (1) .Go re G. Se arching the me dical lite rature . I Pre v 20 0 3 Jun; 9 (2): 1 0 3– 1 0 4 nj
  • 4. .(Introduction (cont o Estimated that 20,000-30,000 journals published on medicine and health. o Printed journals are being increasingly replaced by e-journals o The amount of medical information is doubling every 5 years .M x D. We lco me to A atto rchive s CM A O to laryng o l He ad N ck Surg 20 0 0 ; 1 29 (7 ): 9 1 4 E. rch e
  • 5. The information search process o o o o Medicine is now a multidisciplinary Overwhelming bibliographic databases with advanced technology. Hard to find the specific and relevant information Information search is seldom a simple one-way process. Lِo hِne n J e tal. Ag uide fo r me dical se arch. I J Circumpo lar He alth 20 0 9 ; 6 8 (4): 39 4-40 4 nt
  • 6. Effective and relevant information The experience of the : searcher , Knowledge of sources, SystemsSearch language andUse of key words- : Databases .No. of journalsQuality of indexingLimitations in content.description
  • 7. .Information search model Definition of research problem and question formulation Choice of databases: Factors affecting the choice: - Databases available - Up-to-date information on the database - Coverage in terms of time and content- Database’ s indexing practices Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO and EMBASE F ormulation of search strategy - Key concepts, relationships between concepts - Free word searches and thesaurus - Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) - Search limits (e.g. ,year, publication type) Conducting the search and E valuation - Search terms are entered - Assessing relevance of the search and the results - Possible decision-making in case of clinical problem-solving - A reformulation of a search when needed M nald S, Taylo r L, A cDo dams C. Se arching the rig ht database : a co mpariso n o f fo ur database s fo r psychiatry jo urnals. He alth Libr Re v 1 9 9 9 ; 1 6 (1 3): 1 51 – 1 56
  • 8. Defining the research problem and- 1 .formulating the questions      What is the exact topic? What purpose will the information play? Which issues are included and/or excluded? What is essential information and what is already known on the topic? Is the needed information general or scientific?
  • 9. Defining the research problem and- 1 .formulating the questions     Background reading is essential Make a plan Quick search is important to explore: – terms, - concepts – keywords The PICO model: P patient I Intervention C control O outcome
  • 10. Choice of databases- 2   Bibliographic databases are extensive compilations of references and documents. Re fe re nce is the information included in the document, such as information on authors, abstract, journal title and year of publication Many bibliographic databases include a link to the full text. (7).  Corrall C, Wyer P, Zick L, Bockrath C. How to find evidence when you need it, part 1: databases, search programs, and strategies. Ann Emerg Med 2002;39 (3):302 –306.
  • 11. :In searching medical bibliography Multiple (more than one databases should be considered) The extent of database coverage should be considered.  Different databases use different keyword systems and different levels when indexing material.  A thesaurus is affected when there is rapid development in a field and recently introduced terms and concepts in the literature are not included in the vocabulary quickly enough (nanotech.). Indexing refers to a description of documents using certain rules, vocabularies and key words. Thesaurus is a special vocabulary where the relations between terms are expressed in a standardized manner.
  • 12. Key medical bibliographic databases for search CINAH L E lsevier ScienceDirect E B M ASE (Excerpta medica) L ACS IL M edline (Ovid) Nursing and allied health sciences - About 1.5 million references to articles, congress publications and academic dissertations since 1982. - About half of the references are found in the PubMed database. Maintained by Elsevier B.V. containing bibliographic data and full texts. - About 6.75 million articles up to 1995 and 2.75 million articles from 1994 onwards. - Covers 25% of full texts and bibliographic data in science, technology and medicine in the world Biomedical and pharmacological Database produced by Elsevier B.V. - Over 11 million records from 5,000 journals from 1974 onwards. - More than 500,000 references and abstracts are added to the database each year. Open-access health science database of BIREME Systems in Spanish, Portuguese and English. - About150,000 records, such as books, congress and conference publications, and articles from 670 well-known medical journals . Bibliographic database published by Ovid Technologies. - About 13 million references on medicine and related fields from 4,800 journals since1966. - An increasing number of references contain a link to freely available full text
  • 13. Key medical bibliographic databases for search PsycINF O P SYNDE X P ubM ed Scopus W of eb Science - A bibliographic Psychological database provided by EBSCO Publishing. - 2.3 million references and abstracts from year 1887. - References from sources such as articles, books and academic dissertations in all fields related to psychology. - A bibliographic psychological database from the German speaking countries. - All areas of psychology and related behavioral and social sciences from 1977, audiovisual media from 1932, and tests from 1945. - A free service of the U.S. National Library on Medicine through which also Medline is available. - About 21 million references from the 1950s onwards. - Includes new references that are not yet indexed in Medline. - Links to full text - Bibliographic database of Elsevier B.V. - About 27 million abstracts, 230 million references, 200 million scientific wwwpages, over 12,850 journals, 535 of which are OA journals. - Covers the Medline (Ovid) database, including full text links when applicable. Bibliographic database of Thomson Reuters. - Databases accessible from 1986 on: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Science Citation Index, Arts & Humanities - 850,000 references including links to full texts when applicable.
  • 14. Access to databases  Bibliographic databases are commercial products, which is why not all databases are licensed by individual research organizations.
  • 15. .Freely accessed bibliographic databases       PubMed www.pubmed.gov Dire cto ry o f Ope n A ss J urnals www.doaj.org cce o PubMed Central www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov . The Public Library of Science (PLoS) www.plos.org BioMed Central (BMC) www.biomedcentral.com Different OA repositories, like the Directory of Open Access Repositories OpenDOAR www.opendoar.org and CiteSeer (www.citeseer.ist.psu.edu).
  • 16. Search engines and portals     The most popular Internet search engine, Google www.google.com Google Scholar www.scholar.google.com Google books, to search only books www.books.google.com Google Scholar makes it possible to search for essays, presentations, books, abstracts and articles in various fields and from different sources, such as academic publishers, associations and other scientific organizations.
  • 17. Search engines and portals    Other medical search engines and link collections include: Sum-Search www.sumsearch.uthscsa.edu , Scirus www.scirus.com , Medical-Matrix www.medmatrix.org The medical pages of Intute www.intute.ac.uk/healthandlifesciences/medic .
  • 18. P ractical steps for searching- 3 1. Get your search question clear  The trickiest part of setting up a search, basically the question is ‘ what am I actually looking for?’ . You need to be clear about what search terms you are going to use to ask your question. Take the topic below as an example Do e s pare ntal smo king is linke d to pe diatric e ar infe ctio ns?
  • 19. Consider o o o o Not using natural language (verbs, propositions) Concentrate on nouns, keywords and concepts Take care of alternatives (synonymous) Search engines can not recognize some terms (computer, internet)
  • 20. 2-P utting your terms together  Start by considering possible term variations. Generally, bibliographic databases will only locate exa  what you ctly tell them to find. Sources of term variation you should consider:  P lurals – searching for ‘ bacteria’ (plural) won’ t find ‘ bacterium’ (singular).  UK US spellings – searching for ‘ analyze’ won’ t find ‘ analyse’ . /  Numbers –2 o r two o r II  Synonyms – The same hormone may be known as adrenaline or epinephrine.  Abbreviations – PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction  Some databases have built in thesauri which help them find some term variations automatically. For example, searching for ‘ Woman’ on PubMed will search for ‘ Women’ as well.
  • 21. *Using the wild card   In Pubmed the asterisk ‘ * ’ will truncate words: B acteri* Finds: B acteria, bacterial, bacterium, bactericidal etc. In some databases like Scopus and Web of Science you can allow substitution of single characters to help deal with differences in spelling – Analy?e Finds: Analyze and Analyse
  • 22. Boolean operators B oolean logic operators are named after the B ritish mathematician George B oole, they are used to create relationship between .search topics or keywords T basic B he oolean logic operators are: AND, .OR, and NOT T hese operators can be used to narrow .or broaden the searches
  • 23. Boolean operators OR: T search will retrieve articles that are his about either “heart valve disease” or “myocardial infarction” (similar terms). OR Heart valve disease OR AL AYS BROADENS A SE W ARCH MI
  • 24. Boolean operators AND: T search will retrieve articles that are his about “heart valve disease” and “diabetes.” AND Heart valve Diabetes Disease AND ALW S NARROW A SEARCH AY S
  • 25. Boolean operators  NOT : T search excludes all records that have the term his “diabetes” in them. if an article compares heart valve disease with diabetes you will lose it from your search. therefore, use not with restraint and be aware of the consequences. NOT AL AYS NARROW A SE W S ARCH
  • 26. Set your limits-3 You can refine your results down further by applying limits to your search.  PubMed lets you limit your search by many criteria including date of publication, document type and language. Example:  Published in the last: 5 years.  Type of Article: Clinical T rial.  Languages: E nglish 
  • 27. T hen ask the following questions to rate the quality other websites/ engines not bibliographic databases (a yes implies better (.quality Questions Is the site put together by a known institution or organization? (clue from the last few letters e.g. gov. .(edu Are the objectives of the site clearly educational? (are they advertising or selling products? P atient education? ?(Information about services Are there sections that explain the various goals? (e.g. a (patient section, and a research section, for a hospital Is there a search engine for the site itself, to locate ?information Yes No
  • 28. T hen rank the quality of the website (other than bibliographic databases by giving a score form 1 to 5 (excellent) in the categories .below E lements 1 (Responsive (quick connection 2 Goals are clear 3 Distinguishes fact form opinion 4 (Current (look for the date the site was last updated 5 Visual impact 6 E asy to find information 7 Connects to useful sites 8 Addresses at least 50% of your learner’s needs 9 P rovides justification for opinions or views (gives (evidence 10 Allows for communication with a web master or a .consultant 1 2 3 4 5
  • 29. Searching for evidence S pyramid 5 Birch D, Eady A, Robertson D, De Pauw S, Tandan V. Users’ guide to the surgical literature: how to perform a literature search. Can J Surg 2003;46(2):136–141
  • 30. :Searching for evidence Pubmed using clinical queries www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/clinical.shtm  This feature is also included in Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL (Ebsco).  The Cochrane Library: www.cochrane.org
  • 31. Searching for evidence        Evidence-based information at Seek www.shef.ac.uk/seek , EBM Guidelines ebmg.wiley.com/ebmg The TRIP database (www.tripdatabase.com/index.html ), SUMsearch: http://sumsearch.uthscsa.edu/ BMJ Clinical Evidence: www.clinicalevidenceorg/ceweb/index.jsp DynaMed www.ebscohost.com/dynamed
  • 32. Searching for evidence UpTo Date http://www.uptodate.com is an evidence-based, peer-reviewed information resource. PIER: The Physicians’ Information and Education Resource http://pier.acponline.org/index.html?jhp provides authoritative, evidence-based summaries.
  • 33. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians .E vidence-based M edicine :Cochrane Library www.cochrane.org (:Clinical evidence (Free www.clinicalevidence.com :Journals www.evidence-basedmedicine.com (:Evidence based guidelines (Free access .www.guideline.gov : Best treatment www.besttreatment.org :DynaMed www.dynamicmedical.com
  • 34. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians Data base other than Pubmed and :free www.pubmedcentral.com www.biomedcentral.com www.sumsearch.uthscsa.edu/
  • 35. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians http://emedicine.medscape.com http://www.biomedcentral.com/
  • 36. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians General Web Sites for Clinical Educators www.acgme.org www.helath.gov/healthypeople/ www.uchsc.edu/CIS www.aamc.org www.acog.org www.cdc.gov
  • 37. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians General Web Sites for Clinical Educators www.acgme.org www.helath.gov/healthypeople/ www.uchsc.edu/CIS www.aamc.org www.acog.org www.cdc.gov
  • 38. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians Physicians Training Web Sites www.APGO.ORG/MEMEBERSHIP/CURRICULUM www.mcphu.edu/institutes/iwh/nawhme /academy.html www.mero.lib.wfubmc.edu/tfwhcepub/c omparecenters.htm www.aafp.com/edu/guide/rep282.html
  • 39. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians Sites For Clinical Information www.ideallibrary.com/links/toc/ebog www.nof.org www.nams.org www.nlm.nih.gov www.cochrane.org www.ahcpr.gov www.fis.utoronto.ca/phd/marton/wome nhl.htm
  • 40. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians Public Health www.who.int www.apha.com www.cdc.gov www.ginevafoundation.com www.papha.org
  • 41. .Useful Web Sites for Physicians Clinical Teaching www.aamc.org/meded/start.htm http://futurehealth.ucsf.edu/hpsisn .html www.medinfo.ufl.edu/cme/inet http://omie.med.jhmi.edu/lectureli /nks
  • 42. Thank you