Pronounce Russian Properly

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Tatiana Kharitonchik

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Pronounce Russian Properly

  1. 1. Pronounce Russian Properly Masterthe pronunciationandthe music ofRussian! Tatiana Kharitonchik
  2. 2. Outline of the course • Introduction • InternationalPhonetic Alphabet • Pronunciation – Yourvocaltract – Russianconsonants – Russianvowels • Lexicalstressand rhythm • Intonationand prosodic stress • Conclusion • Additionalrecourses
  3. 3. Section I Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction • Welcome to our training, designed specifically for you – a person who wants to speak Russianproperly and be easily understood! • Our mainobjective is to get you familiar withthesounds and the manners of speaking thatexist in Russianbut do NOT exist in English.
  5. 5. Introduction The problem lies in thebad habitto study languages almost solely from texts Problem ? Solution ! The pronunciationof Russian cannot be guessed, it has to be learned!
  6. 6. Introduction Conventions: • Every word is transcribed using the IPA symbols. Such transcriptions are put between two slashes (//) ; • The stress in a transcription is marked by the “ˈ” symbol; • Palatalization is marked by the /ʲ/ superscript in transcriptions; • The stress in a word is marked by underlining the stressed syllable; • Words or parts of words, we want to draw your attention to, are indicated in bold. For example: абсолютно /ɐpsɐˈlʲʉtnə/ absolutely
  7. 7. International Phonetic Alphabet • Russian is not a phoneticlanguage Language Number of letters in the alphabet Numberof sounds Phonetic language, % Hungarian 44 40 110% Esperanto 28 33 85% Russian 33 50 66% English 26 44 59% InternationalPhonetic Alphabetis indispensible when learningtopronounce such languages
  8. 8. International Phonetic Alphabet • Youwill notice that every example in our course is transcribed phonetically. Since Russian is not a phonetic language, it is very useful to have a tool to help us write down words thewaywepronounce them. • That has become possible withthe invention of the International Phonetic Alphabet, also known as the IPA.The IPA lets us write any language phonetically. • IPA for English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/wikipedia:IPA_for_English
  9. 9. Pronunciation • Attitude. How should I approach learning Russian phonetics? Simply keep an open and positive attitude and you willmake rapid progress in speaking Russian. Do not take things too seriously and just enjoy discovering new things to improve your spoken Russian. • Getting used to new sounds. The human ears and brain are fantastic “machines”, and believe us, with some regular practice and thanks to this method, you are going to learn how to distinguish all the sounds that exist in Russian even if theysound all the same in the beginning.
  10. 10. Pronunciation. The method For each sound that exists in Russian but not in English we are going to see in detail how it functions. 1. We willexplain you how to succeed in hearing the sound more easily by simply comparing it with the similar – yet different – English sounds. 2. We willprecisely explain you how to articulate the sound. 3. We willgive you lots of examples, which were not chosen at random, but based on their frequency of use in the real, spoken, Russian language.
  11. 11. SECTION II Your vocal tract
  12. 12. Pronunciation. Your vocal tract Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  13. 13. Your vocal tract. The mouth and the lips Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons Mouth
  14. 14. Pronunciation. Your vocal tract • The mouth andthe lips – Your mouth can be more or less opened or closed vertically – this function iscontrolled by your jaw. – Your mouth can also be more or less opened horizontally – thanks to the muscles in your cheeks. – Finally, your lips canbe rounded asin the diphthong /ou/ or rather relaxed and loose.
  15. 15. Your vocal tract. The tongue tipof thetongue backofthe tongue Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  16. 16. Pronunciation. Your vocal tract • The tongue – Forconsonants, we will mostly play with the placement of the tip of the tongue; – Forvowels, we will also pay attention to the placement of the tip of the tongue, but besides, we will talkabout the top of the back ofthe tongue. There are two options: to position the tip of the tongue more to the front or more to the back(i.e. on a horizontal axis)and to position the back of the tongue more or less high in the mouth (i.e. on a verticalaxis).
  17. 17. Pronunciation. Your vocal tract • The tongue For example, for the sound /i/ as in “seed” the tongue is more to the front and the top while for the sound /u/ as in “food” it is also at the top but, as for the backness, more to the back of the mouth. Compare the sensations: /i/, /u/. The sound /ɪ/ as in “lid” is in between these two. Compare: /i/, /ɪ/, /u/. Your tongue goes back step by step, all the while staying at the top of your mouth – /i/, /ɪ/, /u/. In Russian, in order to pronounce the /ʉ/ sound we need to adopt a position of the tongue. As for the backness, it should be in the middle between the /i/ as in “seed” and the /u/ as in “food”: /i/, /ʉ/, /u/. Basically, the difference between /ʉ/ and /ɪ/ as in “lid” is in the position of your lips: they are rounded for the /ʉ/ sound and relaxed for the /ɪ/ sound.
  18. 18. Your vocal tract. the lips Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  19. 19. Pronunciation. Your vocal tract • The lips Good examples to practice this are the Englishsounds /ɔ/ asin “fall” and /ʌ/asin “mud”. These two sounds are articulated exactly at the same place in your mouth with the tongue at the back and almost at the bottom of the mouth. Their onlydifference is the form of your lips: /ɔ/, /ʌ/. For the /ɔ/sound your lips are rounded, while for the /ʌ/sound they are quite relaxed.
  20. 20. Your vocal tract. The vocal cords Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  21. 21. Pronunciation. Your vocal tract • The vocal cords Pronouncethe following twoseries ofsoundstofeel whetheryourvocal cordsvibrateor not: Itisbettertoletthe soundlastlongertoproperidentifyyoursensations. Withoutthe vibrationofvocal cords:/ttt/ /ppp/ /fff/ /kkk/ /sss/ /ʃʃʃ/; Withthe vibrationofvocal cords:/ddd/ /bbb/ /vvv/ /ggg/ /zzz/ /ʒʒʒ/. Vocal cordsdo NOT vibrate /t/ (T as in “to”) /p/ (P as in “people”) /f/ (F as in “for”) /k/ (K as in “can”) /s/ (S as in “so”) /ʃ/ (SH as in “she”) Vocal cords vibrate /d/ (D as in “do”) /b/ (B as in “be”) /v/ (V as in “have”) /g/ (G as in “go”) /z/ (Z as in “zoo”) /dʒ/ (DG as in “badge”)
  22. 22. Your vocal tract. The glottis Glottis Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  23. 23. Your vocal tract. The alveolar ridge Source: By Megsmith (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.o rg/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  24. 24. SECTION III Russian consonants
  25. 25. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • Russianhas 36 consonantsounds and only 14 vowel sounds. Most consonant sounds come in hard–soft pairs. HARD /b/ /v/ /g/ /d/ /z/ /k/ /l/ /m/ SOFT /bʲ/ /vʲ/ /gʲ/ /dʲ/ /zʲ/ /kʲ/ /lʲ/ /mʲ/ HARD /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /f/ /x/ /xʲ/SOFT /pʲ/ /rʲ/ /sʲ/ /tʲ/ /fʲ//nʲ/
  26. 26. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • Other 6consonants do notform pairs: • Thesound /j/is just thesameas in English. • /ʐ/, /ʂ/, /ɕ/ are new toyou. • Sounds /ʦ/ and /ʨ/ are simplycombinationsofthesound /t/ and, respectively,/s/ and/ɕ/. Always HARD /ʐ/ /ʂ/ /ʦ/ Always SOFT /ʨ/ /ɕ/ /j/ In termsofRussianconsonants,we have5 new consonantsounds,2 combinationsof sounds andpalatalizationtolearn.
  27. 27. Russian consonants. Palatalization • Palatalization is theprocess thatcauses softeningofa consonant sound by pushing themiddleofthetongue closertothepalate. Example:кино /kʲiˈno/movie • Palatalizationmeansthatthe consonant ispronounced as if followedvery closelyby thesound /j/(likethe"y" in "yellow"). • In theIPAtranscription,palatalizedconsonants areindicatedwith a superscript "j"(e.g.:шить/ʂɨtʲ/tosew).
  28. 28. • In Russian,pronouncing a sound clearly hard or clearly soft iscritically important because, often, the softness or hardness of the consonant is the only difference between two words. It is like minimal pairs (ship/sheep) but for consonants. Кров /krof/ - this word refers to any kind of accommodation. But кровь /krofʲ/ - means blood. Russian consonants. Palatalization
  29. 29. Russian consonants. Palatalization • Theeasiest palatalized soundfor Englishspeakingpeople is /tʲ/. /t/ /tʲ/ Produce the English /t/ sound and thenmove the tip of your tongue from the alveolar ridge right to the bottom of your two top front teeth, and press it towards the teeth. Themiddle part of the tongue rightbehind an alveolar ridge; the tip of the tongue is close or on the lower teeth; the mouthis narrowand smiling.
  30. 30. Russian consonants. Palatalization • This description applies to most Russian soft consonants:/gʲ/, /dʲ/, /zʲ/, /kʲ/, /lʲ/, /nʲ/, /sʲ/, /tʲ/, /rʲ/, /xʲ/. For the rest of the sounds, themechanismis different. /bʲ/ /mʲ/ /pʲ/ /vʲ/ /fʲ/ Move yourlips a little bit forward and press them one against the other. Both sides of a tongue are pressed by uppermolars. Combine the usual articulation of an English /v/ sound and palatalization (i.e. tongue between upper molars and tense inthe lips as if you were smiling).
  31. 31. Russian consonants. Palatalization балет/bɐˈlʲet/ ballet BUT болеть /bɐˈlʲetʲ/ to beill; быть /bɨtʲ/ to be BUT бить /bʲitʲ/ to beat; вал /val/ rampart BUT вял /vʲæl/ sluggish. /t/ and /tʲ/: /b/ and /bʲ/: /v/ and /vʲ/:
  32. 32. Pronunciation. Russian consonants Consonantsoundsfoundinbothlanguagesiden Consonant sound you KNOW Example in English Example in Russian /b/ buy брать /bratʲ/ to take /v/ have вы /vɨ/ you (plural or polite singular) /g/ guy гулять /guˈlʲætʲ/ to walk /z/ zoo знать /znatʲ/ to know /k/ sky как /kak/ how /m/ my мы /mɨ/ we /p/ pie потом /pɐˈtom/ later /s/ so сейчас /sʲɪjˈʨas/ now /f/ fan все /fsʲe/ everybody /j/ yes я /jæ/ I
  33. 33. Pronunciation. Russian consonants• Consonantsounds that exist in English but are slightly different in Russian TheAmerican English /n/, /l/, /d/and /t/ sounds are formed by placing the tip of the tongue behind your upperfront teeth, usually onthe alveolar ridge.Using just the tip of the tongue makes the sounds “lighter”. Thecorresponding Russian sounds are pronounced with the tongue tip flat and wide, placed before the ridge, pushing against the upperfront teeth. This createsa “heavier” sound. • /l/ : look – лук /luk/ (onion) • /d/ : data – дата /ˈdatə/ (date) • /n/ : no – но /no/ (but) • /t/ : talk – ток /tok/ (electric current)
  34. 34. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The/ʂ/ sound (что) When pronouncing the /ʂ/ sound, ourspeechorgans take the following position:  Lips are pushed forward;  The mouth and teeth are slightly opened;  The tongue is wide and placed up to the roof of a mouth, on the alveolar ridge. The tongue does not touch the roof; there is a narrow slot between them;  Both sides of the tongue are pressed by upper molars, so that an air stream is centralized. As you breathe out, push forward your lips and at the same time hold your tongue between the teeth. The middle part of the tongue sags;  The vocal cords are relaxed, so that the sound is not voiced. Consonant soundsthat do not exist in English
  35. 35. Pronunciation. Russian consonants / ʂ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: что /ʂto/ what ничто /nʲɪʂˈto/ nothing что-то /ˈʂtotə/ something конечно /kɐˈnʲeʂnə/ of course хорошо /xərɐˈʂo/ good Words with the sound at the beginning of a word что-нибудь /ˈʂtonʲɪbutʲ/ something шесть /ʂɛstʲ/ six штука /ˈʂtukə/ thing шить /ʂɨtʲ/ to sew шоколад /ʂəkɐˈlat/ chocolate Words with the sound in the middle of a word слушать /ˈsluʂətʲ/ to listen девушка /ˈdʲevuʂkə/ adolescent girl бабушка /ˈbabuʂkə/ grandmother лучше /ˈluʨʂɪ/ better книжка /ˈknʲiʂkə/ book Words with the sound at the end of a word уж /uʂ/ already замуж /ˈzamuʂ/ to marry слышь /slɨʂ/ listen картридж /ˈkartrʲɪtʂ/ cartridge ваш /vaʂ/ your/yours
  36. 36. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • Tongue twisters for the /ʂ/ sound: Шла Саша по шоссе и сосала сушку. /ʂla ˈSaʂə pə ʂəsˈsɛ i sɐˈsalə ˈsuʂku/ Sashawas walking along the road and was eating (‘sucking’) a ‘sushka’. Sushka is a traditional Russian tea bread. It is a small, crunchy, mildly sweet bread ring which can be eaten for dessert. Тише, мыши! Кот на крыше! Зашумите - он услышит! /ˈtʲiʂɪ ˈmɨʂɨ ! kot nə ˈkrɨʂɪ ! zəʂuˈmʲitʲɪ - on usˈlɨʂɪt/ Hush, mice! Cat is on the roof! You will rustle -he will hear! 1 2
  37. 37. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The /ʐ/ sound (уже) This sound is pronounced just the same as /ʂ/. Your speech organs take that exact position. The only difference is that your vocal cords are NOT relaxed; The /ʐ/ sound is voiced. If you are not sure that you pronounce it correctly (the voiced part), put the palm of your hand to the front of your neck. If you do it right, you will feel a sort of the vibration. As mentioned before, /ʐ/ and /ʂ/ are always hard, even when the spelling contains a "softening" letter after them, as in жить /ʐitʲ/ to live.
  38. 38. Pronunciation. Russian consonants / ʐ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: уже /uˈʐɛ/ already тоже /ˈtoʐe/ also нужно /ˈnuʐnə/ necessary пожалуйста /pɐˈʐɑləstə/ please может /ˈmoʐɪt/ may be Words with the sound at the beginning of a word жалко /ˈʐɑlkə/ it’s a pity жарко /ˈʐarkə/ hot жуть /ʐutʲ/ horror жёлтый /ˈʐɵltɨj/ yellow жизнь /ˈʐɨzʲnʲ/ life Words with the sound in the middle of a word подождать /pədɐˈʐdatʲ/ to wait приезжать /prʲɪjɪʐʐˈatʲ/ to arrive мужик /muˈʐɨk/ dude ужасный /uˈʐasnɨj/ horrible мороженое /mɐˈroʐɨnəjə/ ice-cream Words with the sound at the end of a word There are no words that end with this sound
  39. 39. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • Tongue twisters for the /ʐ/ sound: Жить - поживать, да добра наживать. /ʐɨtʲ - pəʐɨ ˈvatʲ , dɐ dɐ ˈ bra nəʐɨ ˈ vatʲ/ Live happily ever after. Дружба дружбой, а служба службой. /ˈdruʐbə ˈdruʐbəj, a ˈsluʐbə ˈsluʐbəj/ Friends are O.K, when they do not get in the way. 1 2
  40. 40. Pronunciation. Russian consonants• The /ɕ/ sound (вообще) Articulation of this sound is also quite similar tothe /ʂ/ sound: o The mouth andteeth are slightly opened; o The tongue is wide andplaced up tothe roofof the mouth, on the alveolar ridge. The tongue does not touch the roof; there is aslot between them; o Both sides ofthe tongue arepressed byupper molars,sothat the airstream is centralized; o The vocal cords arerelaxed, sothat the sound is not voiced. Now, let us highlight the difference:  Lips areNOTpushed forward.Imagine that you are smilingvery widely.At the sametime, your mouth is almost closed,so the smileis going to be pretty narrow;  Unlikethe /ʂ/sound, your tongue is NOTsupposed to sag whenyou produce this sound. It is wideand flat;  Another differenceis that your tongue is pressedby upper molars morestrongly and tenselythan for previous ones.Moreoverinstead of sagging, the middle part of the tongue isgoing up and almost touches the hard palate;  Airstreamcomesoutwithsometension.If you hold thepalm in front of the mouth, you willfeelthe differencewhenpronouncing eachsound in turn;  This sound ispronounced longer (almost twicelonger)than previousones.
  41. 41. Pronunciation. Russian consonants / ɕ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: вообще /vəɐpˈɕɕe/ generally общий /ˈobɕɕɪj/ common ещё /jɪˈɕɕɵ/ more общаться /ɐpˈɕɕaʦə/ communicate насчёт /nɐˈɕɕɵt/ concerning Words with the sound at the beginning of a word щас /ɕɕas/ now счет /ɕɕɵt/ account/bill/score счастье /ˈɕɕæsʲtʲjə/ happiness щенок /ɕɕɪˈnok/ puppy щит /ɕɕit/ shield Words with the sound in the middle of a word общага /ɐpˈɕɕæɡə/ dormitory засчитать /zəɕɕɪˈtatʲ/ to rule вещи /ˈvʲeɕɕɪ/ things/stuff женщина /ˈʐɛnʲɕɕɪnə/ woman следующий /ˈslʲedujuççɪj/ next Words with the sound at the end of a word борщ /borɕɕ/ borscht помощь /ˈpoməɕɕ/ help товарищ /tɐˈvarʲɪɕɕ/ comrade плащ /plaɕɕ/ loak овощ /ˈovəɕɕ/ vegetable
  42. 42. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • Tongue twisters for the / ɕ / sound: Щуку и леща в роще не сыщешь. /ˈççuku i lʲɪˈçça v ˈroççɪ nʲe ˈsɨççɪʂ/ You will not find both a pike and a bream in the grove. Щёткой чищу я щенка - щекочу ему бока (С. Маршак). /ˈççɵtkəj ˈʦiççu jæ ççɪnˈka - ççɪkɐˈʦu jɪˈmu bɐˈka/ I brush my puppy with the brush – tickle his sides (S.Marshak). 1 2
  43. 43. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The /x/ sound (хотеть) WhenyoupronouncetheEnglish /h/ sound(asin “home”), yourmouthis wide open.The sound appearsfarin thethroat,attheglottislevel. Itis like youblowonyourglasses (or sunglasses)to clean andmakethem shine. WhenyoupronouncetheRussian/x/ sound,yourmouthis almostclosed instead. Thesoundappears notsofarin the throat,atthesoftpalatelevel. Justlike before,the teethareslightlyopened.Imaginehaving a very broadsmile onyourface.Atthe sametime,yourmouthis almostclosed, so the smile is going tobeprettynarrow.And finally,theback ofyourtonguetouchesthe softpalate.The soundis notvoiced.
  44. 44. Pronunciation. Russian consonants / x / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: хотеть /xɐˈtʲetʲ/ to want хорошо /xərɐˈʂo/ good ходить /xɐˈdʲitʲ/ to walk ехать /ˈjexətʲ/ to go (by transport) хоть /xotʲ/ at least/though Words with the sound at the beginning of a word хватит /ˈxvatʲɪt/ enough хотя /xɐˈtʲæ/ although хуже /ˈxuʐɪ/ worse холодно /ˈxolədnə/ cold хозяин /xɐˈzʲæɪn/ owner Words with the sound in the middle of a word похожий /pɐˈxoʐɨj/ similar происходить /prəɪsxɐˈdʲitʲ/ to happen плохо /ˈploxə/ bad тихо /ˈtʲixə/ quiet выход /ˈvɨxət/ exit Words with the sound at the end of a word их /ix/ their ох /ox/ oh наверх /nɐˈvʲerx/ up воздух /ˈvozdux/ air страх /strax/ fear
  45. 45. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • Tongue twisters for the / x / sound: Что сделано наспех, сделано насмех. /ʂto ˈzʲdʲelənə ˈnaspʲɪx, ˈzʲdʲelənə ˈnasmʲɪx/ Haste makes waste. Вставай, Архип, петух охрип! /fstɐˈvaj, ɐrˈxʲip, pʲɪˈtux ɐxˈrʲip/ Get up, Arhip, the rooster has hoarsened! 1 2
  46. 46. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The /r/sound (говорить) This sound isstatistically themost difficult one for English speakingpeople. Thereisa specialword for it – “картавить”/kɐrˈtavʲɪtʲ/,whichmeans"to pronounce the /r/sound incorrectly".It's analogous to English "lisp", meaning"to pronounce the/s/sound incorrectly.“ Thearticulation of the/r/those sounds iseasy enough to describe.Thetongue plays the most important role. In English, to produce the /ɹ/sound, you curve a little your tongue, so that thetip of the tongue goesup to theroof of the mouth further behind the alveolar ridge but yet does not touch it. In Russian, the tonguedoesnot curve;itisflat and wide.Now, the mostimportant part: Russian /r/sound is a trill, you needto “roll” it. It meansthat you need to bend the tip of your tongue slightly up and place it just behind the top rowof your teeth.As a result,the trillis produced due to thevibration of your tongue against thealveolar ridge. Vibration is caused by a flow of airthat you breatheout as hard and as fast as you possibly can. The/r/sound isjust theflitter of the tongue causedby the passing airstream.It is not some kindof a curl.It is also vital not to tense your tongue. Leavethe tip of the tongue hanging freeto makeitpossible to vibrate.Thanks to this vibration, theRussian/r/is moreaudible than anEnglishone.
  47. 47. Pronunciation. Russian consonants Method I “Eddy, Teddy, Freddy!” 1. First,say theword “Eddy”, thensaytheword “Teddy"and afterthatsay theword “Freddy”. 2. Thensaythesethree words one by onealittlebit faster: “E d d y,T e d d y, F r e d d y”. 3. Afterthatrepeatthem faster: “Eddy,Ted dy,Fred dy”. 4. Thenfaster: “Eddy, Teddy, Freddy”. 5. And even faster: “Eddyteddyfreddy”.
  48. 48. Pronunciation. Russian consonants MethodII “Drum!” Supposedly,thismethodis theone thathelpedVladimir Lenin,founderandleader ofthe SovietUnion (1917 – 1923).Leninwasunabletoproducethe trilled/r/.Thisis toobadwhen youarethecreatorofthe: Российская Социал - Демократическая Рабочая Партия /rɐsʲˈsʲijskəjæ səʦɪˈal - dʲɪməkrɐˈtʲiʨɪskəjæ rɐˈboʨəjæ ˈpartʲəjæ/ The Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party The ideaof thismethodis toputthe /d/ soundin frontofthe/r/ sound.Wecall thistechnique “drum”because the soundyouaregoing toproduceis quite closeto thesoundofadrum tapping.Imagine thatyoutapa drum witha veryhigh frequency– thatis exactlywhatweneed toget in theend.Youaregoing tobeprettyloud, so when practicingthesoundwarnpeoplearoundyouin advance!
  49. 49. Pronunciation. Russian consonants Method II “Drum!” 1. Tryto say "Drum"and see if it helps youroll the /r/by putting a /d/ infront of it. It is of the utmost importance that whenyoupronouncethe /d/ sound youplace the tip of yourtongue to the bottom of yourtwo top front teeth (not the alveolar ridge as you do usually!) and press it towards the teeth. This wayyou block an air flow and makeit very intense. 2. Increasethe volume of yourvoice inthe beginningof the word (“dr”). The"um"of "drum"should only last a fraction of a second. When youmakethe /rrrrr/sound, tryto relax the tip of your tongue, makingit as loose as you can. Let youtongue soar inyour mouth! 3. After you havegot anidea of how this method works, practice using the /r/in suchcombinations as “dr-”, “tr-”, “br- ”, “pr-”. 4. If you are familiar with the Scottish accent or Spanish language, youcan use this knowledge. For example, to train the “gr” combination, say "that's GReat"with a Scottish accent. Say "perro"as in Spanish for "dog" to exercise on the “pr” combination.
  50. 50. Pronunciation. Russian consonants / r / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: говорить /ɡəvɐˈrʲitʲ/ to talk просто /ˈprostə/ simple раз /ras/ one смотреть /smɐtˈrʲetʲ/ to look хорошо /xərɐˈʂo/ good Words with the sound at the beginning of a word работать /rɐˈbotətʲ/ to work рассказывать /rɐsˈskazɨvətʲ/ to tell реально /rʲɪˈalʲnə/ real/really равно /rɐvˈno/ equally ругаться /ruˈɡaʦə/ to swear/to argue Words with the sound in the middle of a word прийти /prʲɪjˈtʲi/ to come три /trʲi/ three короткий /kɐˈrotkʲɪj/ short про /pro/ about наверное /nɐˈvʲernəjə/ may be Words with the sound at the end of a word кошмар /kɐʂˈmar/ nightmare сыр /sɨr/ cheese плеер /ˈplɛɛr/ player супер /ˈsupʲɪr/ super семестр /sʲɪˈmʲestr/ semester
  51. 51. Pronunciation. Russian consonants Tongue twisters for the / r / sound: Карл у Клары украл кораллы, Клара у Карла украла кларнет. /ˈkarl u ˈklarᵻ ukˈral kɐˈralᵻ, ˈklarə u ˈkarlə ukˈralə klɐrˈnʲet/ Karl stole corals from Karla and Karla stole a clarinet from Karl. Ехал Грека через реку, видит Грека в реке рак. /ˈjexəl ˈɡrʲekə ˈʨerʲɪz ˈrʲeku, ˈvʲidʲɪt ˈɡrʲekə v ˈrʲekɪ ˈrak/ Greka was going across a river, and he saw a crayfish in the river. Сунул Грека руку в реку, рак за руку Греку цап. /ˈsunul ˈɡrʲekə ˈruku v ˈrʲeku, ˈrak zə ˈruku ˈɡrʲeku ˈʦap/ Greka put his hand in the river and the crayfish bit his hand. 1 2
  52. 52. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The /ʨ/ sound /ʨ/ consists of two sounds: /tʲ/ and /ɕ/. Pay attention to the softness of /tʲ/ - that is because /ʨ/ is always soft. I method – First, wewantyoutopronouncethesound/tʲ/ manytimesin a row(withoutpauses)as fastas youcan.Makesurethe tip ofyourtonguepushesagainsttheupperfrontteeth: /tʲtʲtʲtʲ tʲtʲtʲtʲ tʲtʲ/; – Now,dothe samebutstartmoving the tipslowly backtowardsthealveolar ridge.At thesame time,yourlips arestretching intoasmile. Youshouldalreadyhearthe correct/ʨ/ sound; – Finally, firstslowly, andthenfasterandfaster,so thatatsomepointyoudonotheareven a slightestpausebetween them,pronouncethe sounds/tʲ/ and/ɕ/, oneafterthe other.Donot forgettosmile! /tʲ…….ɕ…tʲ….ɕ…tʲ...ɕ…tʲ..ɕ…tʲ.ɕ…tʲɕtʲɕtʲɕtʲɕtʲɕtʲɕtʲɕ/.
  53. 53. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The /ʨ/ sound IImethod Althoughthissoundbelongs to thegroupof hissing sounds,/ʨ/ hasits ownpeculiarities.First,let ussee whatpositionthe speech organstake: – Yourlips are roundedand a little bit pushed forward. Initially,push them forward as muchas youcan; – Themouth and teeth are slightly opened; – Both sides of thetongue are pressed by upper molars; – At the beginningof the articulation, the tip of the tongue touches thealveolar ridge for just a second. Right after that the tongue horizontally slides back into the mouthfor about one centimeter; – Anair stream produced with this consonant is short, veryintense (and that is whywarm, incomparison with a /ɕ/sound) and centralized; – Thevocal cordsare relaxed, so that the sound is not voiced.
  54. 54. Pronunciation. Russian consonants • The/ʦ/ sound /ʦ/ alsoconsistsoftwosounds:/t/ and/s/.Unlike /ʨ/, this soundis alwayshard,thatis whyits component/t/is alsohardhere.The technique ofitspronunciationis very closetothe previous sound. – First slowly,andthenfasterandfaster,sothatatsomepointyoudonotheareven a slightest pausebetween them,pronouncethe sounds/t/ and/s/, oneby one.Do notforgettosmile! /t…….s…t….s…t...s…t..s…t.s…tststststststs/.
  55. 55. Russian consonants Identical Similar Different Palatalized /b/ - брать /bratʲ/ /v/ - вы /vɨ/ /g/ - гулять /guˈlʲætʲ/ /z/ - знать /znatʲ/ /k/ - как /kak/ /m/ - мы /mɨ/ /p/ - потом /pɐˈtom/ /s/ - сейчас /sʲɪjˈʨas/ /f/ - все /fsʲe/ /j/ - я /jæ/ /n/ - но /no/ /l/ - лук /luk/ /t/ - ток /tok/ /d/ - дата /ˈdatə/ /ʂ/ - что /ʂto/ /ʐ/ - уже /uˈʐɛ/ /ɕ/ - вообще /vəɐpˈɕɕe/ /x/ - хотеть /xɐˈtʲetʲ/ /r/ - говорить /ɡəvɐˈrʲitʲ/ Group 1 /gʲ/, /dʲ/, /zʲ/, /kʲ/, /lʲ/, /nʲ/, /sʲ/, /tʲ/, /rʲ/, /xʲ/ Example: /tʲ/ болеть /bɐˈlʲetʲ/ Group 2 /bʲ/, /mʲ/, /pʲ/ Example: /bʲ/ бить /bʲitʲ/ Group 3 /vʲ/, /fʲ/ Example: /vʲ/ вял /vʲæl/
  56. 56. SECTION VI Russian vowels
  57. 57. Pronunciation. Russian vowels • Russianpossesses 14 vowel sounds, 10 of which you already know. /æ/ /ɑ/ /ɛ/ /i/ /u/ /ə/ /ɪ/ /e/ /o/ /a/ /ɨ/ /ɵ/ /ʉ/ /ɐ/ Vowel sounds you KNOW Vowel sounds you DO NOT KNOW
  58. 58. Pronunciation. Russian vowels • Diphthongs A diphthong refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurringwithin thesame syllable. UnlikeEnglish, Russian has no diphthongs. Thoughsometimes, certain combinations of letters sound like diphthongs. Theonly case whenit happens is before the so-called “semivowel” /j/. Even though suchcombinations as “ей” /ej/ in Russian sounds exactly likean English diphthong “ai” /ei/, they aretransliterated differently. It contradicts the verydefinition of a diphthong. Practice pronouncingsuch words with thehelp of these examples: /oj/: такой /tɐˈkoj/ such /ɪj/ : сейчас /sʲɪjˈʨas/ now /ɐj/: пойти /pɐjˈtʲi/ togo /ɨj/ : хороший/xɐˈroʂɨj/ good /aj/ : давай/dɐˈvaj/ letus /əj/ : наверное/nɐˈvʲernəjə/ may be /uj/: уехать/uˈjexətʲ/ toleave(e.g. by car) /ej/: копейка /kɐˈpʲejkə/ kopek /æj/: чайник /ˈʨæjnʲɪk/ teapot
  59. 59. Pronunciation. Russian vowels Vowel sound you KNOW Example in English Example in Russian /æ/ pad взять /vzʲætʲ/ to take /ɑ/ palm пожалуйста /pɐˈʐɑləstə/ please /ɛ/ bed это /ˈɛtə/ this /i/ seed они /ɐˈnʲi/ they /u/ food уже /uˈʐɛ/ already /ə/ comma говорить /ɡəvɐˈrʲitʲ/ to speak /ɪ/ lid сейчас /sʲɪjˈʨas/ now /e/ made /meid/ все /fsʲe/ everybody /o/ code /koʊd/ что /ʂto/ what /a/ ride /raɪd/ да /da/ yes VowelsoundscommontobothEnglishandRussian
  60. 60. Pronunciation. Russian vowels • Vowel sounds that do notexist in GE Duringthe following explanations, wewould likeyouto repeat every example out loud. It does not matter if it is an English or Russian sound or example. Thegoal is for youto focus onyour sensations and the differences in sound quality between thevarious examples. Thisis how youwill beable to tell the difference between them and become more precise inyourpronunciation. We will talkabout these vowels interms of how deep theyarelocated inyourmouth. Thatis, whethertheyare closer to the front or to the back of the mouth – closer to yourlips orcloser to yourthroat. Thiswill help yourealize that the sound quality is different, depending onwhether it is articulated, for example, close to the lips, or close to the throat, or may besomewhere inbetween. We will also draw yourattention to how high the vowels arelocated inyour mouth. Thatis to say: whether the sound is articulated towards the bottom of yourmouthwith yourjaw open, or to the top of yourmouthwith your jaw close, or anywherein-between. To sum it up, all the examples youare going to see will help youfind the rightspot to articulate sounds in your mouth. To do that, pay attention to sensations and vibrations.
  61. 61. Pronunciation. Russian vowels Thetop of the back of the tongue is positioned between the /i/ in “seed” and the /u/in “food”. Ifwe keepthetongue at the top of themouth and start moving it from the backto the front, wewill havethefollowing series of sounds: /u/,/ɨ/, /i/. Pronouncethis series and after that pronouncethe series of words that contains these sounds: food, ты, seed. Now, inversely: /i/, /ɨ/, /u/. Let us do the same thing with the words: seed, ты, food. Thetongue is positioned halfway between the front and the back of yourmouth, between the /ə/in “comma” and the /a/ in “ride” /raɪd/. Ifwe keep thetongue in themiddle and start moving it from the bottom to the top, wewill havethe following series of sounds: /a/, /ə/, /ɨ/. Pronouncethis series and after that pronouncetheseries of words that contains these sounds: ride, comma,ты. Now, inversely: /ɨ/, /ə/, /a/. Let us do the same thing with the words: ты, comma, ride. Finally, the lips take the same position as for the /i/sound. Theyare not roundedbut tensed, narrow and curvedin a smile. Toproduce the sound /ɨ/,try first to pronounce/i/ sound and thenslowly move yourtongue a little bit closer to the gorge: /i/…/ɨ/…/i/…/ɨ/…/ɨ/…/ɨɨ ɨ/. Height Backness Lips The/ɨ/ sound(ты)
  62. 62. Pronunciation. Russian vowels / ɨ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: ты /tɨ/ you (singular) мы /mɨ/ we вы /vɨ/ you (plural or polite singular) хороший /xɐˈroʂɨj/ good равный /ˈravnɨj/ equal Words with the sound at the beginning of a word There are no words that begin with this sound Words with the sound in the middle of a word рассказывать /rɐsˈskazɨvətʲ/ to tell (a story) нормальный /nɐrˈmalʲnɨj/ normal четыре /ʨɪˈtɨrʲɪ/ four интересный /ɪnʲtʲɪˈrʲesnɨj/ interesting показывать /pɐˈkazɨvətʲ/ to show Words with the sound at the end of a word макароны /məkɐˈronɨ/ pasta бы /bɨ/ would чтобы /ˈʂtobɨ/ so that дважды /ˈdvaʐdɨ/ twice штаны /ʂtɐˈnɨ/ pants
  63. 63. Pronunciation. Russian vowels Thetop of the back of the tongue is positioned the same wayas the /e/ in “made” /meid/ and the /o/ in code /koʊd/. Ifwe keepthetongue at the top of themouth and start moving it from the lips back to thegorge, we will havethe following series of sounds: /e/, /ɵ/,/o/. Pronouncethis series and after that pronounce the series of words that contains these sounds: made, ещё,code. Now, inversely: /o/,/ɵ/, /e/. Let us do the same thing with the words: code, ещё, made. Thetongue is positioned halfwaybetween thefrontand thebackof your mouth as the/a/in “ride” /raɪd/andtheRussian/ɨ/sound in ты /tɨ/.So, if we keep thetongue in thecenterand startmoving it from thebottom to themiddle, we will havethe following series of sounds: /a/, /ɵ/, /ɨ/.Pronouncethis series and afterthatpronounce theseries of words thatcontainsthese sounds: ride, ещё, ты. Now, inversely: /ɨ/, /ɵ/, /a/.Letus do thesamethingwiththewords: ты, ещё, ride. Thelips arerounded, ratherthanspread or relaxed. Finally, it may be easierto pronounce the sound/ɵ/ asacombination of the/j/asin “yellow” and the/o/sounds. Pronounce: /j/…/o/…/j/…/o/…/j..o/…/joooo/. Height Backness Lips The/ɵ / sound(ещё)
  64. 64. Pronunciation. Russian vowels / ɵ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: ещё /jɪˈɕɕɵ/ more всё /fsʲɵ/ that is it всё-таки /ˈfsʲɵtəkʲɪ/ nevertheless/ though причём /prʲɪˈʨɵm/ and besides/what is more тётя /ˈtʲɵtʲə/ aunt Words with the sound at the beginning of a word ёлка /ˈjɵlkə/ fir-tree ёж /jɵʐ/ hedgehog ёрш /jɵrʂ/ ruff ёмкость /ˈjɵmkəsʲtʲ/ capacity/container ёрзать /ˈjɵrzətʲ/ to fidget Words with the sound in the middle of a word четвёртый /ʨɪtˈvʲɵrtɨj/ forth насчёт /nɐˈɕɕɵt/ about учёба /uˈʨɵbə/ studies лён /lʲɵn/ linen (flax) клёвый /ˈklʲɵvɨj/ cool Words with the sound at the end of a word её /jɪˈjɵ/ her моё /mɐˈjɵ/ mine (neuter) бельё /bʲɪlʲjɵ/ linen (laundry) ружьё /ruˈʐjɵ/ gun жильё /ʐɨˈlʲjɵ/ housing
  65. 65. Pronunciation. Russian vowels Thetop of thebackof thetongue is positioned the same wayasthe/i/ in “seed”, the /u/in food andthe Russian/ɨ/sound in ты /tɨ/. If weplace thetongueat thetop andbackof themouth and startmoving ittowardsthelips, we willhavethe following series of sounds: /u/,/ɨ/, /ʉ/,/i/. Pronouncethisseries and afterthat pronounce theseries of words thatcontainsthese sounds: food, ты, абсолютно, seed. Now, inversely: /i/, /ʉ/, /ɨ/,/u/.Letus do thesamethingwiththewords: seed, абсолютно, ты, food. Thetongueis positioned halfwaybetweenthefrontand thebackof your mouth as the/a/in “ride” /raɪd/, /ə/ in“comma”, the Russian/ɵ/ soundin“ёж” /jɵʐ/ andtheRussian/ɨ/ soundin ты /tɨ/. So, if we placethetongue in themiddle andstartfrom thebottom to thetop, we will havethe following series of sounds: /a/,/ə/, /ɵ/, /ʉ/,/ɨ/. Pronounce thisseries andafterthatpronounce theseries of words thatcontainsthese sounds: ride,comma, ёж, абсолютно, ты. Now, inversely: /ɨ/, /ʉ/, /ɵ/, /ə/,/a/. Letusdo thesame thingwiththe words: ты, абсолютно, ёж, comma, ride. Thelips arerounded andpushed forward. It may beeasier to pronouncethe/ʉ/ sound as a combination of the/j/asin “yellow” andthe /u/sounds. Pronounce: /j/…/u/…/j/…/u/…/j..u/…/juuuu/. Height Backness Lips The/ʉ / sound(абсолютно)
  66. 66. Pronunciation. Russian vowels / ʉ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: абсолютно /ɐpsɐˈlʲʉtnə/ absolutely чуть-чуть /ʨʉtʲˈʨʉtʲ/ just a little люди /ˈlʲʉdʲɪ/ people по-любому /pəlʲʉˈbomu/ anyhow двоюродный (брат) /dvɐˈjʉrədnɨj/ (/brat/) cousin Words with the sound at the beginning of a word юбка /ˈjʉpkə/ skirt юмор /ˈjʉmər/ humor юг /jʉk/ south юность /ˈjʉnəsʲtʲ/ youth юрист /jʉˈrʲist/ jurist Words with the sound in the middle of a word любой /lʲʉˈboj/ any следующий /ˈslʲedujʉɕɕɪj/ next любовь /lʲʉˈbofʲ/ love тюль /tʲʉlʲ/ tulle ключ /klʲʉʨ/ key Words with the sound at the end of a word полностью /ˈpolnəsʲtʲʉ/ fully ночью /ˈnoʨʉ/ at night благодарю /bləɡədɐˈrʲʉ/ thank you к сожалению /ksəʐɨˈlʲenʲɪjʉ/ unfortunately меню /mʲɪˈnʲʉ/ menu
  67. 67. Pronunciation. Russian vowels Basically,/ɐ/standshalfwaybetween low /æ/ asin “pad” andlow-mid /ʌ/ as in“love”. If we start from the backandmiddle of the mouth withthe sound/ʌ/, move towardsthecenterand a little closer tothebottom, wherethe/ɐ/ sound is, andtheneven closer tothe lips, and lower to the bottom to the/a/sound, we will have thefollowing series of sounds: /ʌ/, /ɐ/,/æ/. Pronouncethis series andafterthatpronounce theseries of words thatcontainsthese sounds: love, она, pad. Now, inversely: /æ/, /ɐ/, /ʌ/.Letus do thesamethingwiththewords: pad, она, love. Thetongue is positioned halfwaybetween thefrontand thebackof your mouth as the/ə/ in “comma” andthe /ɑ/in“palm”. So, if we placethetongue in themiddle andstartfrom thebottom to thetop, we will havethe following series of sounds: /ɑ/,/ɐ/, /ə/.Pronouncethisseries and afterthatpronounce the series of words thatcontainsthesesounds: palm, она, comma. Now, inversely: /ə/, /ɐ/, /ɑ/.Letus do thesamethingwiththewords: comma, она, palm. Thelips arenotrounded, but theyarenot narrow.Essentially,theytakethe same position asfor the/a/sound. The difference is thatthemouth is more closed whenyou pronounce the/ɐ/ sound thanfor the /a/ sound. Height Backness Lips The/ɐ/ sound(она)
  68. 68. Pronunciation. Russian vowels / ɐ / Type of an example Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 Word 4 Word 5 5 most frequent words: она /ɐˈna/ she они /ɐˈnʲi/ they такой /tɐˈkoj/ such говорить /ɡəvɐˈrʲitʲ/ to speak вообще /vəɐpˈɕɕe/ in general/at all Words with the sound at the beginning of a word опять /ɐˈpʲætʲ/ again отдать /ɐdˈdatʲ/ to give away обязательно /ɐbʲɪˈzatʲɪlʲnə/ obligatory/ surely абсолютно /ɐpsɐˈlʲʉtnə/ absolutely общаться /ɐpˈɕɕaʦə/ to communicate Words with the sound in the middle of a word какой /kɐˈkoj/ what/which потом /pɐˈtom/ later хотеть /xɐˈtʲetʲ/ to want конечно /kɐˈnʲeʂnə/ of course смотреть /smɐtˈrʲetʲ/ to look/to watch Words with the sound at the end of a word There are no words that end with this sound
  69. 69. • IPA chart for Russian vowels Pronunciation. Russian vowels
  70. 70. SECTION V Lexical stress and rhythm
  71. 71. Lexical stress • Lexical stress refersto the emphasisput on certainsyllablesin words.There are languagesin whichthe positionof thestressisalmostfixed.For example,in Czech, the stressnearly alwayscomeson the firstsyllableof a word.In otherlanguages,thestress can beplaced on almostany syllablein a word. They havethe so-calledvariablestress. • In thisregard,Russianand Englisharequite similar:in both languagesstressistruly lexical–ithas to be learnedas part of thepronunciation of an individualword. • The bottom line,alwayspayattention to the stress whenlearninga new wordand respect the stress whenspeakingRussian.
  72. 72. Lexical stress. Mobile and variable lexical stress Thebeginningofaword: Themiddleofaword: Theendofaword: • Variability Russian stress is said to be variable. It simply means that any syllable in a word can be stressed – first, second, last, etc. очень/ˈoʨɪnʲ/very, тоже/ˈtoʐe/ also; конечно/kɐˈnʲeʂnə/ofcourse, работать/rɐˈbotətʲ/ towork; она/ɐˈna/ she, такой/tɐˈkoj/ such.
  73. 73. Lexical stress. Mobile and variable lexical stress • Mobility It meansthatthe stresscanmovefreely fromone syllabletoanotherwithin differentformsof the same word.ScientistscalculatedthatmostRussianwords(about96%) havefixedstress. Unfortunately,the other4% arethe mostfrequentlyusedin everydaylife. – Говорить/ɡəvɐˈrʲitʲ/ to speak она говорила /ɐˈna ɡəvɐˈrʲilə/ she spoke BUT Ждать/ʐdatʲ/towait она ждала/ɐˈna ʐdɐˈla/shewaited – Красивый /krɐˈsʲivɨj/ beautiful она красива / ɐˈna krɐˈsʲivə/ sheisbeautiful BUT Правый/ˈpravɨj/ right она права/ ɐˈna prɐˈva/she is right
  74. 74. Lexical stress. Advantages of using stress• Creating a contrast Lexicalstresscreatesacontrastbetween syllablesthatarestressedandsyllablesthatare noе.On average,stressedvowels last1,5-2timeslongerthanunstressedones.In addition,stressedsyllables haveatendencytobepronouncedwithmoreintensityor energy, whichcausestheunstressedsyllables toweaken.This meansthat:  Wehearand pronounceunstressed syllables less clearlythanothers;  Unstressed vowels are subject to a phenomenoncalled vowel reduction. For example, the vowel /a/ (as in “да”), ina unstressed syllable, will become either /ɐ/(as in “она” /ɐˈna/ she) or /ə/(as in “говорить” /ɡəvɐˈrʲitʲ/ to talk);  Finally, whenwe speak fast and do not articulate much, theses sounds are likely todisappear completely. Bearthis in mind,while getting used tospokenRussian,in ordertohearit better,topronounceitbetter andalso,tomemorizeit better:whenyoulisten toRussianpay,attentionto thosesyllablesthatare stressedAND tothosethatarenot.
  75. 75. Lexical stress. Advantages of using stress• Speaking fast In Russian,for a long time in writingwords were writtenwithanyspace atall,whichis totallynormal if we wanttextto reflect whatwe hear: Thus,the existenceof lexical stresshelps us speak fasterby almost omitting non-stressedsyllables and highlightingstressedones. Often time, we recognize a word simply byits stressedsyllable, even if other syllables are more or less swallowed. Russianhasmany simple andquite frequentwords thatarefastto pronounce but atthe same time lots of long words withmany consonantsthataredifficult to pronounce atthesamespeed asshort words. If you tryto pronounce all thelettersandall thesyllables inwords, you willhavedifficulties in articulation,in speed and people aregoing to havehardtime understandingyou. Ifyouwanttospeak RussianfastANDfluently,respectthelexicalstress!
  76. 76. Lexical stress. Advantages of using stress • Changing the meaning of words 1 му́ка /ˈmukə/ anguish мука́ /muˈka/ flour 2 а́тлас /ˈatləs/ atlas атла́с /ɐtˈlas/ satin 3 за́мок /ˈzamək/ castle замо́к /zɐˈmok/ a lock
  77. 77. Lexical stress. Primary and secondary stress • Compound words In Russian, you can meet quite often compound words. A compound word consists of more than one word. Since it is a combination of two separate words, each one with its own stress, the compound word has two stresses –primary and secondary. In the IPA, primary stress has stronger degree of stress and marked by the“ˈ ” symbol, while secondary stress is weaker and has the “ˌ” sign (e.g. proˌnunciˈation). Example: высоко /vɨsɐˈkо/ highly + одарённый /ədɐˈrʲɵnnɨj/ gifted  высокоодарённый /vɨˌsokəədɐˈrʲɵnnɨj/ highly gifted
  78. 78. Lexical stress. Primary and secondary stress • Prepositions and particles Each word, if pronouncedseparately, has a stress. However, often time ina speech flow we tend to mergesome words, makingthem unstressed in the process. It can only happen to prepositions and particles because they do not carryanyimportant meaning; they are auxiliary parts of speech. For example: cо мнoй /səˈmnoj/withme, нa зиму /ˈnazʲɪmu/ for winter; какoй-то /kɐˈkojtə/some, чтo-то /ˈʂtotə/ something. Itdoes not happen all thetime, though. So, once again, listen to various recordings and native speakers as often as possible and pay attention, so as to notice this phenomenon for yourself. Prepositions: Particles:
  79. 79. Rhythm • The rhythmofa languageis theperception of thespeedatwhich wepass fromonesyllable tothe next. Russian,aswellas English, has astressed-timed rhythm.Opposedtoit is the syllable-timed rhythm,typicalof French orItalian,for example. • Ifwewereto explain this phenomenonwith the helpofa metronome,theimage is the following: inFrench, with each tick ofthe metronome, wemove on toa newsyllable; while, inRussian,with each tick wepass toa newstressed syllable.Thus, in French, each syllablecreates the rhythm,but inRussian only stressedsyllablescreate the rhythm.Tocontinuethe metronome comparison,in Russian,non-stressedsyllables wouldbelocatedbetweentwoticks.Evidently, it makes the rhythmsofthese twotypesoflanguagesquitedifferent. • To sum up,lexical stress andrhythmareclosely linked. Respecting thestress of syllables lets us respect therhythmof thelanguage.Itworksthe otherwayaroundtoa certain level: tryingto respect theRussian rhythmlets us develop anintuition forstress patternsmoreeasily and, consequently,helps us memorize them moreeasily too.
  80. 80. SECTION Vi Intonation and prosodic stress
  81. 81. Intonation Intonationisthevariationofthepitchofthevoiceina sentence.Itisthefactthatthe voicegoesupanddownduringcertainparts ofa sentence. Statement Close-endedquestion Open-ended question Order InEnglish
  82. 82. Intonation TheintonationsofEnglishandRussianhave somesimilarities.Still,theyare quite different.Seeforyourself. Statement Close-ended question Open-ended question Order InRussian
  83. 83. Intonation • Applicationand utility Intonationis somethingthatwedonaturallyin ournativelanguagesince childhood.Thatonly goes to showthatif wesimply get used tonew patternsin alanguage welearn,it will feel naturalaswell. Thelastremarkon thistopicis actuallyapointofgrammarbutwethinkit is importanttomentionit here. InRussian,the intonationof asentence is sufficientto askaquestion. In English, it isnecessarytoinverse thesubjectandtheverb even if youalreadyusethe correctintonation. Peoplewouldnotunderstandatfirstthesentence“He is athome”asaquestion,even if youusetheright intonation.In Russian,onthe contrary,wecansayboth“Ондома” (statement) and“Ондома?” (question).Theintonationis enoughto conveythatit is anaffirmationin thefirstcaseanda questionin the second one.
  84. 84. Prosodic stress • Prosodic stressis a stress placed on wordswithin sentences. In the previous chapterwesaw that, in a word with more than one syllable, there is always one syllable that is stressed. This syllable helps us recognizethe word more easily. That was at the level of syllables in word. Now, wewould like to make you aware ofa similar phenomenon at the level of words in sentences. It is called prosodic stress. This concept is used in English as well.
  85. 85. Prosodic stress • Which word to stress Wemainly stress the words in a sentence that provides important information or convey feelings. Forexample: “Я обожаю шоколад!”/jæ ɐbɐˈʐajʉ ʂəkɐˈlat/ I lovechocolate! Theword “обожаю” will be typically stressed because it is a word associated with an emotion. This word is pronounced with more energy, wemake it last longer and we say it with a higherpitch than the others: “Я обожаю шоколад!”
  86. 86. Prosodic stress • Evenwhen we providesomegeneral information, weuseprosodic stress. If wegive instructions to someone, wewill insist on the most important words: Сначала открой эту папку, теперь найди файл, который называется “Проект” /snɐˈʨælə ɐtˈkroj ˈɛtu ˈpapku tʲɪˈpʲerʲ nɐjˈdʲi fajl kɐˈtorɨj nəzɨˈvaɪʦə prɐˈɛkt/ First, open this folder, now find thefile, that is called “Project” • Always stress those words that bring the meaning to the conversation. Basically, highlight words that you would write in a telegraph message: “открой - папку - файл - проект”.
  87. 87. Prosodic stress • Changing themeaning of a phrase Я не ходил в кино вчера /jæ nɪ xɐdʲl f kʲɪno fʨɪra/ I didn’t go to the movies yesterday Now, depending on which word we stress, wearegoing to get sentences with different meanings:  Я не ходил в кино вчера.(Somebody elsedid.)  Я не ходил в кино вчера.(I did notgo there.)  Я не ходил в кино вчера.(I went somewhere else.)  Я не ходил в кино вчера.(I wentthere some other day.)
  88. 88. SECTION Vii CONCLUSION
  89. 89. Table of comparison: English-Russian Mode of comparison English Russian Pronunciation 44 sounds you know from childhood 11 new sounds + 15 soft consonants:  7 new consonant sounds /ʂ/, /ʐ/, /ɕ/, /x/, /r/, /ʦ/, /ʨ/  4 new vowel sounds /ɨ/, /ɵ/, /ʉ/, /ɐ/ Lexical stress Lexical stress: each word with more than one syllable has at least one stressed syllable that varies from word to word and that we pronounce longer, and with more energy. Lexical stress: each word with more than one syllable has at least one stressed syllable that varies from word to word and that we pronounce longer, and with more energy. + Lexical stress varies not only among different words, but also within different forms of the same word Prosodic stress In a sentence, different words can be stressed to underline the meaning or convey an emotion. In a sentence, different words can be stressed to underline the meaning or convey an emotion. + Words are emphasized more often than in English. Rhythm Stress-timed rhythm: only stressed syllables create the rhythm. Stress-timed rhythm: only stressed syllables create the rhythm. Intonation Intonation insists on the words that bring information and convey meaning to the sentence. BUT Intonation patters differs from Russian ones. Intonation insists on the words that bring information and convey meaning to the sentence. BUT Intonation patters differs from English ones. + Intonation is sufficient to ask a question.
  90. 90. Conclusion • Applying it Inorder to be able to express yourthoughts and be understood by native Russian speakers, it is essential to understand the phonetics of the languageverywell. So, what can youdo to preservethe knowledgeyouhavejust acquired? Thefirst step is to haveaccess to spoken Russian. Yourfirst goal is not to regress and returnto anold “do everythingwith text” bad habit. Next step is to monitor yourown progress. Itis worth workingin two following directions to maintain yourprogress: – Tolearn: gofrom small tolarge. Work again,first, on the sounds (pronunciation), then on words (stress + pronunciation), andon phrases (intonation +stress +pronunciation); – Toexpress yourself: go from large tosmall. First, payattention tothe intonation, then towords you want tostress, then syllables you should stress and,finally, tothe pronunciation ofsounds. This willhelp you develop an overall vision andget goodintuition on how the Russian language works.
  91. 91. Conclusion • Organization Thebestthing todo,if youwanttoget organizedandtomakethe very mostofthis book,is,firstofall, to alwayskeep it atyourfingertips. Next,it is essential thatyouhavesomeRussianaudiocontentyoucanlisten toatyourdisposal.Create yourown “goldmine” forthispurpose:take,say,threehoursover thenext fewdays,togathermaterialyou will enjoy:Russianmusic, audiobooksor TVshows. • Practice every day If youwanttoreinforceyournew skills in phoneticseven more,itis importanttoincludeRussianas partof yourdailylife. It shouldnotbejusta“project”youtacklefromtime to time.Thereis nosecret tomakeit possible–yousimply need topracticeRussianeverysingleday.
  92. 92. PDF and audio tracks
  93. 93. PDF and audio tracks http://audacity.sourceforge.net/
  94. 94. Additional resources  Internationalphoneticalphabet(IPA) for English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English  Internationalphoneticalphabet(IPA) for Russian: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPA_for_Russian  Interactivechartofthe Internationalphoneticalphabet(IPA): http://www.ipachart.com  The IPAtranscriptionconverter: http://learn-foreign-language-phonetics.com/russian- phonetic-transcription-converter.php?site_language=english  The tooltotranscribewordsinthe IPA byyourself: http://westonruter.github.io/ipa-chart/keyboard/  Wiktionary to gettranscriptionofseparatewords: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/  The toolthat helpstostressRussianwords: http://learn-foreign-language-phonetics.com/add-stress-marks-to- russian-text.php?site_language=english  Moretechniquesonthe “rollingR” http://www.wikihow.com/Roll-Your-%22R%22s  A web-sitewherenativespeakerscanrecordaudio foryouforfree and youcando the sameforthem: https://rhinospike.com/ Sites andWebpages:
  95. 95. Epilogue We would like tothank you verymuch for choosing this book. We hope itdid serve you wellin discovering and successfully applying Russian phonetics, toworkon your pronunciation. We wishyou everysuccess and joyinimplementingthe ideas you have found inour book. Please, letusknow aboutanyremarksor questions you haveand, especially,about your Success Stories –these arethe messages we readfirst.You can contact usat the followingaddress: We wishyou a good timepracticing spoken Russian andmany enjoyable adventures in that language! road2russian@gmail.com

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