Sustainable Platforming with Design

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The scale for design action has been and still is expanding. A skill related to craftsmanship has evolved into a tool for societal change. Sustainable design involves negotiation of values and …

The scale for design action has been and still is expanding. A skill related to craftsmanship has evolved into a tool for societal change. Sustainable design involves negotiation of values and priorities, and balancing between the environmental, social, and financial factors. Thus, its processes must address several dimensions of different stakeholder interests. Designers can help to create platforms for such activities. In the end the collaborative - and systemic - approach may help to facilitate the co-creation of new, more sustainable way of life.

This keynote sheds light on what makes a design process sustainable, how different design methodologies can induce sustainability, and how design education can better support this goal. Through examples in design education and in contemporary sustainable design the keynote argues that to become more sustainable the design process must become more open and transparent, more sensitive to values and dialogue, and thus more iterative and reflective. Such development calls for open problem-based approach, collaborative mediation and distributed knowledge - a transdisciplinary design approach.

Design education for sustainability can enable the future professionals to better facilitate the collaboration and communication among several participants, to drive the important agendas. Design tackling complex contemporary problems of sustainability should aim to facilitate such platforms for transdisciplinary dialogues. Whether they are built top-down or then emerging from the grass roots, whether they are based on design aiming to improve or on design aimed to criticize, they must be aimed to induce dialogues on values and goals, and contribute for the change towards more sustainable setting for human life.

This was my keynote presentation in Factor Clave 7 conference, in 12th of September, 2013.

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  • My introduction: Tatu Marttila, teacher of sustainable design for 5 years, first on BA level and then from 2010 onwards on MA level.
    From 2010 I’ve been also doing doctoral research on inter-professional design collaboration in the context of sustainability.
    My topic here: Sustainable Platforming with Design
  • In introduction I’ll try to set the context
    In design I’ll talk about my views on contemporary design and its potential
    In Sustainability I will look into what is sustainability and what makes design action or design things sustainable
    In Platforms I will then discuss how design and sustainability can be connected into collaborative action through “platforms”
    In Praxis I will give you then some examples from our university and from our work
    In Conclusion I’ll draw some notions together…

Transcript

  • 1. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Tatu Marttila (M.A. Industrial Design) Teacher, researcher, doctoral candidate Aalto University ARTS, Helsinki, Finland http://designresearch.aalto.fi/groups/nodus/
  • 2. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Contents • Introduction • Design • Sustainability • Platforms • Praxis • Conclusions 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 3. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Introduction to Finland Finland: • A Nordic “social welfare” state with +5 million people population • History: From wood industry to hi-tech to service society • Appreciation for design (national design policies; WDC2012) • High on education (PISA results) • Somewhat hit by EU regression 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Helsinki, the capital city Photograph by Mikko Paananen, via Wikipedia
  • 4. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Aalto University: • A university formed in 2010 through a merger of University of Art and Design, School of Economics and University of Technology • Now 6 schools and around 15000 students + 4000 staff • Located in three campuses around Helsinki metropolitan area • A place where “Art and Business meets Science and Technology”
  • 5. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland DESIGN. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 6. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Current landscapes of Design Practice During the 20th century design practice has evolved from a craft focused skill to a tool to understand user and consumer choices, and finally to manage societal change. At the same time the focus of design action has evolved from details to strategic level, and finally to the societal level. By the end of the 20th century the unsustainability of our current being has become evident. 21st century – the century for design? 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 7. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Source: NextDesign Leadership Institute, GK VanPatter and Elizabeth Pastor The landscapes of design practice and education:
  • 8. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 9. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 10. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland From details design towards Metadesign Designers attach meanings (‘signs’) to things (‘designed’). Designing meanings can be perceived as Metadesign. Metadesign is aimed at defining, creating and developing social, economic and technical infrastructures in which new forms of collaborative design can take place -> Platforms! Metadesign has an interdisciplinary and systemic approach, and it aims to tackle the complex problems of our contemporary everyday. It represents the upstream of design, whereas the details design is the downstream… 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 11. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 12. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 13. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 14. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Understanding design action Contemporary design action stretches from visual communication to interface design, from product design to societal design, and from urban planning to industrial processes. Design is still about “courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones." (Simon, 1996) Designers help to develop solutions to contemporary problems (collaboratively and independently), and communicate about them inside and outside teams. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 15. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 16. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 17. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland SUSTAINABILITY. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 18. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Sustainability in Consumer Society Consumer society started to emerge strongly at the latest in the latter half of the 20th century. However, many of its ingredients were planted far before the 20th century. Most importantly it seems that the consumption society is connected to economic capitalism that is enhanced with extremely efficient industrial production. An era of second modernity? Along the emerging consumer society design emerged as a discipline and became industrialized, connecting strongly with manufacturing industry and focusing on increasing efficiency, functionality, styling and advertising. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 19. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Designer responsibility and sustainability Design as a problem solving activity? Or as a problem creation activity? In Victor Papanek's (1927-1999) view: "There are professions more harmful than Industrial Design, but only a few.” We all design but not all of us are professional designers – with have a higher level of responsibility of design action. In the brief history of industrial design, designers have done their part by not questioning the practices of work. - How are we doing? 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 20. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Weak or strong sustainability? 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Three pillars of sustainability Three pillars of sustainability – Nested within the ecological dimension
  • 21. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Whose sustainability? The history of capitalism can be traced back to early forms of merchant capitalism practiced in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, but only industrialized mass production has created possibilities for contemporary models of consumption. Today, economic growth based on planned obsolescence has become force majeure in the ‘developed’ societies. Combined with the economic imperative of growth it has led to ecological crisis. No one can deny negative ecological impacts of consumption. Allegedly, however, economic growth has created increased societal wellbeing. - Does consumption produce societal welfare and wellbeing? 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 22. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Source: www.treehugger.com No genuine progress in the quality of life (USA):
  • 23. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Source: http://www.happyplanetindex.org/
  • 24. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland So are we getting sustainable? Cleaner production, growing welfare and decoupling of wealth and pollution seem to be (at least partially) only myths… Rebound-effect is driven by the economic imperative, as markets aim to produce more stuff as impact per unit decreases. Even if factor 10 (ten times more effective production of services) is achieved by 2050, there can only be negative growth in consumption, and also in economy in the ‘developed’ contexts. We seem to approach the depletion of all the resources within 21st century. According to some estimations, as business-as-usual continues, a global collapse is closing in around the middle of this century. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 25. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Source: “A safe operating space for humanity” (2011) by Stockholm Resilience Centre/Nature
  • 26. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Global collapse within this century? Source: PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, via Scientific American
  • 27. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Sustainability in the making… Role of design shifting from details to systems level and eventually towards societal transformation (Aminoff, et al. 2011) Context-dependent sustainability should be defined among a larger group of stakeholders, including laypeople Design approach in solving difficult and complex problems and problem-contexts - “wicked problems” (Rittel & Webber, 1973) Design thinking and reflection (problem-driven and solution oriented) helping collaborative process by creating new integrations of signs, things, actions and environment (Buchanan, 1995) 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 28. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Source: The Natural Step, see: http://www.naturalstep.org/
  • 29. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland From design in transition… Contemporary user-centered design is unable to produce more sustainable solutions as long as it works along the imperative of economic growth. Suggested improvements as new approaches have been (more) functional and systemic design, but they embrace the existing power structures. A shift in our mode of being is required, from quantitative to qualitative, from consumption to conservation, and from imperialism to co-existence. This must happen under the imperative of sustainment – design must become a part of politics (Fry, 2008; 2010). 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 30. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland …Into Design for Sustainability Challenges of sustainability are often complex and multi-faceted and require mediation between several concepts, contexts and interests. Accordingly, sustainable design should be based on a broader view, constructed in collaboration between several experts and laypeople. Hence, design and research for sustainability must have a systemic approach (Shedroff, 2009) and a trans-scientific character (Tukker, et al. 2008). Sustainable design requires transdisciplinary knowledge and action within a real-life problem context. It requires an expanded, systemic and collaboratively mediated perspective 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 31. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland …And design activism! Design activism can be defined as “design thinking, imagination and practice applied knowingly or unknowingly to create a counter-narrative aimed at generating and balancing positive social, institutional, environmental and/or economic change” (Fuad-Luke, 2009). Design activists (working voluntarily or with a salary) are designing for a reason – to create counter-narratives to the unsustainable status quo. Design activists create platforms to address and discuss some contemporary problems in society, everyday life and in design itself. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 32. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland PLATFORMING. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 33. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland New types of knowledge and learning Developing inter-professional collaboration (Hukkinen, 2008): multidisciplinary > interdisciplinary > transdisciplinary New type(s) of knowledge and learning in meeting points between different professions: “Mode 1” vs. “Mode 2” knowledge (Gibbons, et al. 1994) and collective knowledge creation (Engeström, 2008; Hakkarainen, 2004); Hybrid knowledge (Bruun, et al. 2005) "Shared problem space" to integrate and translate (disciplinary) knowledge with a “transdisciplinary design dialogue” (Wahl & Baxter, 2008) Different backgrounds and different types of people (education, profession, experiences and history) 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 34. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Platforming for sustainability Learning for sustainable design calls for problem and project-based collaborative learning (Blunden, 2011) and transdisciplinary design dialogues (Wahl & Baxter, 2008) Communities with epistemic traditions, or “communities of practice” (Lave & Wenger, 1991) -> Towards a "community of interest" (Fischer, 2001) Affecting factors: Professional background, different personal histories, tools and activities, trust and orientation, management support 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 35. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland (Co-)Design(ed) platforms New knowledge on the role of design as something that mediates social relations in contemporary daily living has to be developed through transdisciplinary design dialogues involving a wide group of specialists and laypeople. These developments require a widespread discourse on the values and driving forces behind the process. How to prioritize stakeholders or their interests and from which perspective to assess sustainability? What is the designer's role and responsibility? What are the most important areas of development? Design projects around sustainability can function as mediums to support such discourse, if they are reachable and open. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 36. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Design for Transdisciplinarity 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Transdisciplinary action for sustainability (Marttila 2013; DRS/Cumulus conference)
  • 37. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Design for The Imaginative Anthony Dunne suggests (2005) that we require “poeticizising the distance between people and [electronic] objects” to encourage “sensitive skepticism” rather than “unthinking assimilation” (Ibid.). Such actions call for “breaking through the white noise” of our contemporary existence (Fuad-Luke, 2009). 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Design academia and experimenting (Marttila 2013; DRS/Cumulus conference)
  • 38. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland PRAXIS. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 39. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Platforming in praxis Design action, as well as design(ed) platforms address articulation, mediation and exploration. If they are open and accessible to the potential problem owners they can also induce more sustainable action. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 40. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Example.1 Developing CS MA program 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Creative Sustainability (CS) is a multidisciplinary MA program that initiated in fall 2010 in Aalto University. All CS students attend to common introduction courses (6-10 total ECTS). These students also attend to complete modules (up to 20 ECTS) that are engaging students from several study programs in real-life cases and in transdisciplinary teamwork. See: http://acs.aalto.fi Creative Sustainability Master’s Program
  • 41. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Developing CS program: The pedagogical approach is based on “integrating teaching and research, problem-based learning, blended learning and strong connection to practical outcomes” -> constructive and open approach. Vague topical areas such as design and sustainability Several degree programs collaborating -> difficulties to develop common contents. Students started involving themselves in developing the program. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 42. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland “Stuff We Do” on CS website: 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 43. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland CS student initiated projects: 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN image courtesy: Whose* Issues Project blog (whoseissues.tumblr.com)
  • 44. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland CS program spin-off: Big Plans Bakery Big Plans Bakery is a seven-member interdisciplinary organization somewhere between a think tank and a design consultancy – which is why it’s a think/do tank. While being partially CS student initiated, it is also now participating to CS teaching. “We’re at our best in producing solutions to problems that come between people and a sustainable future. Our solutions are based on valid theory that is proven in tangible actions – this assures the scientific and ethical integrity that is the centre of our operational values.” See: http://bigplansbakery.com/ 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 45. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Example.2 WDC2012 Wellbeing projects 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN 365 Wellbeing consists of 12 projects which represent actual services or processes in the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen and Lahti. Projects addressed different dimensions of wellbeing, focusing in particular on municipal wellbeing services and patient-centered health care solutions. A part of the official WDC2012 program. See: http://365wellbeing.aalto.fi/
  • 46. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Repicturing Suburban Neighborhood: 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Material by TANGO project team
  • 47. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Repicturing Suburban Neighborhood: 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Material by TANGO project team
  • 48. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Repicturing Suburban Neighborhood: 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Material by TANGO project team
  • 49. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Alternative Design Capital (ADC) 2012: Alternative Design Capital (ADC) was born from the need to have a platform for open, experimental and critical practices excluded from the official WDC2012 programme. ADC is aspiring to continue in Cape Town 2014 (World Design Capital 2014). See: http://adc2012.org/ 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 50. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland ADC2012 projects: 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Image courtesy: Kallio Kukkii ja Soi!
  • 51. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Image courtesy: Alternative Design Capital 2012 | adc2012.org
  • 52. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland CONCLUSIONS. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 53. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Design platforms for sustainability Instrumental approach to sustainable design is not enough. New collaborative and transdisciplinary approach is needed. Design aiming for sustainability can address efficiency, but not without addressing also the meanings that are attached to things. Thus, sustainable design must reach towards metadesign level, where “conscious awareness, value systems, worldviews” are collaboratively defined (Wahl & Baxter, 2008). New type of decision-making is required, including increased knowledge base through transdisciplinary design dialogues between experts and laypeople (Ibid.), but also new types of power structures. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 54. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland Design platforms for sustainability The challenge of sustainability is to design a new way of being. Design practice, education, economic activity and interaction within the social have to be addressed as a whole. One aim of sustainable design should therefore be to create the supportive platforms that enable better awareness, more informed collaboration and more genuine interaction, with a wide public audience and several stakeholder groups, co-aligned under a new direction. Design education can provide its educators and its future professionals with specific skills, to enable them to better facilitate collaboration and communication among several participants. 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 55. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN From details to consequences (or vice versa?)
  • 56. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN From details to consequences (or vice versa?)
  • 57. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland THANK.YOU! 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN
  • 58. Aalto University ARTS Helsinki, Finland References 9/12/13 Factor Clave 2013 | Tatu Marttila: SUSTAINABLE PLATFORMING WITH DESIGN Aalto-yliopisto (2011) Strategia (http://www.aalto.fi/fi/about/strategy/AALTO- Strategia.pdf) Aminoff C., T. Hänninen, M. Kämäräinen and J. Loiske, Provoke Design OY (2011). Changed Role of Design. Report commissioned by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy. Helsinki, FI: MoEE. Buchanan, R. (1995). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. In V. Margolin & R. Buchanan (Eds.), The Idea of Design. Cambridge, US: The MIT Press. Bruun, H. (2000). Epistemic Encounters: Intra- and Interdisciplinary Analyses of Human Action, Planning Practices and Technological Change. Ph.D. dissertation. Göteborg, SE: Göteborg University. European Commission (2003) The role of the universities in the Europe of knowledge. COM(2003), 58. Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by Expanding: An Activity - Theoretical Approach to Developmental Research. Helsinki, FI: Orienta-Konsultit. Engeström, Y. (2008) From Teams to Knots: Activity-theoretical studies of collaboration and learning at work. Cambridge, US: Cambridge University Press. Engeström, Y. and A. Sannino (2010). Studies of expansive learning: Foundations, findings and future challenges. Educational Research Review, 5. Fischer, G. (2001) Communities of Interest: Learning through the Interaction of Multiple Knowledge Systems. In Proceedings of IRIS 24: 24th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia August 11-14, Bergen, Norway. Fry, T. (2008) Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice. Oxford, UK: Berg Fry, T. (2010) Design as Politics. Oxford, UK: Berg Fuad-Luke, A. (2009) Design Activism: Beautiful Strangeness for a Sustainable World. London, UK: Earthscan Gibbons, M., C. Limoges, H. Nowotny, S. Schwartzman, P. Scott and M. Trow (1994). The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London, UK: Sage. Hakkarainen, K. et al. (2004) Communities of Networked Expertise: Professional and Educational Perspectives. Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier Hukkinen, J. (2008). Sustainable Networks: Cognitive tools for expert collaboration in social- ecological systems. London, UK: Routledge. Lambert, P. (1999). Boundaries fade away: Innovative learning through collaboration between vocational teacher education, training institutes, and work organizations. Helsinki, FI: Helsingin ammattikorkeakoulu. (in Finnish) Lave, J. and E. Wenger (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, US: Cambridge University Press. Marttila, T. (2011a). Designing Sustainability Together - Disciplinary competences in transdisciplinary knowledge building. In Trends and Future of Sustainable Development Conference Proceedings. 9-10 July 2011, Tampere, Finland. Marttila, T. (2011b). Creating a Collaborative Action: Benefits and Barriers in Inter- Professional Design Process for Sustainability’. In IASDR 2011 Conference Proceedings. 31 November - 4 October 2011, Delft, Netherlands. Marttila, T. (2012). Between A Problem Context and A Problem Setting: Twofold Reflection in Inter-Professional Design Collaboration for Sustainability. In Proceedings of DRS 2012 Conference. 2-5 July 2012, Bangkok, Thailand. Marttila, T. and C. Kohtala (2010). Towards Transdisciplinarity: Understanding Current Multidisciplinarity in Designing Sustainable Urban Solutions. In Proceedings of LeNS Conference Sustainability in Design NOW!: Challenges and Opportunities for Design Research, Education and Practice in the XXI Century (vol. 1). 29 September – 1 October 2010, Bangalore, India. Marttila, T. and C. Kohtala (2013) [in print]. Transdisciplinary Platforms: Teaching Sustainability to Design Students. In C. Vezzoli, C. Kohtala & A. Srinivasan (Eds.), Product-Service System Design for Sustainability. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing. Rittel, H. and M. Webber (1973). Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. Policy Sciences, Vol. 4. Sarmiento-Klapper, J. (2009). Sustaining Collaborative Knowledge Building: Continuity in Virtual Math Teams. Ph.D. dissertation for Drexel University. Schön, D. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York, US: Basic Books. Schön, D. [with M. Rein] (1994). Frame Reflection: Toward the Resolution of Intractable Policy Controversies. New York, US: Basic Books. Shedroff, N. (2009) Design is the Problem. New York, US: Rosenfeld Media. Tukker, A., M. Charter, C. Vezzoli, E. Stø and M. Andersen (2008). System Innovation for Sustainability 1: Perspectives on Radical Changes to Sustainable Consumption and Production. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf. Vygotsky L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press. Wahl, D. C. and S. Baxter (2008). The Designer's Role in Facilitating Sustainable Solutions. Design Issues (24/2).