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Authors: Javier Celdrán: Competitiveness Director / Development Agency Murcia (Spain) & Antonio Ruiz: Director TASO consultants (Spain).
The 21st century has brought a revision of regional competitiveness policies in Spain, addressing it to bottom‐up strategies instead of the old “one size fits all” strategies. Economic Development Policies have become more sophisticated. Cluster down to bottom‐up strategies Initiatives (CI) are now mainstream all over Europe as the linkage among all the cluster agents is essential to upgrade competitiveness.