Tavaana/New Tactics Webinar 2: Intervention Tactics (English)
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Tavaana/New Tactics Webinar 2: Intervention Tactics (English)

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Tavaana/New Tactics Webinar 2: Intervention Tactics (English) Tavaana/New Tactics Webinar 2: Intervention Tactics (English) Presentation Transcript

  • A Project of 649 Dayton Avenue  St. Paul, MN 55104  USA T:+1.612.436.4800  Email: newtactics@cvt.org Websites: http://www.cvt.org  http://www.newtactics.org Exploring Tactics to INTERVENE in Human Rights Abuses provided by Nancy L. Pearson, M.S.W., L.I.S.W. New Tactics in Human Rights Project Manager The Center for Victims of Torture A Tavaana Webinar
  • Today’s Webinar Outline:
    • Brief overview and orientation to:
      • Using our on-line tools!
      • Foundation for Strategic Thinking & Tactical Innovation
      • Key Terms
      • SIX reasons for the need for “new” tactics
    • Exploring INTERVENTION Tactics
  • Take a walk around the neighborhood – using the technology tools View slide
  • Did you attend the 1 st webinar on 27 July on Prevention tactics?
    • YES
    • NO
    • NO, but I did attend the New Tactics course offered by Tavaana
    • NO, but I did attend a different course offered by Tavaana
    C  B A D View slide
  • Foundations for Strategic Thinking and Tactical Innovation
    • Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory.
    Sun Tzu (over 2,000 years ago)
    • Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory.
    • Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat.
    Sun Tzu (over 2,000 years ago)
  • Know Yourself Know Know From Sun Tzu— the Art of War
  • Know Yourself Know Your Opponent Know the Terrain From Sun Tzu— the Art of War
  • Key Terms
  • What is STRATEGY?
      • A joining together of many decisions.
      • A source of inspiration.
    A B 
  • Strategy requires the joining together of many decisions
      • Strategy defines what is important to do.
  • Strategy requires…
      • Decisions that include key steps and approaches in accomplishing the goal.
        • Selection of key objectives
        • Appropriate targets
        • Understanding of needed constituencies
        • Resources
        • Decisions on which tactics to use and when
  • What is a TACTIC?
      • The purpose toward which an effort is directed.
      • The means by which a change is made.
    A B 
  • Tactics
    • Tactics are the means through which a change is made. Tactics are the levers or mechanisms to carry out a strategy.
      • A tactic is a specific action or systematic combination of actions taken to affect a given situation.
      • Tactics are one of the key building blocks of strategy.
      • Tactics are about “the how,” while strategies are about “the what.”
  • Target
    • The person, institution, group or segment of society where your tactical action is directed .
  • Target
    • The person, institution, group or segment of society where your tactical action is directed .
    • PERSON
    • Parliamentarian
    • Journalist
    • Religious leader
    • Teacher
    • Employer
    INSTITUTION 
  • Target
    • The person, institution, group or segment of society where your tactical action is directed .
    • PERSON
    • Parliamentarian
    • Journalist
    • Religious leader
    • Teacher
    • Employer
    • INSTITUTION
    • Parliament
    • Newspaper
    • Religious Institution
    • School
    • Business
    GROUP 
  • Target
    • The person, institution, group or segment of society where your tactical action is directed .
    • PERSON
    • Parliamentarian
    • Journalist
    • Religious leader
    • Teacher
    • Employer
    • INSTITUTION
    • Parliament
    • Newspaper
    • Religious Institution
    • School
    • Business
    • GROUP
    • Policy makers
    • Bloggers
    • Council of Elders
    • Students
    • Businessmen
  • What is your vision?
  • When your only tool is a hammer, New Tactics in Human Rights – www.newtactics.org
  • every problem looks like a nail. New Tactics in Human Rights – www.newtactics.org
  • Why the need for
    • What we know how to do influences what we think is possible to do. Tactics help determine strategy.
    • Different tactics are effective against different targets.
    • Different tactics appeal to different constituencies.
    • Tactical flexibility is the source of surprise.
    • Tactics teach participants and observers how to engage in the world.
    • Tactics are the training systems for engaging participants and allies in the organization’s work.
    "new" tactics
  • Tactic ideas for hitting your “target”
  • What important considerations are needed in making tactical choices?
  • Important Considerations:
    • Group’s capacities
    • Tolerance for risk
    • Analysis of the opponent
    • Context in which the tactics will be used
  • INTERVENTION TACTICS
    • Primary source for today’s examples:
    • New Tactics in Human Rights: A Resource for Practitioners (The workbook is available in English, Farsi, Arabic & other languages)
    • Additional sources from New Tactics website: http://www.newtactics.org – use quick link “Tactics” and “Workbook”
    • See also Tavaana’s website for additional Case Study Examples: http://tavaana.org/casestudies.jsp
    • Exploring FOUR kinds of INTERVENTION tactics:
    • Resistance
    • Disruption
    • Persuasion
    • Incentive
    • INTERVENTION tactics:
    • Resistance Tactics – demonstrate opposition to on-going abuse or denial of rights.
    • These tactics serve 2 important purposes…
      • Make abuse visible
      • Set the stage for future tactics that can effect change
  • Anonymous Resistance
    • Turkey: With the Flick of a Switch
    • (English page 53, Farsi, page 51 )
    • MAIN TARGET :
    • General population of Turkey
    • GOAL :
    • Stop IMMUNITY for corruption
    • MEANS :
    • People turning off their lights
    • Mobilization required: Media, NGO and Unions in alliance and a chain of Faxes (The technology available in 1997)
  • Anonymous Resistance
    • Turkey: With the Flick of a Switch
    • TIMELINE :
      • Started four weeks before “S-day”
      • On February 1, 1997, at precisely 9 p.m., the lights started to go out in Istanbul and other Turkish cities.
      • The same action was repeated again and again, only more houses participated and variations emerged (e.g., banging pots and pans).
      • By February 15, an estimated 30 million Turkish households throughout the country participated in the biggest public protest against corruption in Turkish history.
    • RESULTS :
    • Prosecution trials of prominent people (limited success)
    • PLUS - unintended collapse of the ruling party
    • Long term impacts on system (tactic adapted & used again)
  • Idea Shared in the Tavaana Forum Anonymous Resistance
  • Visible Resistance
    • Estonia: Singing Revolution
    • (English page 54, Farsi, page 52 )
    • MAIN TARGET :
    • General Population in
    • Estonia
    • GOAL :
    • Assert cultural identity to
    • unite and express
    • opposition to an
    • oppressive regime
    MEANS : Collective Singing of Traditional (and banned) Songs Source: http://www.tallinn-life.com/tallinn/estonian-singing-revolution
  • Visible Resistance
    • Estonia: Singing Revolution
    • TIMELINE : 1987 – 1991
    • Summer 1987
    • 10,000 people gathered in the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds.
    • September 1988
    • 300,000 Estonians gathered; first public demand for independence.
    • RESULTS :
    • Similar festivals took place in Latvia and Lithuania
    • August 1989: Baltic Chain - approximately two million people joined their hands to form a human chain spanning over 600 kilometres.
    • August 1991 – All three Baltic states moved toward independence from the Soviet Union
    Source: http://www.tallinn-life.com/tallinn/estonian-singing-revolution
  • Visible Resistance
    • The Otpor! student movement in Serbia used humor to successfully spread its message of resistance.
    MAIN TARGET : General population – via YOUTH GOAL : Remove people’s fear to express their desire for an end to the Milošević regime MEANS : Otpor! countered a government initiative with its own satire on the “collection barrel” called “Dinar za Smenu” (Dinar for a Change). Source: Otpor! – A collection “BARREL” Posted in the New Tactics Searchable On-line Tactics Database Serbia: Using Humor and satire ( Website Tactic - Also see New Tactics on-line dialogue – Tactics that Tickle All the Way to the Win )
  • Visible Resistance
    • Serbia: Using Humor and satire
    • TIMELINE :
    • 1998:
      • Founding of the Otpor! Student Movement
    • July 2000:
      • Election rules for president changed
    • July to October 2000:
      • Otpor mobilizations including the "Dinar for a Change" barrels
    • RESULTS :
    • Helped population overcome their fear of expressing their dislike for the regime
    • Culmination of MANY tactics and mobilizations - 5 October 2000: Overthrow of Milošević
    Source: Otpor! – A collection “BARREL” Posted in the New Tactics Searchable On-line Tactics Database
  • What observations do you have from these different examples?
    • INTERVENTION tactics:
    • Disruption Tactics – that use direct action to influence a perpetrator to end the abuse.
      • Step in physically to end the abuse
      • Risk of physical danger
  • Disruption Tactics
    • India: Throwing Open the Doors – Rescuing child laborers
    • (English page 66, Farsi, page 64 )
      • MAIN TARGET :
      • Specific identified business that tended to employ children
      • GOAL :
      • Free children held in bondage and provide them with opportunities for education and training
    Source: http://www.bba.org.in/childlabour&trafficking/katfl.php
      • MEANS :
      • Planned raids at business sites – which required extensive research and participation from organizations in the community
  • Disruption Tactics
    • India: Throwing Open the Doors – Rescuing child laborers
      • TIMELINE :
      • 1989 began building a coalition made up of over 400 human rights groups and building allies within police
      • Raids continue to the present
    Source: http://www.bba.org.in/childlabour&trafficking/katfl.php
      • RESULTS : (Note – there is direct danger to those conducting the raids)
      • Since 1989, the South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude (SACCS) has liberated over 65,000 children from slavery through “Direct Action Rescue” operations.
      • Once factories and businesses are exposed it is harder for the government to remain complicit in the slavery of children
  • What kinds of disruption tactics do you know about or have you used?
    • INTERVENTION tactics:
    • Persuasion Tactics – that engage respected leaders or non-confrontational mechanisms.
      • Non-adversarial
      • Strive for collaboration
  • Persuasion Tactics
    • Ghana: Enlisting Local Leaders to
    • end harmful customs
    • (English page 70, Farsi, page 67 )
    MAIN TARGET : Community Leaders – particularly chiefs, queen mothers and temple priests GOAL : End the harmful customary practice of Trokosi (a system in which women and young girls are kept in fetish shrines without their consent) MEANS : Engage respected leaders in the communities where the practice is prevalent to persuade others to change their practice Source: New Tactics tactical notebook - Mama Adokua Asigble IV, Queen Mother from Tefle, and priests
  • Persuasion Tactics
    • Ghana: Enlisting Local Leaders to
    • end harmful customs
    • TIMELINE and RESULTS :
    • 1990 - First consultation with chiefs and queen mothers deliberating and opposing the practice
    • 1991 - Committee of chiefs and priest create a report condemning the practice
    • 1995 - First national workshop on the practice
    • 1996 - First group of women liberated
    • 1998 - 1,000 women liberated & passage of law prohibiting the practice
    • 2003 - 3,000 women liberated and negotiations underway to liberate 20,000 women from 19 shrines
    Source: New Tactics tactical notebook - Mama Adokua Asigble IV, Queen Mother from Tefle, and priests
  • What is your vision? 1990 - First consultation to raise the issue with leaders 1991 - Committee of Leaders Condemn the practice 1995 - First national workshop on the practice 1996 - First group of women liberated 1998 – 1,000 women liberated & LAW preventing practice
    • INTERVENTION tactics:
    • Incentive Tactics – that provide alternatives to human rights abuse.
      • Financial incentives
      • Other powerful motivators: recognition, prestige
  • Incentive Tactics
    • REVERSE financial incentives – boycotts
    • Example:
    • Anti-Apartheid movement, South Africa
    • MAIN TARGET : Black Consumers
    • GOAL : Development of a national democratic struggle to end the system of apartheid
    MEANS : (0ne tactic used to build first-level grassroots organization) Leveraging black economic power through rent boycotts, consumer boycotts of businesses owned by whites or black apartheid collaborators Source: A Force More Powerful website: http://www.aforcemorepowerful.org
  • Incentive Tactics
    • REVERSE financial incentives – boycotts
    • Example – Anti-Apartheid movement, South Africa
    TIMELINE : The case study on Tavaana's website provides a more comprehensive timeline and a variety of the tactics used.
    • RESULTS :
    • The consumer boycott was a particularly effective tactic.
    • Decimated profits of businesses
    • Drove a wedge between business and government as white store owners put pressure on the government to change policy
    • Tactic was immune to government oppression – you cannot arrest people for not buying products
    Source: A Force More Powerful website: http://www.aforcemorepowerful.org
  • What kinds of incentive tactics do you know about or have you used?
  • The Center for Victims of Torture – New Tactics in Human Rights Project 649 Dayton Avenue  St. Paul, MN 55104  USA T:+1.612.436.4800  Email: newtactics@cvt.org Websites: http://www.cvt.org  http://www.newtactics.org Attribution List “The Center for Victims of Torture - New Tactics in Human Rights Project” as the source for any information used in this document as well as any original attribution provided in this document. Noncommercial The information in this document is not to be used for profit. Share Alike If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license. The Center for Victims of Torture—New Tactics in Human Rights project invites you to use, share and contribute to the further development of this information under the License: Creative Commons 2.0 The New Tactics in Human Rights project invites you to use and share this information with others. We ask only that you do so using the Creative Commons 2.0 License that is outlined below. A Project of
  • Upcoming Webinar Dates :
    • Wednesday, 24 August – Restorative Tactics
    • Wednesday, 14 September – Promotion Tactics (Building Human Rights Cultures and Institutions)