What About Tattoo?http://tattoonity.com               PDF generated at: Wed, 18 Jan 2012 01:29:10 UTC
ContentsArticles   Tattoo                                            1   Tattoo artist                                    ...
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UV tattoo                                                                                                                 ...
List of tattoo artists                                                                                                    ...
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What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
What About Tattoo
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What About Tattoo

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Summary:
- The first written reference to the word, "tattoo" (or Samoan "Tatau") appears in the journal of Joseph Banks, the naturalist aboard Captain Cook's ship the HMS Endeavour in 1769: "I shall now mention the way they mark themselves indelibly, each of them is so marked by their humour or disposition".
- Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition.
- The prevalence of women in the tattoo industry, along with larger numbers of women bearing tattoos, appears to be changing negative perceptions.
- Early tattoo inks were obtained directly from nature and were extremely limited in pigment variety.

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What About Tattoo

  1. 1. What About Tattoo?http://tattoonity.com PDF generated at: Wed, 18 Jan 2012 01:29:10 UTC
  2. 2. ContentsArticles Tattoo 1 Tattoo artist 17 Tattoo convention 19 Tattoo ink 20 Tattoo machine 22 UV tattoo 25 List of tattoo artists 27 Legal status of tattooing in the United States 31 Lower back tattoo 36 Body suit (tattoo) 37 Lucky Diamond Rich 38References Article Sources and Contributors 40 Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 42Article Licenses License 43
  3. 3. Tattoo 1 Tattoo A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. The first written reference to the word, "tattoo" (or Samoan "Tatau") appears in the journal of Joseph Banks, the naturalist aboard Captain Cooks ship the HMS Endeavour in 1769: "I shall now mention the way they mark themselves indelibly, each of them is so marked by their humour or disposition". Tattooing has been practiced for centuries in many cultures spread throughout the world. The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, traditionally had facial tattoos. Today one can find Berbers of Tamazgha (North Africa), Māori of New Zealand, Hausa people of Northern Nigeria, Arabic people in East-Turkey and Atayal of Taiwan with facial tattoos. Tattooing was widespread among Polynesian peoples and among certain tribal groups in the Taiwan, Philippines, Borneo, Mentawai Islands, Africa, North America, South America, Mesoamerica, Europe, Japan, Cambodia, New Zealand and A tattooed woman in the United States, ca. 1907. Micronesia. Indeed, the island of Great Britain takes its name from tattooing, with Britons translating as people of the designs and the Picts, who originally inhabited the northern part of Britain, literally meaning the painted people.[1] British people remain the most tattooed in Europe.[1] Despite some taboos surrounding tattooing, the art continues to be popular in many parts of the world. Since the 1990s, tattoos have become a mainstream part of global and Western fashion, common among both sexes, to all economic classes, and to age groups from the later teen years to middle age. By the 2010s, even the Barbie doll put out a tattooed Barbie in 2011, which was widely accepted, although it did attract some controversy.[2] In 2010 around 3 in 5 (62%) of Generation Y did not have any tattoos in the United States and three-fourths (75%) of Australians under 30 did not have any tattoos.[3] Etymology The Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo as "In 18th c. tattaow, tattow. From Polynesian tatau. In Tahitian, tatu." The word tatau was introduced as a loan word into English, the pronunciation being changed to conform to English phonology as "tattoo".[4] Sailors on later voyages both introduced the word and reintroduced the concept of tattooing to Europe.[5] Tattoo enthusiasts may refer to tattoos as "Ink", "Tats", "Art", "Pieces", or "Work"; and to the tattooists as "Artists". The latter usage is gaining greater support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of both conventional and custom tattoo designs. Beyond Skin, at the Museum of Croydon, is an example of this as it challenges the stereotypical view of tattoos and who has them. Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as flash, a notable instance of industrial design. Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of A tribal hand tattoo in Jaipur, India. Tattooing is providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers. a tradition among many indigenous people.
  4. 4. Tattoo 2 The Japanese word irezumi means "insertion of ink" and can mean tattoos using tebori, the traditional Japanese hand method, a Western-style machine, or for that matter, any method of tattooing using insertion of ink. The most common word used for traditional Japanese tattoo designs is Horimono. Japanese may use the word "tattoo" to mean non-Japanese styles of tattooing. In Taiwan, facial tattoos of the Atayal tribe are named "Badasun"; they are used to demonstrate that an adult man can protect his homeland, and that an adult woman is qualified to weave cloth and perform housekeeping. The anthropologist Ling Roth in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names of tatu, moko, cicatrix, and keloid.[6] History Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice at least since around Neolithic times. Ötzi the Iceman, dating from the fourth to fifth millennium BC, was found in the Ötz valley in the Alps and had approximately 57 carbon tattoos consisting of simple dots and lines on his lower spine, behind his left knee, and on his right ankle. These tattoos were thought to be a form of healing because of their placement which resembles acupuncture.[19] Other mummies bearing tattoos and dating from the end of the second millennium BC have been discovered, such as the Mummy of Amunet from ancient Egypt and the mummies at Pazyryk on the Ukok Plateau.[7] Pre-Christian Germanic, Celtic and other central and northern European tribes were often heavily tattooed, according to surviving accounts. The Picts were famously tattooed (or scarified) with elaborate dark blue woad (or possibly copper for the blue tone) designs. Julius Caesar described these tattoos in Book V of his Gallic Wars (54 BC). Tattooing in Japan is thought to go back to the Paleolithic era, some ten thousand years ago. Various other cultures have had their own tattoo traditions, ranging from rubbing cuts and other wounds with ashes, to hand-pricking the skin to insert dyes. Tattooing in the Western world today has its origins in Polynesia, and in the discovery of tatau by eighteenth century explorers. The Polynesian practice became popular among European sailors, before spreading to Western societies generally.[8] Types of tattoos The American Academy of Dermatology distinguishes 5 types of tattoos:[9] traumatic tattoos, also called "natural tattoos", that result from injuries, especially asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead; amateur tattoos; professional tattoos, both via traditional methods and modern tattoo machines; cosmetic tattoos, also known as "permanent makeup"; and medical tattoos. Traumatic tattoos According to George Orwell, coal miners could develop characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds.[10] This can also occur with substances like gunpowder. Similarly, a traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma. These are particularly difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several different layers of skin, and scarring or permanent discoloration is almost unavoidable depending on the location. In addition, tattooing of the gingiva from implantation of amalgam particles during dental filling placement and removal is possible and not uncommon. Another example of such accidental tattoos is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin.
  5. 5. Tattoo 3 Amateur and professional tattoos Many tattoos serve as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, punishment, amulets and talismans, protection, and as the marks of outcasts, slaves and convicts. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different places and cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about a relative (commonly mother/father or daughter/son) or about an unrelated person. Today, people choose to be tattooed for cosmetic, sentimental/memorial, religious, and magical reasons, and to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs (see criminal tattoos) but also a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture. Some Māori still choose to wear intricate moko on their faces. In Laos, Cambodia, and Tattooing among females of the Thailand, the yantra tattoo is used for protection against evil and to increase luck. Koita people of Papua New Guinea traditionally began at age five and In the Philippines certain tribal groups believe that tattoos have magical qualities, was added to each year, with the and help to protect their bearers. Most traditional tattooing in the Philippines is V-shaped tattoo on the chest related to the bearers accomplishments in life or rank in the tribe. Among indicating that she had reached Catholic Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina, tattoos with Christian symbols marriageable age, 1912. would be inked on to protect themselves from the Muslim Turks. Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition. Identification People have also been forcibly tattooed. A well-known example is the identification system for inmates in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust. Tattoos have also been used for identification in other ways. For example, during the Roman Empire, Roman soldiers were required by law to have identifying tattoos on their hands in order to make it difficult to hide if they deserted. Gladiators and slaves were likewise tattooed, exported slaves were tattooed with the words "tax paid" and it was a common practice to tattoo "Stop me, Im a runaway" on their Tattoo marking a deserter from the British Army. foreheads. Emperor Constantine I banned tattooing the face around AD Skin removed post-mortem. 330 and the Second Council of Nicaea banned all body markings as a pagan practice in AD 787.[11] The Latin word for "tattoo" was "stigma", hence the English word "stigmatise". In the period of early contact between the Māori and Europeans, Māori chiefs sometimes drew their moko (facial tattoo) on documents in place of a signature. Tattoos are sometimes used by forensic pathologists to help them identify burned, putrified, or mutilated bodies. As tattoo pigment lies encapsulated deep in the skin, tattoos are not easily destroyed even when the skin is burned.
  6. 6. Tattoo 4 Tattoos are also placed on animals, though very rarely for decorative reasons. Pets, show animals, thoroughbred horses and livestock are sometimes tattooed with identification and other marks. Pet dogs and cats are often tattooed with a serial number (usually in the ear, or on the inner thigh) via which their owners can be identified. Also, animals are occasionally tattooed to prevent sunburn (on the An identification tattoo on a survivor of the nose, for example). Such tattoos are often performed by a veterinarian Auschwitz concentration camp. and in most cases the animals are anesthetized during the process. Branding is used for similar reasons and is often performed without anesthesia, but is different from tattooing as no ink or dye is inserted during the process. Cosmetic When used as a form of cosmetics, tattooing includes permanent makeup and hiding or neutralizing skin discolorations. Permanent makeup is the use of tattoos to enhance eyebrows, lips (liner and/or lipstick), eyes (liner), and even moles, usually with natural colors, as the designs are intended to resemble makeup. Medical Medical tattoos are used to ensure instruments are properly located for repeated application of radiotherapy and for the areola in some forms Tattooed lip makeup. of breast reconstruction. Tattooing has also been used to convey medical information about the wearer (e.g. blood group, medical condition, etc). Tattoos are used in skin tones to cover vitiligo, skin pigmentation disorder.
  7. 7. Tattoo 5 Prevalence Tattoos have experienced a resurgence in popularity in many parts of the world, particularly in North and South America, Japan, and Europe. The growth in tattoo culture has seen an influx of new artists into the industry, many of whom have technical and fine arts training. Coupled with advancements in tattoo pigments and the ongoing refinement of the equipment used for tattooing, this has led to an improvement in the quality of tattoos being produced.[12] During the first decade of the 21st century, the presence of tattoos became evident within pop culture, inspiring television shows such as A&Es Inked and TLCs Miami Ink and LA Ink. The decoration of blues singer Janis Joplin with a wristlet and a small heart on her left breast, by the San Francisco tattoo artist Lyle Tuttle, has been called a seminal moment in the popular acceptance of tattoos as art.[13] Formal interest in the art of the tattoo became prominent in the 1990s through the beginning of the 21st century. Contemporary art exhibitions and visual art institutions have featured tattoos as art through such means as displaying tattoo flash, examining the works of tattoo artists, or otherwise incorporating examples of body art into mainstream exhibits. One such 2009 Chicago exhibition Freaks & Flash featured both examples of historic body art A pea is a traditional male tattoo in Samoa. Samoan tattooing was as well as the tattoo artists who produced it.[14] practiced continuously despite attempts at suppression by Christian colonists in the 1830s. In many traditional cultures tattooing has also enjoyed a resurgence, partially in deference to cultural heritage. Historically, a decline in traditional tribal tattooing in Europe occurred with the spread of Christianity. However, some Christian groups, such as the Knights of St. John of Malta, sported tattoos to show their allegiance. A decline often occurred in other cultures following European efforts to convert aboriginal and indigenous people to Western religious and cultural practices that held tattooing to be a "pagan" or "heathen" activity. Within some traditional indigenous cultures, tattooing takes place within the context of a rite of passage between adolescence and adulthood. Modern materials and techniques Tattooing has become a fad among celebrities. David Beckham, an international allow for a range of previously soccer star, caught tattoo ‘fever’ beginning with the birth of his first son back in impossible designs and colors within tattoo art. Tattoo by artist based in 1999 when he had Malloy ink his son’s name, “Brooklyn” at the bottom of his Yunnan, China. back. Then he had the first part of his guardian angel inked on his back. This was followed up in 2000, with his wife’s name being misspelled in Hindi on his left arm.[15] Many studies have been done of the tattooed population and societys view of tattoos. In June 2006 the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology published the results of a telephone survey which took place in 2004. It found that 36% of Americans ages 18–29, 24% of those 30-40 and 15% of those 41-51 had a tattoo.[16] In September 2006, the Pew Research Center conducted a telephone survey which found that 36% of Americans ages 18–25, 40% of those 26-40 and 10% of those 41-64 had a tattoo.[17] In January 2008, a survey conducted online by Harris Interactive estimated that 14% of all adults in the United States have a tattoo, just slightly down from 2003, when 16% had a tattoo. Among age groups, 9% of those ages 18–24, 32% of those 25-29, 25% of those 30-39 and 12% of
  8. 8. Tattoo 6 those 40-49 have tattoos, as do 8% of those 50-64. Men are just slightly more likely to have a tattoo than women (15% versus 13%)[18] Negative associations In Japan, tattoos are strongly associated with organized crime organizations known as the yakuza, particularly full body tattoos done the traditional Japanese way (Tebori). Many public Japanese bathhouses (sentō) and gymnasiums often openly ban those bearing large or graphic tattoos in an attempt to prevent Yakuza from entering.[19] The Government of Meiji Japan had outlawed tattoos in the 19th century, a prohibition that stood for 70 years before being repealed in 1948.[20] In the United States many prisoners and criminal gangs use distinctive tattoos to indicate facts about their criminal behavior, prison sentences, and organizational affiliation.[21] A teardrop tattoo, for example, can be symbolic of murder, with each tear representing the death of a friend. At the same time, members of the Conspicuous tattoos and other body U.S. military have an equally well established and longstanding history of modification can make gainful tattooing to indicate military units, battles, kills, etc., an association which employment difficult in many fields. remains widespread among older Americans. Tattooing is also common in the British Armed Forces. Tattooing was also used by the Nazi regime in Nazi concentration camps to tag prisoners. Insofar as this cultural or subcultural use of tattoos predates the widespread popularity of tattoos in the general population, tattoos are still associated with criminality. Tattoos on the face in the shape of teardrops are usually associated with how many people a person has murdered. Although the general acceptance of tattoos is on the rise in Western society, they still carry a heavy stigma among certain social groups. Tattoos are generally considered an important part of the culture of the Russian mafia. The prevalence of women in the tattoo industry, along with larger numbers of women bearing tattoos, appears to be changing negative perceptions. A study of "at-risk" (as defined by school absenteeism and truancy) adolescent girls showed a positive correlation between body-modification and negative feelings towards the body and self-esteem; however, also illustrating a strong motive for body-modification as the search for "self and attempts to attain mastery and control over the body in an age of increasing alienation."[22]
  9. 9. Tattoo 7 Religious perspectives Christianity There is no consistent Christian view on tattooing. The early Christian Montanist movement practiced tattooing as putting signs or seals of Gods name according to Rev. 7:3; 9:4; 13:16; 14:1; 20:4; 22:4. The majority of Christians do not take issue with the practice, while a minority uphold the Hebrew view against tattoos (see below) based on Leviticus 19:28. Tattoos of Christian symbols are common. When on pilgrimage, some Christians get a small tattoo dating the year and a small cross. This is usually done on the forearm. There is no prohibition against tattoo within the Catholic Church, provided that the tattoo is not an image that is sacrilegious, blasphemous, or obscene. At the Catholic council of Calcuth in Northumberland in A.D. 786, Christians who received a tattoo "for the sake of God" (i.e., a religious tattoo in the form of a Drawing of Croat woman with cross, a monogramme of Christ, or a saints name or image) were commended as Christian hand tattoos. praiseworthy. Catholic Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina used tattooing, especially of children, for perceived protection against forced conversion to Islam during Turkish occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1463-1878). This form of tattooing continued long past its original motivation, though it was forbidden during Yugoslavian communism. Tattooing was performed during spring time or during special religious celebrations such as the Feast of St. Joseph, and consisted mostly of Christian crosses on hands, fingers, forearms, and below the neck and on the chest.[23][24][25] Coptic Christians who live in Egypt tattoo themselves with the symbols of Coptic crosses on their right wrists. Mormonism Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (often referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or "Mormons") have been advised by their church leaders to not tattoo their bodies.[26] In the Articles of Faith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints it states that the Latter-day Saints accept the Bible to be the word of God.[27] Therefore, the church believes that the body is a sacred temple as preached in the New Testament,[28] and that they should keep it clean, inside and out. Tattooing, among other things, is discouraged.
  10. 10. Tattoo 8 Islam Tattoos are considered forbidden in Sunni Islam. According to the book of Sunni traditions, Sahih Bukhari, "The Prophet forbade [...] mutilation (or maiming) of bodies."[29] Sunni Muslims believe tattooing is forbidden and a sin because it involves changing the creation of God (Surah 4 Verse 117-120), and because the Prophet cursed the one who does tattoos and the one for whom that is done.[30] There is, however, difference of scholarly Sunni Muslim opinion as to the reason why tattoos are forbidden.[31] The use of temporary tattoos made with henna is very common and is considered permissible in Muslim Morocco,and Tunisia and other predominantly Muslim nations such as Bangladesh, Indonesia and Malaysia. The permissibility of tattoos is debated in Shia Islam, with some Shia pointing to a ruling by Ayatollah Sistani stating they are permitted.[32] Woman applying henna in Morocco, Judaism 2008. Permanent tattoos are forbidden in Sunni Islam, though Tattoos are forbidden in Judaism[33] based on the Torah (Leviticus 19:28): "You their permissibility in Shia Islam is shall not make gashes in your flesh for the dead, or incise any marks on debated. yourselves: I am the Lord." The prohibition is explained by contemporary rabbis as part of a general prohibition on body modification that does not serve a medical purpose (such as to correct a deformity). Maimonides, a leading 12th century scholar of Jewish law and thought, explains the prohibition against tattoos as a Jewish response to paganism. Since it was common practice for ancient pagan worshipers to tattoo themselves with religious iconography and names of gods, Judaism prohibited tattoos entirely in order to disassociate from other religions. In modern times, the association of tattoos with Nazi concentration camps and the Holocaust has given an additional level for revulsion to the practice of tattooing, even among many otherwise fairly secular Jews. It is a common misconception that anyone bearing a tattoo is not permitted to be buried in a Jewish cemetery.
  11. 11. Tattoo 9 Neopagan Neopagans can use the process and the outcome of tattooing as an expression or representation of their beliefs.[34] Many tattooists websites offer pagan images as examples of the kinds of artwork they provide. Procedure Tattooing involves the placement of pigment into the skins dermis, the layer of dermal tissue underlying the epidermis. After initial injection, pigment is dispersed throughout a homogenized damaged layer down through the epidermis and upper dermis, in both of which the presence of foreign material activates the immune systems phagocytes to engulf the pigment particles. As healing proceeds, the damaged epidermis flakes away (eliminating surface pigment) while deeper in the skin granulation tissue forms, which is later converted to connective tissue by collagen growth. This mends the upper dermis, where pigment remains trapped within fibroblasts, ultimately concentrating in a layer just below the dermis/epidermis boundary. Its presence there is stable, but in the long term (decades) the pigment tends to migrate deeper into Modern tattoo machine in use: here outfitted with the dermis, accounting for the degraded detail of old tattoos.[35] a 5-needle setup, but number of needles depends on size and shading desired. Some tribal cultures traditionally created tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents; some cultures continue this practice, which may be an adjunct to scarification. Some cultures create tattooed marks by hand-tapping the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones (made like needles) with clay formed disks or, in modern times, needles. Traditional Japanese tattoos (Horimono) are still "hand-poked," that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel. This method is known as tebori. Traditional Hawaiian hand-tapped tattoos are experiencing a renaissance, after the practice was nearly extinguished in the years following Western contact. The process involves lengthy protocols and prayers and is considered a sacred rite more than an application of artwork. The tattooist chooses the design, rather than the wearer, based on genealogical information. Each design is symbolic of the wearers personal responsibility and role in the community. Tools are hand-carved from bone or tusk without the use of metal.[36] The most common method of tattooing in modern times is the electric tattoo machine, which inserts ink into the skin via a single needle or a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar, which is attached to an oscillating unit. The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 80 to 150 times a second. This modern procedure is ordinarily sanitary. The needles are single-use needles that come packaged individually. The tattoo artist must wash not only his or her hands, but he or she must also wash the area that will be tattooed. Gloves must be worn at all times and the wound must be wiped frequently with a wet disposable towel of some kind. The equipment must be sterilized in a certified autoclave before and after every use. Traditional two coil tattoo machine
  12. 12. Tattoo 10 Prices for this service vary widely globally and locally, depending on the complexity of the tattoo, the skill and expertise of the artist, the attitude of the customer, the costs of running a business, the economics of supply and demand, etc. The time it takes to get a tattoo is in proportion with its size and complexity. A small one of simple design might take fifteen minutes, whereas an elaborate sleeve tattoo or back piece requires multiple sessions of several hours each. The modern electric tattoo machine is far removed from the machine invented by Samuel OReilly in 1891. OReillys machine was based on the rotary technology of the electric engraving device invented by Thomas Edison. Modern tattoo machines use electromagnetic coils. The first coil machine was patented by Thomas Riley in London, 1891 using a single coil. The first twin coil machine, the predecessor of the modern configuration, was invented by another Englishman, Alfred Charles South of London, in 1899. Another tattoo machine was developed 1970-1978 by the German tattoo artists Horst Heinrich Streckenbach[37] (1929–2001) and Manfred Kohrs.[38] Dyes and pigments Early tattoo inks were obtained directly from nature and were extremely limited in pigment variety. In ancient Hawaii, for example, kukui nut ash was blended with coconut oil to produce an ebony ink.[36] Today, an almost unlimited number of colors and shades of tattoo ink are mass-produced and sold to parlors worldwide. Tattoo artists commonly mix these inks to create their own unique pigments. Rotation- Tattoo- Machine by Manfred Kohrs; Number 1978 K A wide range of dyes and pigments can be used in tattoos, from inorganic materials like titanium dioxide and iron oxides to carbon black, azo dyes, and acridine, quinoline, phthalocyanine and naphthol derivates, dyes made from ash, and other mixtures. Iron oxide pigments are used in greater extent in cosmetic tattooing. Modern tattooing inks are carbon based pigments that have uses outside of commercial tattoo applications. In 2005 at Northern Arizona University a study characterized the makeup of tattoo inks A variety of inks at a station in a tattoo shop. The (Finley-Jones and Wagner). The FDA expects local authorities to small paper cups on the counter are used for legislate and test tattoo pigments and inks made for the use of mixing inks. permanent cosmetics. In California, the state prohibits certain ingredients and pursues companies who fail to notify the consumer of the contents of tattoo pigments. There has been concern expressed about the interaction between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures and tattoo pigments, some of which contain trace metals. The magnetic fields produced by MRI machines interact with these metals, including nonferrous metal particles, and while rare, are capable of causing first-degree or second-degree burns [39] or distortions in the image. The type and density of the ink as well as shape of the tattoo may increase the risk, particularly if the shape approximates an RF pick-up loop[40]. The television show MythBusters tested the hypothesis, and found a slight interaction between commonly used tattoo inks and MRI. The
  13. 13. Tattoo 11 interaction was stronger with inks containing high levels of iron oxide.[41][42] Studio hygiene The properly equipped tattoo studio will use biohazard containers for objects that have come into contact with blood or bodily fluids, sharps containers for old needles, and an autoclave for sterilizing tools.[43] Certain jurisdictions also require studios by law to have a sink in the work area supplied with both hot and cold water. Proper hygiene requires a body modification artist to wash his or her hands before starting to prepare a client for the stencil, between clients, and at any other time where cross contamination can occur. The use of single use disposable gloves is also mandatory. Also, disposable gloves Traditional tattooing among the Dayak people of West Borneo, ca. 1927 should be taken off after each stage of tattooing. The same gloves should not be used to clean the tattoo station, tattoo the client, or clean the tattoo; the tattoo artist should change their disposable gloves at each stage. In some states and countries it is illegal to tattoo a minor even with parental consent, and (except in the case of medical tattoos) it is forbidden to tattoo impaired persons, people with contraindicated skin conditions, those who are pregnant or nursing, those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity or those under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Before the tattooing begins the client is asked to approve the final position of the applied stencil. After approval is given the artist will open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, and always use new, sterile or sterile disposable instruments and supplies, and fresh ink for each session (loaded into disposable ink caps which are discarded after each client). Also, all areas which may be touched with contaminated gloves will be wrapped in clear plastic to prevent cross-contamination. Equipment that cannot be autoclaved (such as counter tops, machines, and furniture) will be wiped with an approved disinfectant.[44] Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement, generally helps artists to be aware of the latest trends. However, many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association. While specific requirements to become a tattooist vary between jurisdictions, many mandate only formal training in bloodborne pathogens, and cross Tattoo artist drawing a design on a contamination. The local department of health regulates tattoo studios in many client before permanent tattooing. jurisdictions. Disposable gloves are used in modern tattooing for hygiene. For example, according to the health departments in Oregon and Hawaii, tattoo artists in these states are required to take and pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions, as well as the current state regulations. Performing a tattoo in Oregon state without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is a felony offense.[45] Tattooing was legalized in New York City in 1997,[46] and in Massachusetts and Oklahoma between 2002 and 2006.
  14. 14. Tattoo 12 Aftercare Tattoo artists, and people with tattoos, vary widely in their preferred methods of caring for new tattoos. Some artists recommend keeping a new tattoo wrapped for the first twenty-four hours, while others suggest removing temporary bandaging after two hours or less to allow the skin to breathe. Many tattooists advise against allowing too much contact with hot tub or pool water, or soaking in a tub for the first two weeks. This is to prevent the tattoo ink from washing out or fading due to over-hydration and to avoid infection from exposure to bacteria. In contrast, other artists suggest that a new tattoo be bathed in very hot Tattoo specific salves have become prevalent in water early. recent years. General consensus for care advises against removing the scab that may form on a new tattoo, and avoiding exposing ones tattoo to the sun for extended periods for at least 3 weeks; both of these can contribute to fading of the image. Furthermore, it is agreed that a new tattoo needs to be kept clean. Various products may be recommended for application to the skin, ranging from those intended for the treatment of cuts, burns and scrapes, to cocoa butter, hemp, salves, lanolin, A&D, Bepanthen or Aquaphor.[47] Oil based ointments are almost always recommended to be used in very thin layers due to their inability to evaporate and therefore over-hydrate the already perforated skin. In recent years, specific commercial products have been developed for tattoo aftercare. Although opinions about these products vary, there is near total agreement that either alone or in addition to some other product, soap and warm water work well to keep a tattoo clean and free from infection.[48] Ultimately, the amount of ink that remains in the skin throughout the healing process determines, in large part, how robust the final tattoo will look. If a tattoo becomes infected (uncommon but possible if one neglects to properly clean their tattoo) or if the scab falls off too soon (e.g. if it absorbs too much water and sloughs off early or is picked or scraped off), then the ink will not be properly fixed in the skin and the final image will be negatively affected. Health risks Because it requires breaking the skin barrier, tattooing may carry health risks, including infection and allergic reactions. Modern tattooists reduce such risks by following universal precautions, working with single-use items, and sterilizing their equipment after each use. Many jurisdictions require that tattooists have blood-borne pathogen training, such as is provided through the Red Cross and OSHA. In amateur tattoos, such as those applied in prisons, however, there is an elevated risk of infection. Infections that can theoretically be transmitted by the use of unsterilized tattoo equipment or contaminated ink include surface infections of the skin, herpes simplex virus, tetanus, staph, fungal infections, some forms of hepatitis, tuberculosis, and HIV.[49] In the United States there have been no reported cases of HIV contracted via commercially-applied tattooing process.[50] Tattoo inks have been described as "remarkably nonreactive histologically".[35] Modern tattoo artists nitrile gloves However, cases of allergic reactions to tattoo inks, particularly certain colors, and sterilized equipment have been medically documented. This is sometimes due to nickel in an ink pigment, which is a common metal allergy.[51] Occasionally, when a blood vessel is punctured during the tattooing procedure a bruise/hematoma may appear.
  15. 15. Tattoo 13 Tattoo removal While tattoos are considered permanent, it is sometimes possible to remove them with laser treatments, fully or partially. Typically, black and some colored inks can be removed more completely. The expense and pain of removing tattoos will typically be greater than the expense and pain of applying them. Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion, salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery, and excision which is sometimes still used along with skin grafts for larger tattoos.[52] These older methods however have been nearly completely replaced by laser removal treatment options. Temporary tattoos Temporary tattoos are popular with models and children as they involve no permanent alteration of the skin but produce a similar appearance that can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. The most common style is a type of body sticker similar to a decal, which is typically transferred to the skin using water. Although the design is waterproof, it can be removed easily with oil-based creams. Originally inserted as a prize in bubble gum packages, they consisted of a poor quality ink transfer that would easily come off with water or rubbing. Todays vegetable dye temporaries can look extremely realistic and adhere up to 3 weeks due to a layer of glue similar to that found on an adhesive bandage. Henna tattoos (Mehndi) and silver nitrate stains that appear when exposed to ultraviolet light can take up to two weeks to fade from the skin. Silver nitrate is, however, a toxic substance and should not be used on skin.[53] Temporary Temporary tattoo being applied to a human ankle airbrush tattoos (TATs) are applied by covering the skin with a stencil and spraying the skin with ink. In the past, this form of tattoo only lasted about a week. With the newest inks, tattoos can reasonably last for up to two weeks. Airbrush tattoos are generally sprayed with cosmetic paints. The ease of removal is a factor in their growing popularity. Unlike henna tattoos, the cosmetic paints can be rubbed off with isopropyl alcohol. Gallery Maori chief, New Japan, 1889 Yakuza members Latin Kings gang member Zealand, c. 1880 display their showing his gang tattoo full-body tattoos
  16. 16. Tattoo 14 Traditional tattoo of Datoga people, Tanzania References Bibliography Anthropological • Buckland, A. W. (1887) "On Tattooing," in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1887/12, p. 318-328 • Caplan, Jane (ed.) (2000): Written on the Body: the Tattoo in European and American History, Princeton U P • DeMello, Margo (2000) Bodies of Inscription: a Cultural History of the Modern Tattoo Community, California. Durham NC: Duke University Press • Fisher, Jill A. (2002). Tattooing the Body, Marking Culture. Body & Society 8 (4): pp. 91–107. • Gell, Alfred (1993) Wrapping in Images: Tattooing in Polynesia, Oxford: Clarendon Press • Gilbert, Stephen G. (2001) Tattoo History: a Source Book, New York: Juno Books • Gustafson, Mark (1997) "Inscripta in fronte: Penal Tattooing in Late Antiquity," in Classical Antiquity, April 1997, Vol. 16/No. 1, p. 79-105 • Hambly, Wilfrid Dyson (1925) The History of Tattooing and Its Significance: With Some Account of Other Forms of Corporal Marking, London: H. F.& G. Witherby (reissued: Detroit 1974) • Hesselt van Dinter, Maarten (2005) The World of Tattoo; An Illustrated History. Amsterdam, KIT Publishers • Jones, C. P. (1987) "Stigma: Tattooing and Branding in Graeco-Roman Antiquity," in Journal of Roman Studies, 77/1987, pp. 139–155 • Juno, Andrea. Modern Primitives. Re/Search #12 (October 1989) ISBN 0-9650469-3-1 • "Tattooing Among Japans Ainu People" [54]. Lars Krutak. Retrieved 2009-08-24. • Lombroso, Cesare (1896) "The Savage Origin of Tattooing," in Popular Science Monthly, Vol. IV., 1896 • Pang, Joey (2008) Tattoo Art Expressions, http://www.tattootemple.hk • Raviv, Shaun (2006) Marked for Life: Jews and Tattoos (Moment Magazine; June 2006) • Comparative study about Ötzis therapeutic tattoos (L. Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract) [55] • Robley, Horatio (1896) Moko, or, Maori tattooing. London: Chapman and Hall • Roth, H. Ling (1901) Maori tatu and moko. In: Journal of the Anthropological Institute v. 31, January–June 1901 • Rubin, Arnold (ed.) (1988) Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformations of the Human Body, Los Angeles: UCLA Museum of Cultural History • Sanders, Clinton R. (1989) Customizing the Body: the Art and Culture of Tattooing. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
  17. 17. Tattoo 15 • Sinclair, A. T. (1909) "Tattooing of the North American Indians," in American Anthropologist 1909/11, No. 3, p. 362-400 • Wianecki, Shannon (2011) "Marked"[[Maui No Ka Oi Magazine [56]].] Popular and artistic • Green, Terisa. Ink: The Not-Just-Skin-Deep Guide to Getting a Tattoo ISBN 0-451-21514-1 • Green, Terisa. The Tattoo Encyclopedia: A Guide to Choosing Your Tattoo ISBN 0-7432-2329-2 • Krakow, Amy. Total Tattoo Book ISBN 0-446-67001-4 Medical • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDCs Position on Tattooing and HCV Infection [57], retrieved June 12, 2006 • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Body Art (workplace hazards) [58], retrieved September 15, 2008 • United States Food and Drug Administration, "Tattoos and Permanent Makeup" [59], CFSAN/Office of Cosmetics and Colors (2000; updated [2004, 2006]), retrieved June 12, 2006 • Haley R.W. and Fischer R.P., Commercial tattooing as a potential source of hepatitis C infection, Medicine, March 2000;80:134-151 Notes [1] Nick Groom, The Union Jack: The Story Of The British Flag, Atlantic Books:London (2006) [2] http:/ / www. inquisitr. com/ 152414/ barbie-tattoos-lead-to-predictable-media-hysteria-world-to-end-soon/ [3] http:/ / www. news. com. au/ entertainment/ fashion/ im-inked-therefore-i-am-why-tatts-have-left-a-mark-on-gen-y/ story-e6frfn7i-1225945591327 [4] Samoa: Samoan Tattoos (http:/ / www. polynesia. com/ samoa/ samoan-tattoos. html), Polynesian Cultural Center, [5] Tattoo 2. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000 (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 61/ 89/ T0058900. html) [6] Roth, H. Ling (1900) On Permanent Artificial Skin Marks: a definition of terms. Anthropological Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Bradford, September 11th 1900 [7] Tattoos: Egyptian Mummies from BMEzine.com Encyclopedia (http:/ / wiki. bmezine. com/ index. php/ Egyptian_Mummies); Tattoos: Pazyryk Mummies from BMEzine.com Encyclopedia (http:/ / wiki. bmezine. com/ index. php/ Pazyryk_Mummies) [8] "Tattoo" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 584263/ tattoo#tab=active~checked,items~checked& title=tattoo -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia). Encyclopaedia Britannica. . [9] Tattoos, Body Piercings, and Other Skin Adornments (http:/ / www. aad. org/ public/ Publications/ pamphlets/ cosmetic_tattoos. html) [10] "Down the Mine" (1937) in the collection "Inside The Whale" (1940), George Orwell [11] Adrienne Mayor People Illustrated (http:/ / www. archaeology. org/ 9903/ abstracts/ tattoo. html) Archaeological Institute of America Volume 52 Number 2, March/April 1999 [12] Mifflin, Margot. Bodies of Subversion A secret History of Women and Tattoo. New York City: Juno Books, 1997. [13] Deb Acord "Who knew: Mommy has a tattoo", Maine Sunday Telegram November 19, 2006 [14] The Chicago art exhibition, Freaks & Flash (http:/ / www. art. org/ exhibitions/ archives/ 2009/ tattoo. htm), for example, juxtaposed circus sideshow banners depicting tattooed performers like "The Tattooed Lady" alongside art inspired by the tattoo Renaissance of the 1960s and 1970s. [15] "CELEBRITY TATTOOS-BECKHAM, JOHNY DEPP" (http:/ / surftolondon. com/ celebrity-tattoos-beckham-depp). http:/ / surftolondon. com: Surf to London. . Retrieved 6 July 2011. "tattoos like David Beckham’s" [16] Laumann AE, Derick AJ (September 2006), "Tattoos and body piercings in the United States: a national data set", Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 55 (3): 413–21, doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.03.026, PMID 16908345 [17] The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. A Portrait of "Generation Next" (http:/ / people-press. org/ report/ 300/ a-portrait-of-generation-next) [18] Harris Interactive. Three in ten Americans with a tattoo say having one makes them feel sexier or more artsy (http:/ / www. harrisinteractive. com/ harris_poll/ index. asp?PID=868) [19] NYtimes.com (http:/ / travel. nytimes. com/ frommers/ travel/ guides/ asia/ japan/ tokyo/ frm_tokyo_0085022417. html) [20] Ito, Masami, " Whether covered or brazen, tattoos make a statement (http:/ / search. japantimes. co. jp/ cgi-bin/ nn20100608i1. html)", Japan Times, June 8, 2010, p. 3. [21] Andrew Lichtenstein, Texas Prison Tattoos (http:/ / www. foto8. com/ issue01/ dprisontattoos/ prisontattoos1. html), , retrieved 2007-12-08
  18. 18. Tattoo 16 [22] Carroll L, Anderson R (2002), "Body piercing, tattooing, self-esteem, and body investment in adolescent girls", Adolescence 37 (147): 627–37, PMID 12458698 [23] Darko Zubrinic (1995), Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina (http:/ / www. croatianhistory. net/ etf/ et02. html), Zagreb, [24] Croatianhistory.net (http:/ / www. croatianhistory. net/ etf/ et02. html#tattoo) [25] Customs and folkways of Jewish life, Theodor Herzl Gaster. [26] Latter-day Saints commanded to not be tattooed (http:/ / lds. org/ ldsorg/ v/ index. jsp?hideNav=1& locale=0& sourceId=c6f0b5658af22110VgnVCM100000176f620a____& vgnextoid=2354fccf2b7db010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD) [27] "We believe the Bible to be the word of God ..." LDS.org (http:/ / scriptures. lds. org/ en/ a_of_f/ 1/ 8#8) [28] 1 Cor 3:10-17 (http:/ / scriptures. lds. org/ en/ 1_cor/ 3/ 10-17#10); read all these verses to understand the full context [29] Sahih Bukhari, Oppressions, Volume 3, Book 43, Number 654 [30] ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood wrote: “May or may not Allaah curse the women who do tattoos and those for whom tattoos are done, those who pluck their eyebrows and nose hairs, and those who file their teeth for the purpose of beautification and alter the creation of Allaah.” (al-Bukhaari, al-Libaas, 5587; Muslim, al-Libaas, 5538) [31] "Ruling of Tattoos in Islam". Retrieved 2009-03-25 (http:/ / www. muslimconverts. com/ cosmetics/ tattoos. htm) [32] Rulings of Grand Ayatullah Sistani - Youths Issues Posted 18 October 2006 (http:/ / www. alulbayt. com/ rulings/ 15. htm) [33] "Tattooing in Jewish Law". Retrieved 2009-06-25 (http:/ / www. myjewishlearning. com/ practices/ Ethics/ Our_Bodies/ Adorning_the_Body/ Tattoos. shtml) [34] Earthtides Pagan Network News, Spring 2010 (http:/ / www. earthtides. org/ Newsletters/ EPNNSpring2010. pdf) [35] Tattoo lasers / Histology (http:/ / www. emedicine. com/ derm/ topic563. htm#section~histology), Suzanne Kilmer, eMedicine [36] "Marked" (http:/ / www. mauimagazine. net/ Maui-Magazine/ July-August-2011/ Marked/ ) Article by Shannon Wianecki in Maui No Ka Oi Magazine, Vol.15 No. 4 July 2011.] [37] de:Horst Heinrich Streckenbach tattoo samy, german [38] Vgl. Marcel Feige, Das Tattoo-und Piercing Lexikon, S. 282, ISBN 3-89602-209-1. [39] Franiel T, Schmidt S, Kligebiel R (November 2006). "First-Degree Burns on MRI due to Nonferrous Tattoos" (http:/ / www. ajronline. org/ content/ 187/ 5/ W556. long). AJR Am J Roentgenol 187 (5). doi:10.2214/AJR.06.5082. PMID 17056894. . [40] Wagle William A, Smith Martin (2000). AJR Am J Roentgenol 174 (6): 1795. PMID 10845532. http:/ / www. ajronline. org/ content/ 174/ 6/ 1795. long. [41] "Mythbusters: Can a tattoo explode in an MRI machine?" (http:/ / youtube. com/ watch?v=PAnz95zzEzk). . [42] Karen L. Hudson. "Tattoos and MRI Scans" (http:/ / tattoo. about. com/ cs/ tatfaq/ a/ mri_scan. htm). about.com. . [43] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Body Art: Preventing Needlestick Injuries (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ bbp/ bodyart/ needlestick. html). Retrieved September 15, 2008. [44] Tattoos (http:/ / www. kidshealth. org/ teen/ your_body/ skin_stuff/ safe_tattooing. html), Renee Kottenhahn, TeensHealth [45] Oregon State Health Department (http:/ / www. oregon. gov/ OHLA/ links. shtml) [46] NYC24.org (http:/ / www. nyc24. org/ 2003/ issue4/ story4/ page2. html) [47] http:/ / tattoo. about. com/ cs/ beginners/ a/ blaftercare. htm [48] Tattoo Post Operative Care (http:/ / www. thetattoocollection. com/ tattoo_post_operative_care. htm) [49] Tattoos: Risks and precautions to know first - MayoClinic.com (http:/ / www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ tattoos-and-piercings/ MC00020) [50] HIV and Its Transmission (http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ hiv/ resources/ factsheets/ transmission. htm) July 1999, CDC [51] The Science of Tattoos (http:/ / www. dermadoctor. com/ article_The-Science-Of-Tattoos_113. html) December 2011 [52] Images of Tattoo removal procedure (http:/ / www. tattoo-bewertung. de/ content/ aktuelle-laserbehandlung), , retrieved 2011-01-12 [53] "Safety data for silver nitrate" (http:/ / msds. chem. ox. ac. uk/ SI/ silver_nitrate. html). PTCL Safety. . Retrieved 3 March 2011. [54] http:/ / www. vanishingtattoo. com/ tattooing_among_japans_ainu. htm [55] http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=GatewayURL& _origin=AUGATEWAY& _method=citationSearch& _piikey=S0003552103000840& _version=1& md5=f6dd58d559c19d58799b93a66225b038 [56] http:/ / www. mauimagazine. net/ Maui-Magazine/ July-August-2011/ Marked/ [57] http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ hepatitis/ C/ cFAQ. htm#cFAQ10 [58] http:/ / www. cdc. gov/ niosh/ topics/ body_art/ [59] http:/ / www. fda. gov/ Cosmetics/ ProductandIngredientSafety/ ProductInformation/ ucm108530. htm External links • September 11 Memorial Tattoos in the Staten Island Historical Society Online Collections Database (http:// statenisland.pastperfect-online.com/00039cgi/mweb.exe?request=keyword;keyword=indelible memories;dtypewanted=;dtype=d)
  19. 19. Tattoo artist 17 Tattoo artist A tattoo artist (also tattooer or tattooist) is an individual who applies permanent decorative tattoos, often in an established business called a "tattoo shop," "tattoo studio" or "tattoo parlour." Tattoo artists usually learn their craft via an apprenticeship under a trained and experienced mentor. Apprenticeships To become a tattoo artist a person must first have a passion for art and for drawing and also be able to draw. A strong tattoo in other A tattoo artist performs a tattoo. visual media also will help in creating phenomenal works of art on skin. The next step is to gain an apprenticeship from a person that is already skilled in the art of tattooing.[1] A tattoo apprenticeship traditionally last 5 years. 6 months to 1 year in your apprenticeship is when you are allowed to start tattooing. The rest of your time is spent improving your techniques and skill. After 5 years you become a journeyman. Although you have "finished" your apprenticeship, that was only the start of a long journey of education. You are always learning new techniques and skills from fellow journeyman along the way. At 10 years you are considered a well traveled journeyman. Tattoo Artwork Tattoo artists can create original tattoos for their customers Tattooers or tattooists may use flash (pre-drawn, stock images that can be traced onto the skin). Tattoo Tools Some of the tools of the trade have greatly evolved, and some have stayed the same. Such as the tattoo machine. In itself the traditional machine has not changed from its original design and/or concept. With the rise of new machine designs, the rotary both air and electric powered tools has made its way into the industry. A practitioner can also have many different needle sets. Such as round liner needles, round shader needles, flat shaders, and mag needles. The amount of needles attached to the needle bar change as well. There are large magnum needle groups from 15 needles on one bar, all the way to 55 needles on one bar. A practitioner must have the basic tools in order to provide a tattoo. All other items at the artists disposal are as different as each tattoo. Basic tools are the tattoo machine, power supply, clip cord, foot pedal, grip, tips, grip stem, needles, and tattoo ink.
  20. 20. Tattoo artist 18 Tattoo Studio The properly equipped tattoo studio will use biohazard containers for objects that have come into contact with blood or bodily fluids, sharps containers for old needles, and an autoclave for sterilizing tools when they are not using disposables. Certain jurisdictions also require studios by law to have a sink in the work area supplied with both hot and cold water. Proper hygiene requires a body modification artist to wash his or her hands before starting to prepare a client for the stencil,between clients, after a tattoo has been completed, and at any other time where cross contamination can occur. The use of single use disposable gloves is also mandatory. In some countries and U.S. states it is illegal to tattoo a minor even with parental consent, and it is usually not allowed to tattoo impaired persons (e.g. someone intoxicated or under the influence of drugs), people with contraindicated skin conditions, those who are pregnant or nursing, or those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity. Before the tattooing begins the client is asked to approve the position of the applied stencil. After approval is given the artist will open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, and always use new, sterile or sterile disposable instruments and supplies, and fresh ink for each session (loaded into disposable ink caps which are discarded after each client). Also, all areas which may be touched with contaminated gloves will be wrapped in clear plastic to prevent cross-contamination. Equipment that cannot be autoclaved (such as countertops, machines, and furniture) will be cleaned with a low level disinfectant and then wiped with an approved high level disinfectant. The local health department can/will do a hands on inspection of tattoo studios every 4 months in the state of Tennessee. The venue will be graded based on the areas being inspected. If the studio passed an inspection, the health department will sign off on a passing scorecard and the studio will be required to show their score publicly. If the studio fails an inspection, they will be given the opportunity to correct the mistakes (if minor) or be fined (major health risks)and can also be placed out of business on the spot. Also, the possession of a working autoclave is mandatory in most states. An autoclave is a medical sterilization device used to sterilize stainless steel. The autoclave itself will be inspected by the health department and required to submit weekly spore tests. However if these jurisdictions are up to date, they will not require an autoclave if the practitioners are using 100% disposable tubes and grips which are made of plastic and some grips are made of rubber. These come EO Gas [2] pre sterilized for one time use only and must never be re sterilized. Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement, generally helps artists to be aware of the latest trends. However, many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association. While specific requirements to become a tattooist vary between jurisdictions, many mandate only formal training in bloodborne pathogens, and cross contamination. The local department of health regulates tattoo studios in many jurisdictions. For example, according to the health departments in Oregon and Hawaii, tattoo artists in these states are required to take and pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions, as well as the current state regulations. Performing a tattoo in Oregon state without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is considered a felony offense.[3] Tattooing was legalized in New York City, Massachusetts, South Carolina and Oklahoma between 2002 and 2006.[4]
  21. 21. Tattoo artist 19 References [1] Hudson, K."How To Become a Tattoo (http:/ / ttattoopassion-fashionstlylemania. blogspot. com/ ) Artist" About.com , - http:/ / tattoo. about. com/ od/ tattoosgeneralinfo/ ht/ beatattooartist. htm [2] http:/ / www. eurotherm-lifesciences. com/ en-GB/ applications/ eto-sterilization/ [3] Oregon state health dept. - http:/ / www. oregon. gov/ OHLA/ links. shtml [4] Americana Pop Tattoo Company, A Tattoo Studio Located In Boston, Ma - http:/ / www. aptattoo. com Tattoo convention A tattoo convention is a meeting and exhibition for tattoo practitioners and enthusiasts, as well as anyone who wishes to see the world of tattooing up close. The first world tattoo convention was held by Dave Yurkew on January 24th-25th, 1976 in Houston, Texas.[1] Dave Yurkew, who was also President of the North American Tattoo Club[2] went on to host another 6 consecutive World Tattoo Conventions through 1982.[3] Lyle Tuttle was quoted as saying that this was "The event that changed tattooing forever".[4] Don Ed Hardy and Dave Yurkew at the 2nd World On January 19th-21st 1996, Dave Yurkew and Lyle Tuttle Tattoo Convention in Reno Nevada, 1977. co-hosted the 20th Anniversary of the First World Tattoo Convention in Houston, Texas[5], following up with the 25th anniversary on January 18th-21st 2001 in Houston, hosted by Dave Yurkew and John Stuckey[6]. The first I.T.A.A. Convention were held in 1977 in Reno, the first National Convention in Denver, Colorado March 23rd - 25th, 1979 at the Cosmopolitan Hotel. Speakers at this convention were: Don Ed Hardy, Terry Wrigley, Peter Tat 2 Poulos, Diane Poulos, Bob Shaw , Big Walt Kilkucki, Painless Jeff Baker, Dave Yurkew, and from Germany Horst Heinrich Streckenbach and Manfred Kohrs.[7] tattoo convention in 2008. Tattoo conventions range from small events sponsored by a local business that may last a day, to major international conventions spanning a weekend or the better part of a week. They may include contests and exhibitions, booths selling tattoo-related items and even booths rented for use by tattoo artists who work during the convention. Collectors may attend conventions specifically to obtain a tattoo from a particular visiting artist. Other events may include professional events such as workshops and meetings as well as social events. Contests, usually restricted to registered participants, usually feature a variety of categories: black-and-gray, tribal, oriental, backpiece, women, men, and so on. Judging may be by vote or by a panel of judges. The first tattoo convention in London, England took place in 2005.[8]
  22. 22. Tattoo convention 20 References [1] [http://img202.imageshack.us/img202/8196/1stll.jpg [2] http:/ / img98. imageshack. us/ img98/ 8458/ prezt. jpg [3] http:/ / img683. imageshack. us/ img683/ 7204/ 7thq. jpg [4] http:/ / img64. imageshack. us/ img64/ 1808/ tutquote. jpg [5] http:/ / img11. imageshack. us/ img11/ 8455/ 20thc. jpg [6] http:/ / img11. imageshack. us/ img11/ 8455/ 20thc. jpg [7] NT (http:/ / www. nationaltattooassociation. com/ fullhistory. html) [8] FOX news - Passion for tattoos on display in London (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,171616,00. html) Tattoo ink Tattoo inks consist of pigments combined with a carrier, and are used in tattooing. Tattoo inks are available in a range of colors that can be thinned or mixed together to produce other colors and shades. Most professional tattoo artists purchase inks pre-made (known as pre-dispersed inks), while some tattooers mix their own using a dry pigment and a carrier.[1] Tattoo ink is generally permanent. Tattoo removal is difficult, painful, and the degree of success depends on the materials used. Recently developed inks claim to be comparatively easy to remove. Unsubstantiated claims have been made that some inks fade over time, yielding a "semi-permanent tattoo." Ingredients Regulations In the United States, tattoo inks are subject to regulation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as cosmetics and color additives.[2] The FDA and medical practitioners have noted that many ink pigments used in tattoos are “industrial strength colors suitable for printers’ ink or automobile paint.”[3][4] In California, Proposition 65 requires that Californians be warned before exposure to certain harmful chemicals;[5] tattoo parlors in California must warn their patrons that tattoo inks contain heavy metals known to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.[5] Pigment bases Manufacturers are not required to reveal their ingredients or conduct trials, and recipes may be proprietary. Professional inks may be made from iron oxides (rust), metal salts, plastics.[6] Homemade or traditional tattoo inks may be made from pen ink, soot, dirt, blood,or other ingredients.[3][7] Heavy metals used for colors include mercury (red); lead (yellow, green, white); cadmium (red, orange, yellow); nickel (black); zinc (yellow, white); chromium (green); cobalt (blue); aluminium (green, violet); titanium (white); copper (blue, green); iron (brown, red, black); and barium (white). Metal oxides used include ferrocyanide and ferricyanide (yellow, red, green, blue). Organic chemicals used include azo-chemicals (orange, brown, yellow, green, violet) and naptha-derived chemicals (red). Carbon (soot or ash) is also used for black. Other compounds used as pigments include antimony, arsenic, beryllium, calcium, lithium, selenium, and sulphur.[5][7] Tattoo ink manufacturers typically blend the heavy metal pigments and/or use lightening agents (such as lead or titanium) to reduce production costs.[7]
  23. 23. Tattoo ink 21 Carriers A carrier acts as a solvent for the pigment, to “carry” the pigment from the point of needle trauma to the surrounding dermis. Carriers keep the ink evenly mixed and free from pathogens, and aid application. The most typical solvent is ethyl alcohol or water, but denatured alcohols, methanol, rubbing alcohol, propylene glycol, and glycerine are also used. When an alcohol is used as part of the carrier base in tattoo ink or to disinfect the skin before application of the tattoo, it increases the skins permeability, helping to transport more chemicals into the bloodstream. Health concerns A variety of medical problems, though uncommon, can result from tattooing. Medical workers have observed rare but severe medical complications from tattoo pigments in the body,[8] and have noted that people acquiring tattoos rarely assess health risks prior to receiving their tattoos.[9] Other tattoo inks Glow in the dark ink and blacklight ink Both blacklight and glow in the dark inks have been used for tattooing. Glow in the dark ink absorbs and retains light, and then glows in darkened conditions by process of phosphorescence. Blacklight ink does not glow in the dark, but reacts to non-visible UV light, producing a visible glow by fluorescence. The resulting glow of both these inks is highly variable. The safety of such inks for use on humans is widely debated in the tattoo community. The ingredients in some "glow" inks are listed as: (PMMA) Polymethylmethacrylate 97.5% and microspheres of fluorescent dye 2.5% suspended in UV sterilized, distilled water. These inks are as safe as any on the market. However you are well advised to test a small piece of skin before committing to a large piece. Removable tattoo ink While tattoo ink is in generally very painful and laborious to remove, tattoo removal being quite involved, a recently introduced ink has been developed to be easier to remove by laser treatments than traditional inks. Black henna Health Canada has advised against the use of "black henna" temporary tattoo ink which contains para-phenylenediamine (PPD), an ingredient in hair dyes. Black henna is normally applied externally in temporary Mehandi applications, rather than being inserted beneath the skin in a permanent tattoo. Allergic reactions to PPD include rashes, contact dermatitis, itching, blisters, open sores, scarring and other potentially harmful effects.[10] Ancient Roman recipe The Roman physician Aetius created a recipe for tattoo ink. [11] One pound of Egyptian pine bark Two ounces of corroded bronze, ground with vinegar Two ounces of gall (insect egg deposits) One ounce of vitriol (iron sulphate) Mix well and sift. Soak powder in 2 parts water and 1 part leek juice. Wash the skin to be tattooed with leek juice. Prick design with needles until blood is drawn. Rub in the ink.
  24. 24. Tattoo ink 22 Notes [1] Tattoo Ink Carrier Chemistry: The Liquid Part of Tattoo Ink (http:/ / chemistry. about. com/ od/ medicalhealth/ a/ tattoocarrier. htm), Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. [2] http:/ / www. fda. gov/ forconsumers/ consumerupdates/ ucm048919. htm [3] (http:/ / www. fda. gov/ ForConsumers/ ConsumerUpdates/ ucm048919. htm), Mayo Clinic, retrieved 19 October 2009 [4] Engel E, Santarelli F, Vasold R, et al. (2008). "Modern tattoos cause high concentrations of hazardous pigments in skin". Contact Dermatitis 58 (4): 228–33. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01301.x. PMID 18353031. [5] Metal Toxicity: Tattoos: Safe Symbols? (http:/ / www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/ articlerender. fcgi?artid=1280436), Environmental Health Perspectives, retrieved 19 October 2009 [6] Tattoo Ink Chemistry (http:/ / chemistry. about. com/ library/ weekly/ aa121602a. htm), retrieved 19 October 2009 [7] Poon, Kelvin Weng Chun (2008), In situ chemical analysis of tattooing inks and pigments: modern organic and traditional pigments in ancient mummified remains, University of Western Australia [8] Antal AS, Hanneken S, Neumann NJ, et al. (2008). "Erhebliche zeitliche Variationsbreite von Komplikationen nach Tätowierungen". Der Hautarzt 59 (10): 769–71. PMID 18773181. [9] Möhrenschlager M, Worret WI, Köhn FM (2006). "Tattoos and permanent make-up: background and complications". MMW Fortschr Med. 148 (41): 34–6. PMID 17190258. [10] http:/ / www. hc-sc. gc. ca/ ahc-asc/ media/ advisories-avis/ 2003/ 2003_66_e. html [11] http:/ / www. thetattoocollection. com/ history_of_tattoos. htm References • Health Canada website (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2003/2003_66_e.html) • About.com article on tattoo inks (http://chemistry.about.com/od/medicalhealth/a/tattoocarrier.htm) Tattoo machine A tattoo machine is a hand-held device generally used to create a tattoo, a permanent marking of the skin with indelible ink. Modern tattoo machines use electromagnetic coils to move an armature bar up and down, Connected to said armature bar is a barred needle grouping that pushes ink into the skin. Tattoo artists generally use the term "machine", or even "iron", to refer to their equipment. The word "gun" is often used but is looked down upon by professional artists. A modern two-coil tattoo machine, held as it would be when in use
  25. 25. Tattoo machine 23 Two-coil tattoo machine History The predecessor to the tattoo machine was the electric pen invented by Thomas Alva Edison and patented under the title Stencil-Pens in Newark, New Jersey, United States in 1876.[2] It was originally intended to be used as a duplicating device, but in 1891, Samuel OReilly discovered that Edisons machine could be modified and used to introduce ink into the skin, and later patented a tube and needle system to provide an ink reservoir. While OReillys machine was based on the tattoo rotary technology of Edisons device, modern tattoo machines use electromagnets. The first machine based on this technology was a single coil machine patented by Thomas Riley of London, just twenty days after OReilly filed the patent for his rotary machine. For his machine, Riley placed a modified doorbell assembly in a brass box. The modern two-coil configuration was patented by Alfred Charles South, also of London. Because it was [1] so heavy, a spring was often attached to the top of the machine and the U.S. Patent 196747 , Stencil-Pens ceiling to take most of the weight off the operators hand. Most modern tattoo machines can control needle depth, speed, and force of application, which has allowed tattooing to become a very precise art form. Such advancements in precision have also produced a style of facial tattooing that has attained mainstream popularity in America called dermapigmentation, or "permanent cosmetics". The basis of the modern tattoo machine is still relatively unchanged from the 1820 discovery by a Danish inventor Hans Christian Oersted called electromagnetism (Brian & Cohen 2007). Oersted’s invention is now known, in what is commonly implemented as a prime motor for the doorbell circuit, as the basis for all modern coil tattoo systems. Modern tattoo is symbolized by the advent of the mechanized version of the emplacement of some form of ink or dye under the skin. The basic usage was first transposed from an invention patented in 1876 by Thomas Edison (U.S. Patent 196,747). Edison’s machine was not intended for the skin, but for creating embroidery patterns by means of an electric punch. This concept was further elaborated on in 1891 by Samuel O’Reilly, who took a modified version of Edison’s now dual coiled mechanism and deemed it proper for skin tattooing (U.S. Patent 196,747). It is argued that O’Reilly was the inventor, even though it is actually Charlie Wagner who holds the 1904 patent for the “tattoo machine” (www.tattooarchive.com). This patent demonstrates that the “tattoo device” has an ink chamber or “tube” and uses the single coil method for movement of the armature bar. In 1929 Percy Waters received his patent for the dual coil tattoo machine, which was set in a frame (U.S. Patent 1724812). Another patent was issued in 1979 to Carol Nightengale, who made some substantial modifications to the frame (U.S. Patent #4159659). Some of Nightengale’s
  26. 26. Tattoo machine 24 modifications can be seen today in cutback machines, and fully adjustable frame styles. Nightengale’s version was also the first patented design that utilized front and rear spring apertures. While the history of the modern machine appears just as obscure as that of the history of the ancient process of tattoo, it is obvious that there were many individuals working toward the same concept. Even today there are many innovations such as the “swash drive” or bearing driven rotary machine, the “neuma” which is run off air compression and cuts the coils and electromagnetism completely out of the machine, and the contactless machines which avoid the use of spark and utilize vibration to move the armature bars. Advances in coils from 6 to 16 wraps are also available. Tattoo machines have evolved in many ways, but the primary goal has remained the same over the ages; to put ink into the skin. The speed and accuracy that this is achieved has evolved over time, and the inks and pigments used have also changed. There are many exciting things being developed and with the information age of the Internet being upon us currently, the knowledge of machine builders and the number of tools available to tattoo artists around the world is expanding at an exponential speed. Even with all these advancements in the tattoo world, it is not uncommon to still see tattoo rituals performed in places like Japan and American Samoa the same way that they have been done for centuries. —C. R. Jordan, Basic Fundamentals of Modern Tattoo[3] Classification There are many types of machines. Liners and shaders are the more common machines from a technical standpoint. Mechanically, there are coil tattoo machines; also pneumatic machines, and rotary, or linear, tattoo machines. • Rotary tattoo machine: A rotary tattoo machine, built in 1978 by Manfred Kohrs of Germany. Rotary tattoo machines were the original machines, based on rotary technology, which was invented by Samuel OReilly and improved by the tattoo artists through the years. Rotary type machines use an electric motor to drive the needles. Some recent upgrades include using an armature bar to increase efficiency, a characteristic of coil machines. Recently, there have been improvements to make this type of machine pneumatic, in place of the electric motor used now. Manfred Kohrs 1978 - Rotary tattoo machine • Coil tattoo machine: Coil tattoo machines are the most commonly seen and used. These machines use an electromagnetic circuit to move the needle grouping. There are many variations, from single-coiled machines to triple-coiled machines. They can be made from many different materials and in many different sizes and shapes. Dual-coiled machines are considered to be standard. The coils generally range from 8 to 10 wrap. The coils create the ohms,or resistance, used to properly regulate the machines speed and power. Causing less trauma to the skin. • Liner tattoo machine: The purpose of a liner machine is to lay the ink in the skin in one single pass to create a dominant line. It uses a short contact circuit (about 1.5mm–2mm), which causes the machine to cycle faster. • Shader tattoo machine: The shader machine is commonly used to shade black or variants of black ink. Also Color is used in this type of machine, the saturation level of this machine is low. It uses a bigger contact gap than a liner (about 2mm–3.5mm) to make it cycle slightly slower. This machine is also used for sculpting lines. Some artists will use this type of machine for all lines, as it allows the lines to be retraced with less trauma to the skin. • Pneumatic tattoo machine: Tattoo artist Carson Hill in the year 2000 invented the first pneumatic tattoo machine and began the patent process. A pneumatic tattoo machine is powered by an air compressor, and they are extremely lightweight. Pneumatic tattoo machines use pressurized air to power the tattoo machine and drive the needles up and
  27. 27. Tattoo machine 25 down. These tattoo machines are entirely autoclavable, so that the entire tattoo machine can be placed in the autoclave and sterilized fully without any major disassembly. Unlike traditional coil machines, which require complete disassembely to be placed into an autoclave. Tattoo machines are not limited to just these types. A common variant is having a "cutback", which uses stiffer front springs. This is more commonly used in liners, but is known to be used on shader machines, more typically for portrait work. Machines are usually categorized into long stroke and short stroke varieties. The longer-stroked machines are good for coloring and shading, as well as sculpting lines, while doing less damage to clients skin. Shorter-stroke machines are commonly used for lining in a single pass style, and also in a shader setup to achieve a more subtle gradation of black such as would be found in portraits. Length, width, tension, angle, and stiffness of the spring varies the functionality of the machine. The contact gaps, as well as capacitors and even the style of machine and its angles of deflection, can also all be variants in machine tuning. The proper tuning of the machine is essential for the type of machine being used, also for the type of tattoo the artist is doing. References [1] http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=196747 [2] U.S. Patent 196747 (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?vid=196747) [3] Jordan, C. R.. Basic Fundamentals of Modern Tattoo. Tattoo Books Online. ISBN 9780615281476. UV tattoo UV tattoos or blacklight tattoos are tattoos made with a special ink that is visible under an ultraviolet light (blacklight). Depending upon the ink, they can be nearly invisible in non-UV environments, thus they are a popular consideration for people seeking a subtler tattoo. They are particularly popular in the raver subculture. Although the tattoos are sometimes considered invisible in normal light, scarring from the tattoo machine in the application process may remain, and therefore still show. A UV tattoo becomes visible under blacklight, when it glows in colors ranging from white to purple, UV Tattoo as shown under a black light depending on the ink chosen. Colored ink is also available, where the ink is visible in normal light (as with a regular tattoo) but the ink will glow vividly under UV light. However, some UV inks are not as bright under normal light as normal tattoo ink and are considered not as vibrant. Arguments against UV tattoos No tattoo inks have ever been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration because the FDA "has not traditionally regulated tattoo inks or the pigments used in them"[1]. Claims made that UV Tattoo Ink is "FDA Approved" when used for tattooing appear to be fraudulent; some UV-reactive tattoo inks may have been approved by the FDA for food-related purposes (such as marking food animals, like fish), but this is not the same as being "FDA approved" for use on humans for cosmetic purposes. UV Tattoo Ink is also many times more expensive than regular tattoo inks. Some people have had reactions to ingredients in the ink, ranging from minor itching to dermatitis. Several UV inks are suspected carcinogens and allergens and at this time no research has been conducted into the side effects of long term exposure. Although many people who have received UV or blacklight tattoos have had physical effects on the skin, any ink could cause a reaction. This can be a result of not protecting the tattoo from UV rays within 3 months of receiving the tattoo process or by using scented cremes or lotions on the tattoo area. This can damage the ink, causing it to become a
  28. 28. UV tattoo 26 normal ink color in all light. In time, it may also not glow in black lighting. Clear/blue UV inks are known to yellow or turn slightly brown with sun exposure. Color/black UV inks are known to become colored in all lighting. Therefore, it might permanently appear as a regular tattoo. Arguments for UV tattoos Over recent years, as the formulas for UV inks have been improved upon, it has become more common to hear reports of success with little or no reaction. Tattoos can be mostly invisible, suitable for those who may be restricted in their choice of tattoo placement (because of their profession, for example) who can then choose to show off the tattoo under UV or Black light lighting.[2] Application issues UV inks are not as bright under normal light as normal tattoo inks, and do not blend during application, as normal inks do. Their effect will be dulled if regular ink is used on top of them. Therefore, for vibrant, high impact tattoos, normal ink is normally used, allowed to heal, and then highlighted with UV inks. Only highly experienced tattooists should apply UV tattoos, and should have a blacklight within arms length of the tattoo chair. When applying white or clear UV ink, this blacklight should be turned on throughout the procedure. UV inking takes a little bit longer than normal, due to UV inks being a little thinner and harder to work with, and because the tattoo must be wiped and checked under a blacklight frequently during application. Also note that for non-colour based UV work, it is possible that outlines can become an issue. If the artist isnt careful, any ink or other materials they use to outline their design can become part of the work. This is not normally an issue with standard tattoos as normal coloured ink covers this. However for fully hidden UV art, this can be a problem, as it will most likely not be even, or well distributed within the work, and reveal some of the art instead of being mostly hidden (scarring can always give away the art). References [1] "Consumer Updates: Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?" (http:/ / www. fda. gov/ ForConsumers/ ConsumerUpdates/ ucm048919. htm). US FDA website. . Retrieved 8 September 2011. [2] http:/ / www. tattooartists. org/ Gal3975_UV_Blacklight_Ink. asp
  29. 29. List of tattoo artists 27 List of tattoo artists This is a list of tattoo artists- the tattoo artists who have helped the art of decorative tattooing gain popularity, are known for tattooing celebrities, or are well-known in popular culture and in the tattooing industry. Don Ed Hardy at the 2nd World Tattoo Manu Farrarons Convention in Reno Nevada, 1977. Dan Henk Manfred Kohrs, 1976 Joey Pang Kim Saigh
  30. 30. List of tattoo artists 28 Henk Schiffmacher Tattoo Samy - H.H. Streckenbach Paul Timman Lyle Tuttle Leo Zulueta at Spiral Tattoo. Ann Arbor, Kat Von D Michigan, August 2011 Name Lifetime Nationality Notes Guy Aitchison b. 1968 American Tattoo artist and painter based in Illinois, featured on TLCs Tattoo Wars. Brother of Hannah Aitchison.

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