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Iistec 2013 game_design for id_m_broyles_id13333
 

Iistec 2013 game_design for id_m_broyles_id13333

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Game simulation design and development require instructional designers and game/simulation developers to collaborate. Instructional designers are not typically trained in game or simulation design and ...

Game simulation design and development require instructional designers and game/simulation developers to collaborate. Instructional designers are not typically trained in game or simulation design and development. Designing and developing a simulation or game is not the same as designing and developing for an elearning course. Although there are similar concepts, there is one glaring difference – simulations are three-dimensional environments. It is this element that instructional designers do not have any experience. Creating a Flash animation in an elearning course is not the same as creating a three-dimensional world, where characters must interact, objects manipulated and how the player moves through and interacts with this environment. The result of not understanding 3D simulation design/development is cost overruns, staffing issues, and production delays that result in missing critical milestones.

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  • Let’s start with a question:How do good game designers get players to learn, long complex games? (Cite: Gee, J. P. (2004). Learning by design: Games as learning machines. Interactive Educational Multimedia, (8), 15-23.)Source graphic from: (Cite: (2013, 04 04). Elder Scrolls Online [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.levelupvideogames.net/2012/05/the-elder-scrolls-online-announced/).
  • cite as:Kirkley, J., Kirkley, S. E., & Heneghan, J. (2007). Building bridges between serious game design and instructional design. In B. E. Shelton & D. Wiley (Eds.), The Design and Use of Simulation Computer Games in Education (pp. 61-83). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
  • Rob Carter, chief information officer at FedEx, thinks the best training for anyone who wants to succeed in 10 years is the online game World of Warcraft. Carter says WoW, as its 10 million devotees worldwide call it, offers a peek into the future workplace. Each team faces a fast-paced, complicated series of obstacles called quests, and each player, via his online avatar, must contribute to resolving them or else lose his place on the team. The player who contributes most gets to lead the team — until another player contributes more. (Goldberg et al., 2009).cite as:Davidson, C. N., & Goldberg, D. T. (2009). The future of learning institutions in a digital age. The MIT Press.
  • It’s not so much about the gameplay, as much as it is being part of the story. Well-designed games compel you to continue playing through a combination of action, puzzle solving, rewards and group activities.WOW is an MMO – massive multiplayer online game – set in a fantasy world that draws much of its substance from Tolkein and other fantasy writers. Many of the role-playing games (RPGs) follow the pseudo-Tolkein model, but most follow paths laid out in fantasy literature (i.e. characters and novels by Robert Howard, Edgar Rice Burroughs, H.P. Lovecraft or more modern writers).WOW is, of course, not the only game that offers that sort of setting, but at eight years old, with about 12 million subscribers, it’s both the largest and longest-lasting of them. It thus becomes the yardstick for measuring any other game in the genre. None of its competitors – Rift, Guild Wars, Lord of the Rings, Star Wars, etc. – have a fraction of the players.Beyond the coding, there are some basic components any game needs to be successful:Clearly defined purpose and goalsChallengeIdentifiable opponents to overcomeReward for accomplishing goals or overcoming challengesAn understandable and accessible board geography where the game is playedClear and concise rulesRPGs add other elements to create that immersive experience, including:Connecting story/narrativeCharacter choice, advancement and developmentConsequences of actions or behaviorAlternate races (orcs, elves, dwarves, etc.)Role assumption (taking on the persona of a character in the story)Free agency (the ability to move and act independent of the script)Believable fantasy, alternate or futuristic world environmentClear sides with which the races align and which have competing goalsCited as: http://ianchadwick.com/blog/narrative-and-free-agency-in-game-design/
  • First, computer and video games are going to become the predominate form of popular culture interaction in our society. Second, whether they know it or not, good game designers are practical theoreticians of learning, since—at a beginning or advanced level—what makes games deep is that players are exercising their learning muscles, though often without knowing it and without having to pay overt attention to the matter. (Crawford, C. (1984). The art of computer game design.)Source graphic from: Elder-Scrolls-Online, http://www.levelupvideogames.net/2012/05/the-elder-scrolls-online-announced/
  • The answer that is interesting is this: the designers of many good games have hit on profoundly good methods of getting people to learn and to enjoy learning. In the end, I have to admit, though, that I believe game designers can make worlds where people can have meaningful new experiences, experiences that their places in life would never allow them to have or even experiences no human being has ever had before. These experiences have the potential to make people smarter and more thoughtful.(Cite: Gee, J. P. (2004). Learning by design: Games as learning machines. Interactive Educational Multimedia, (8), 15-23.)Game-playing requires two components: a game and a player. The game designer works to produce a game, and so her immediate preoccupation is with the game itself. Yet, her final goal is to educate, entertain, or edify the game-player; hence, the human player is the proper primary concern of the game designer. Why do people play games? What motivates them? What makes games fun? The answers to these questions are crucial to good game design. (Cite: Crawford, C. (1984). The art of computer game design.)
  • However, today more and more instructional designers and game designers find that they MUST work together to design develop and produce games, serious games and/or simulations. Most game designers have no or little understanding of the instructional design process and instructional designers have little understanding of what it takes to create and develop a game or simulation. Most instructional designers have little training in game design and development. Although many do have training in multimedia developmentWhat both sides fail to see is how both processes have their strengths and weakness but that does not mean that they should be ignored. Instead, these should be examined to determine how to produce best possible serious game/simulation product. In addition, both processes do share common ground as well as key differences between the two as well as documentation and product deliverables.Instructional designers and game/simulation designers must have an understanding of the common elements shared by both processes as well what is unique to each process. But, each side lacks understanding regarding what it takes to produce a final product.Let’s start by examining both development processes. 
  • Instructional designers use instructional design systems to guide them through the design and development process. Many times instructional designers refer to the ADDIE model that consists of the following: analysis, design, develop, implement and evaluate. Molenda (2003), states that the ADDIE model is a systematic approach to instructional development. (Cite:Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance improvement, 42 (5), 34-37.)Novak (2011) discusses the game development processes as: concept, preproduction, prototype, production, alpha, beta, candidate release, and gold. (Cite: Novak, J. (2011). Game development essentials. Delmar Pub.)
  • First, let’s take a look at the game development process.Concept Phase –is where you come up with your game idea and ends when a decision is made to begin planning for the project. Here you create your High Concept Document and the Concept Document. (Documents – High Concept Design Document, Concept Design Document) (PowerPoint – High Concept Pitch Presentation).Pre-Production Phase – once you have interest in the game now it is time to plan: develop a game proposal and planning for pre-production; the art style guide is developed and the production plan. It ends with the creation of the Game Design Document and the Technical Design Document.Prototype Phase – here is your opportunity to create a prototype of the game; working software that captures onscreen the essence of your game and what sets it apart from other games and what will make it a winner. It is usually a great idea to make a paper version before moving into the digital mode. It allows you to think through your ideas and how will work.Production Phase – this is usually the longest phase that often lasts from 6 months to over 2 years and the end result is a completed game.
  • Alpha Phase – here your game should be playable from beginning to end; you might have some gaps and missing stuff but the engine and user interface are complete. This phase is about polishing the game… then test, test and then some more.Beta Phase – now that you have tested the game; it is now time to work out all the bugs you found.Gold Phase – the game has been tested and found to be acceptable. Sr. Managers review the game and agree that the game is ready for manufacturing.Post-Production Phase – you may several releases or versions of the game. I am sure all of you have heard about patches.
  • ADDIE  (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) framework—that is rooted in sound adult learning theory—to (after analysis) design, develop, and deliver all educational and training products and services with Evaluation being conducted throughout each step of the process to ensure a higher quality product the first time with fewer revisions during its life-span. ADDIE provides a systematic structure that allows instructional designers to design and develop all instructional materials. Throughout this process, the end-learner is the instructional focus, so that effective learning occurs. This means that every instructional component is governed by the learning outcomes that have been determined thorough analyzing learner needs. These phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.ADDIE – Analysis: The Analysis phase serves as the foundation for all other instructional design phases. During this phase, educational and training team must define the problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions. The Analysis phase may include specific research techniques such as front-end analysis, job analysis, needs analysis, and task analysis that reveal instructional gaps. Analysis outputs include the instructional goals, and instructional tasks lists. These outputs become the Design phase inputs.ADDIE – Design:The Design phase involves using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. During this phase, you must outline how to reach the instructional goals determined during the Analyze phase and expand the instructional foundation. Some of the elements of the Design Phase may include writing a target population description, conducting a learning analysis, writing terminal and enabling objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system (elearning, instructor-led, simulation, etc.) and instructional sequencing. The outputs of the Design phase will be the inputs for the Development phase.ADDIE – Development: The Development phase builds upon the Analyze and Design phase’s outputs. During this phase the educational training team develops all the instruction, all media that will be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may include hardware (e.g., simulation equipment) and software (e.g., computer-based instruction).ADDIE – Implementation: The Implementation phase refers to the instructional product delivery, whether it's classroom-based, lab-based, computer-based or simulation-based. This phase primary purpose is the effective and efficient instructional product delivery. This phase must promote the students' understanding of material, support the students 'mastery of objectives, and ensure the students' transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.ADDIE – Evaluation:Evaluation is not a separate phase in the Oak Grove approach but rather a process that is sewn into each of the other phases. In Evaluating throughout the production of training materials, we are able to make smaller, defter corrections that result in a more tailored training product that was built with fewer “off target” components. In the Evaluation process, the primary focus is to measure instructional product effectiveness. These Evaluations typically are one or both of two possible types: Formative and/or Summative Evaluation. The Formative Evaluation improves the instructional product prior to releasing the final product. This is typically completed by conducting pilot-tests with the target audience.Summative Evaluation occurs after the instructional product has been implemented. The primary purpose is to evaluate the overall instructional effectiveness; after the training has been implemented. 
  • Game/Simulation and Instructional Design Process Common Elements Both processes have their strengths and weakness but that does not mean that they should be ignored. Instead, these should be examined to determine how to produce best possible serious game/simulation product. In addition, both processes do share common ground as well as key differences between the two.There are similar elements within both processes, and each process does include document and product deliverables. Instructional designers and game/simulation designers must have an understanding of the common elements shared by both processes as well what is unique to each process.
  • Key DifferencesGame Designers employ an Iterative Design Approach - Iterative design is a designmethodology based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing,analyzing, and refining a product or process.Game designers start with a storyline and work to develop the back story (what has happened prior to the main character entering the scene). How the main character became involved and how the main character resolves the situation or achieves successful task or quest completion. Story drives character development. This includes all the characters involved throughout the storyline.Story also drives the game world environment – what it will look like and everything that is included in the game world.Story also drives what challenges, tasks, or quests that the player will encounter throughout the game/simulation.Instructional DesignersUses a Waterfall Design Approach - A classically linear and sequential approach to software design and systems development, each waterfall stage is assigned to a separate team to ensure greater project and deadline control, important for on-time project delivery. A linear approach means a stage by stage approach for product building, e.g.Start with creating the instructional objects and how to assess if the objective has been achieved.
  • Educational/training games/simulations are typically developed by a design and development team composed of programmers, artists, game designers, technical directors, subject matter experts (SME), and instructional designers.From a global perspective, the game designers, SME, and instructional designer do most of the pre-production for the team. It is their vision of the game-play and instructional aspects of the game that drive the production process. The game is actually implemented by the production team, which is composed of artists, programmers, and technical directors. The effectiveness of the game is tested at the post-production stage by both game-testers and educational specialists (SME & ID). The game-testers focus on assessing the fun aspects of the game; the SME and instructional designer focus on the educational portions of the game. Figure 2 gives an overview of this process.
  • When designing a game/simulation where do we begin?Instructional designers would say – start with the objectives.Game designers would say – start with the story – objectives and everything else will come from that.
  • Learning objectives DO NOT make great game goals. However, an objective can help create game goals, challenges and can be broken down into specific tasks or quests that the player must achieve in order to complete different game levels. Every level in a game/simulation does have objectives that the player must achieve in order to receive a reward or move to a higher level.Given a game simulation a learner (acting as a security agent) will perform a visual room inspection, using divide the room by height method and documenting inspection findings accurately on the Security Review Worksheet.
  • Game developers often use classic story structures because these stories have already been successfully “tested” with mass audiences. Now that the market for games is expanding widely, developers feel that these stories are best because they have the potential of attracting a large consumer base and can be serve as a basis for serious games and simulations.Game designers develop the story line during concept development since the story drives everything that will be included the game. It drives the game world visual look and feel. The story also drives character development as well. The story will emerge throughout the development process.
  • Traditional Story StructureMost books, films, and plays employ this format when developing books, play scripts or screen plays. Hollywood 3-ActBeginning (Act I) – The story begins by placing the character into the action or drama of the story. The primary goal is to capture the audience’s attention. In Act 1 the focus is on the character’s problem. You can present any backstory and background events later in the story.Middle (Act II) – During Act II the focus is on any obstacles that may stand in the way of the character ability to solve the problem that was introduced during Act 1. Usually there are a series of obstacles that the character must overcome or solve in order to move forward. Normally, Act II comprises a bulk of the dramatic tension used in the story.End (Act III) – The story ends once the character has solved the problem. In order to do this the character must systematically face and resolve each obstacle presented during Act II.Another creative ploy frequently in story development is that of the Hero’s Journey.Cited: (2008). Game development essentials. (2nd ed., p. 121). Clifton Park, NY: DELMAR CENGAGE Learning.)
  • Monomyth & Hero's Journey The Hero’s Journey is a pattern of narrative identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that appears in drama, storytelling, myth, religious ritual, and psychological development.  It describes the typical adventure of the archetype known as The Hero, the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the group, tribe, or civilization.The Hero’s Journey storylines can be found in: Back to the Future Series, Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings, Matrix, Star Wars and Star Trek. Games that contain strong storylines are: Elder Scroll and Final Fantasy.The Hero’s Journey Story Flow consists of the following.1.        THE ORDINARY WORLD.  The hero, uneasy, uncomfortable or unaware, is introduced sympathetically so the audience can identify with the situation or dilemma.  The hero is shown against a background of environment, heredity, and personal history.  Some kind of polarity in the hero’s life is pulling in different directions and causing stress.2.        THE CALL TO ADVENTURE.  Something shakes up the situation, either from external pressures or from something rising up from deep within, so the hero must face the beginnings of change.  3.        REFUSAL OF THE CALL.  The hero feels the fear of the unknown and tries to turn away from the adventure, however briefly.  Alternately, another character may express the uncertainty and danger ahead.4.        MEETING WITH THE MENTOR.  The hero comes across a seasoned traveler of the worlds who gives him or her training, equipment, or advice that will help on the journey.  Or the hero reaches within to a source of courage and wisdom.5.        CROSSING THE THRESHOLD.  At the end of Act One, the hero commits to leaving the Ordinary World and entering a new region or condition with unfamiliar rules and values.  6.        TESTS, ALLIES AND ENEMIES.  The hero is tested and sorts out allegiances in the Special World.7.        APPROACH.  The hero and newfound allies prepare for the major challenge in the Special world.8.        THE ORDEAL.  Near the middle of the story, the hero enters a central space in the Special World and confronts death or faces his or her greatest fear.  Out of the moment of death comes a new life. 9.        THE REWARD.  The hero takes possession of the treasure won by facing death.  There may be celebration, but there is also danger of losing the treasure again.10.      THE ROAD BACK.  About three-fourths of the way through the story, the hero is driven to complete the adventure, leaving the Special World to be sure the treasure is brought home.  Often a chase scene signals the urgency and danger of the mission.11.     THE RESURRECTION.  At the climax, the hero is severely tested once more on the threshold of home.  He or she is purified by a last sacrifice, another moment of death and rebirth, but on a higher and more complete level.  By the hero’s action, the polarities that were in conflict at the beginning are finally resolved.12.       RETURN WITH THE ELIXIR.  The hero returns home or continues the journey, bearing some element of the treasure that has the power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed.Classic dramatic story elements include: premise, backstory, synopsis, theme, setting, plot. (Cite: Wikipedia contributor. (2013, 09 17). Monomyth. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monomyth&oldid=572626778 )Cited: (2008). Game development essentials. (2nd ed., p. 121). Clifton Park, NY: DELMAR CENGAGE Learning.)
  • Story ElementsYou can use the story elements to help you rough out your storyline ideas and structure them into a preliminary story.Premise (High Concept) – one or two sentences about the game’s purpose and theme.Backstory – provides information about what leads the player to this point. This helps orients the player to the situation and helps establish a base connection to the main character.Synopsis –storyline can exist throughout the game.Theme– represents what the story is really about for example (usually relates from the primary obstacle in the story by the character). Is it an enemy, nature, force, fate, or characters? Setting– represents the world that is being explored by the character. Game worlds can be fantasy, science fiction, real-world and world location (such as Sahara Desert or Iraq) or represents a time period (such as Middle Ages, World War II or organized crime).Plot – represents how the story unfolds rather than what the story is about. For example, in Hero’s Journey – the hero’s initial refusal to heed the call to adventure and the appearance of the mentor are both plot points. This can happen in the story as well as by gameplay (how the character reacts to the challenges faced in the game). In this way, the plot and gameplay are interconnected.So, how do we create dramatic tension?Source Graphic: Produced by Ubisoft, Assassin’s Creed (Cite: (2013, 09 17). http://assassinscreed.ubi.com/en-US/games/assassins-creed/index.aspx [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://assassinscreed.ubi.com/en-US/games/assassins-creed/index.aspx )
  • Plot DevicesSo, how do we keep the player interested?Balancing conflict – there must be a balance between the character and the action. For example, the character often seems to be at the brink of disaster but, it able to escape at the last minute. Balance must also happen between players.Shifting focus – players must make choices and have seem to have freedom while they play the game, the player can be drawn into the main storyline. This technique involves shifting the player’s focus while capturing the player’s interest - such as widening the game scope by providing additional sub quests or introducing a new character or objects that lead the player to other unexplored game areas.Foreshadowing events – is a device that ominously alert the audience about an impeding event or change that will happen in the future. Neither the character nor the player is aware of this as they are introduced to visually compelling images.Suspension of disbelief – means that you want to create a story that draws the player in and makes the player forget “real life” and immerses themselves in the game world reality.Realism – is used to mimic real world as closely. It is imperative that no element is out of place (for example having a watch in a story set in medieval times).Source Graphic: Produced by Valve Corporation , Half Life (Cite: (2013, 09 17). Half-Life Wallpaper [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.wallpapervortex.com/wallpaper-32081_half_life.html )Call to Duty Produced by Activision, Cited: (2013, 09 17). Call to Duty [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://assets2.ignimgs.com/2004/03/04/6039_2004-03-22_09-712906_640w.jpg
  • Interactivity– Games have higher interactivity levels than other mediums. If the player only wanted a story, then they could read a book or watch a movie. Games depend on gameplay.Non-linearity (story layers/pathing) – Games can have different paths: linear or non-linear. Linear games follow physical and temporal straight line. They start with the most distant events and end with the most recent. Non-linear games demonstrate an apparent freedom of choice that is available to the player.Player control – allows the player to manipulate the game in some way – as opposed to watching a movie or TV show. Players may be to select different paths through the game levels or creating a customized plot or using world building tools.Collaboration– multiplayer games allow players to engage in collaborative storytelling. A collaborative storyline could be created by the game development team and then have players add to the story.Immersion– game immersion is when a game storyline engages players in that the story, characters, and gameplay are so engaging that players become engulfed in the game.Cited: Novos detalhes de Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIIICited: Collaboration Storytelling Lecture GAME245, IADT, 2013
  • Cinematics & cut-scenes – cinematic sequences are usually placed at the beginning or end of game. A cinematic is basically a mini-movie. The cinematic needs to leave players in a spot that makes them think. Think of cinematics as the story in a scripted scene, sort of like a briefing or debrief, the designer tells players that this is important! Cut scenes are essentially a mini-movie that runs during the game. Cut scenes are used to develop characters, introduce a new environment, advance the plot, or introduce new mission goals for a particular game area or level. Cut scenes MUST NOT be introduced at the wrong time which could mean disaster.Scripted events – a scripted event is a short sequence that is triggered by the player or it is timed-base. Cited: Novos detalhes de Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIIICited: Collaboration Storytelling Lecture GAME245, IADT, 2013
  • Today we are sitting in a conference meeting room. A global conference client wants your company to design a simulation to train security personnel how to conduct a visual room inspection.Given a game simulation a learner (acting as a security agent) will perform a visual room inspection, using divide the room by height method and documenting inspection findings accurately on the Security Review Worksheet.
  • Character development is essential to the game/simulation!Game/simulations employ several character types: character playable or non-player characters (NPCs). An example of a player controlled character is an avatar character that the player/learner controls throughout the game/simulation. NPCs controlled by the game/simulation and interact with the player character. NPCs controlled by the game/simulation and interact with the player character (avatar). Character models cannot just be placed in a game/simulation. Major characters require visual, psychological development that derived from the storyline as well as adds to the player experience.Game/simulation designers prepare character descriptions, visual treatment (age, appearance, clothing/uniform/rank), backstory (personality, position background, etc. that leads to how the character will act in the game/simulation. Graphic from Lara Croft.
  • How, What and Why When creating characters, screenwriters as well as actors will go through weeks of background story for their characters – from birth through death. They will know all the intimate character details that will bring their character to life. This creates a reason for a character to exist, to act as they would. This may not be shown in the film but, every decision that the character makes is based on their story. How did the player arrive to the story?What happened prior (background/history) to the player entering the story?What were the set of events that brought the player there?Why is this important to the player?How will the player navigate through the environment?
  • Universal Character Archetypes Carl Jung introduced the idea the unconscious forming a connection to certain universal characters. These characters are used in all entertainment media to heighten the audience’s connection to the story and action before them.Hero – is the central character to the game/simulation and is usually controlled by the player. It is important that the player identify with the character. This character follows the hero’s journey process as they work through the game.Shadow – represents the hero’s opposite, often the evil character. This could be the character that is responsible for the hero’s situation. In some games, this character remains hidden until the story climax in order heightens the drama. Sometimes the shadow represents the character’s dark side.Mentor – represents the character that provides the hero with guidance towards some action. They provide the character with important information so that they continue through the game.Allies – represents the characters that help the hero progress, journey and helps the hero complete tasks that may be difficult to accomplish by him/her.Guardian – represents a character that blocks the hero’s progress by whatever means necessary. A guardian could also be a “block” in the hero’s mind – such as self-doubt, fear, or anxiety.Trickster – represents a neutral character who loves to create mischief. In some games, tricksters can cause severe damage through their actions by stopping the hero on their journey more often trickster provide comic relief when needed. These could be the character’s sidekicks or even a shadow character. Herald – represents a character that facilitates a story change and at times provides the hero with direction.
  • A protagonist rarely changes throughout the story – but the character always grows. For example, a passive protagonist may learn through interacting with the antagonist how to become strong enough to overtake the antagonist. The character grows as a result of the story events or tasks.This grow process is called the Character Arc. The arc consists of several character development levels (based on character behavior rather than through monologue or dialogue). This matrix is based off of Abraham Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs”. Where the character starts out focused solely on him/herself and through events and relationships begins to expand their focus from themselves to humanity.Cited: (2008). Game development essentials. (2nd ed., p. 161). Clifton Park, NY: DELMAR CENGAGE Learning.)
  • Character Description/SynopsisTo get started in character development, you need to write a character description. Basically, a character description is a brief summary of the character’s entire life. Try and think of your characters as people and explore the character in depth. To get you started, here are some things to get you started.Note: To all the instructional designers who feel that this is not necessary but, character development does play an important part to how a character might react or respond to a given situation.Name – refers to the character’s name – usually full name, and/or nickname.Type – refers to the character’s (class, race, archetype fantasy/mythic/historical).Gender/age – refers to character’s gender (female/male and age).Physical appearance – refers to a comprehensive character visual description. This usually includes the following information: body type, height, hair color/style, eye color, skin tone, costume, color scheme, signature pose, profile, gestures, facial expressions, distinguishing marks, etc. If creating military simulation, include branch, rank, deployments, skills or endorsements. This is important so an artist can create the character and not have to guess what you want him/her to look like.Background & history – refers to personality (reflect these back onto the character’s physical appearance, mood, motivation, nervous ticks, and idle moves).Vocal characteristics– refers to the character’s vocal tone (pitch, accent) and pace.Relevance to story synopsis – refers to how import is this character to the overall story.
  • PRE-LEGEND LARA CROFT BIOGRAPHYLara Croft, daughter of Lord Henshingly Croft, was born in England on February 14th 1968. She was raised to be an aristocrat from birth, and had lived in luxury aloof from the world at large. From the age of 3 Lara began her learning with a private tutor. Lara attended Wimbledon High School for girls at the age of 11. At 16 her parents decided she should broaden her education by studying at Gordonstoun, one of Britain's most prominent boarding schools. Once the designer has a basic visual character description, a concept artist will begin to create some concept character art that the entire team will review, discuss before selecting final renderings.From: Copyright © Tomb Raider Chronicles, All Rights Reserved, 2013Copyright © Square Enix Ltd. Lara Croft and Tomb Raider and trademarks of Square Enix Ltd. All Rights Reservedhttp://www.tombraiderchronicles.com/lara/info.html
  • The character’s physical characteristics are art driven and at the same time these characteristics also need to correlate with the character’s role in the story. This is why you should develop the character’s personality before you actually create the in-game character.
  • Consider the character (avatar) that the player is going play as in this game/simulation.What other characters should be created for this simulation?
  • Creating the Game WorldWorld building is the process of constructing an imaginary world, sometimes associated with an entire functional universe. The term world building was popularized by science fictions writers during the 1970’s.Developing an imaginary setting with coherent elements such as history, geography, and ecology is a key task. World building involves creating maps, a backstory and people. Level design is defined as the creation of the environments, scenarios or missions in a game/simulation. Level designers construct the architecture and visuals of the game/simulation physical game environment. The designer is also responsible for dividing the game’s basic structure into different sections or levels.Game levels can be used to structure a game into manageable levels, organize player progression and enhance gameplay. The events or tasks is how the player must play the through the level in order to move to the next level or task.
  • Creating a Believable Game WorldOnce you have a defined storyline and the setting (locations where the game will be played). It is time to collect as many visual reference photos and graphics that will help you create a visually stimulating game world. As you collect images, you will learn more about the game’s subject matter. You will learn all about the intricacies, nuances and details that draw the player into the game world. It is all in the details. If you are creating, a game world for a military simulation then it is imperative that every detail is reviewed. Having a green tank instead of tan one is a show stopper for a soldier in today’s military. The green color tells the soldier that the vehicle was used in Vietnam and not currently used. The soldier will dismiss whatever is presented in simulation and totally tune out.This is also the time to start drawing concepts of what the game world will look like. But, in order to create the world the designer must break down the game world into manageable parts or levels.
  • Three – Dimensional ThinkingOne of the most difficult things for instructional designers to do is remember that it is not just designing a believe world environment. But, a 3 dimensional world where the player interacts with any objects placed in the world and be able to move through the world as realistically as possible. Everything in a game/simulation will have height, width and depth. This means that the character will be moving through a 3D environment. The character will be able to walk and run down streets. The level designer will decide which buildings will be accessible to character. What doors will be operational and how the player will move through the physical environment.Always keep in mind how the level is to play from beginning to end.
  • Cited as: Tomb Raider: Underworld : The Official Guide Interactive Ltd... . (2008). Piggyback Interactive Ltd.
  • Level LayoutsGame/simulation designers create level layouts (top-down drawings that show the location of all buildings, major assets, puzzle placements, and character placement, etc.). Level layouts include level descriptions, obstacles, objectives, scope, and sequence. Game/simulation designer create game flow charts to show the game and level flow throughout the game and especially helpful when creating complex game/simulations.The player’s path is how the character is to move through the level (level flow) and where the enemy is to enter level and challenge the player. Level flow is also determined by gameplay as well. We will talk about that later in this discussion.It is imperative that each level have a primary objective that the player must accomplish in order to move to the next level or mission. Level designers usually include sub-objectives which may open up gameplay possibilities in later levels.The designer also decides on what obstacles and/or challenges that the player will encounter in each level. This also means that the level designer must also think about what choices the player has and what decisions the player must make and what are the ramifications for each decision.
  • World Building MethodsWorldbuilding can be designed from the top down or the bottom up, or by a combination of these approaches.Top-Down ApproachA designer creates a general overview of the world – determining board characteristics such as world inhabitants, technology level, major geographic features, climate, and history. The designer then develops the rest of the world in increasing detail. In this approach that might involve creation of continents, civilizations, nations, cities and towns. Worlds built from the top down ten to be well-integrated, with all the components fitting together. This requires considerable work before enough detail is completed for the setting and this is usually done in the creating the story setting.Bottom-Up ApproachHere a designer focuses on one aspect of the world that is needed. In this approach, the location is given considerable detail such as: local geography, culture, social structure, government, politics, commerce, and history. Prominent characters may be described – including their relationships with each other. Surrounding areas then are described with less detail. Later the designer can enhance the description of other area. However, this approach usually results in a world with inconsistencies.Combined ApproachUsing both the top down and the bottom-up approach can be used but it is very difficult for a designer to accomplish developing a game world using this approach since the designer must approach the world from both perspectives at the same and that doubles the work effort and would take much longer to develop.
  • Now let’s consider what should be included in a level layout for a conference meeting room.Questions to Consider:The player’s navigation throughout the environment: Where will the player go? How will the player move through the environment?
  • Create level layouts (top-down drawings that show the location of all buildings, major assets, puzzle placements, and character placement, etc.). Level layouts include level descriptions, obstacles, objectives, scope, and sequence. Game/simulation designer create game flow charts to show the game and level flow throughout the game and especially helpful when creating complex game/simulations.The player’s navigation throughout the environment: where will the player go? How will the player move through the environment?ObjectivesLocations and landmarksSpawn pointsPossible prop, weapon and item placementChokepointsEnemy battlesPacingWhich areas will be accessible and which areas will non-playable
  • Now let’s focus on gameplay and game rules.
  • Gameplay includes all the player experience’s encountered throughout the duration of the game. The term gameplay in video games terminology is used to describe the overall experience of playing the game- excluding factors like graphics and sound.The term game mechanics refers to sets of rules in a game that are intended to produce an enjoyable gaming experience.Games have rules, goals and objectives, stories or representations, conflict, composition, opposition, challenge, competition, interactivity and immersion, and there are outcomes and feedback.Think about how the challenges in a game are linked together – like they represent the story plot points.Then for each of these challenges (plot point), consider all the strategies that can be used by the player (or the character in a story) to overcome it.
  • Challenges and game objectives/goalsAdvancement – reaching a higher level.Race – accomplishing something before another player does.Puzzles – apply mental processes to solve a puzzle.Exploration – move into new location and explore.Conflict (competition) – disagreement or competition between players.Capture – taking or destroying something.Chase – catching or eluding capture.
  • Challenges and game objectives/goalsOrganization – arranging items in a particular order.Escape – rescuing items or players & taking them to safety.Break the rules (taboo) – getting the competition to break the rules.Construction – building and maintaining objects.Solution – solving a problem or puzzle.Outwit – applying intrinsic or extrinsic knowledge to defeat competition.
  • GameplayThe objectives, obstacles and set pieces you create will depend on the story of your environment and the story of the game.How will the player navigate through the environment?What do they need to do in order to achieve their goal of the map?Objectives – refers to the objective that the player must accomplish in order to move to the next level. Level designers usually incorporate sub-objectives that the player also must accomplishObstacles – refers to the obstacles that the player encounters when going through the level for example the door is locked and the player must either know the combination, locate the key, or whatever the access trigger is.Obstacles Examples:RoadblocksSomething small in the wayFences -shut (unlocked) doorsEnemiesObstacles that move and attackCharacters, creatures, vehiclesTrapsStatic obstacle that can damage or kill youFallapart bridges, spikesPuzzlesObstacles you must solveLocked door (requires key), valve puzzleSet Pieces – These are the different game responses that are dependent on the choice that the player makes. For example, the player opens something.Decisions – refers to the decisions that player must make when faced with a challenge or obstacles.
  • Left4Dead fan based custom mapFirst define a set of objectives that player needs to do in order to complete the map. There are NO obstacles or set pieces.ObstaclesNow indicate what obstacles that the player will encounter and need to overcome.Set Pieces – These are the different game responses that are dependent on the choice that the player makes. For example, the player opens something.Decisions – refers to the decisions that player must make when faced with a challenge or obstacles.
  • Level Map with Objectives
  • What do you want them to feel as they play?What decisions can they make?How do they affect the course and outcome of the game?What must they do that might not be fun (especially: recordkeeping)?So how can this be eliminated
  • The term game mechanics refers to sets of rules in a game that are intended to produce an enjoyable gaming experience.Games have rules, goals and objectives, stories or representations, conflict, composition, opposition, challenge, competition, interactivity and immersion, and there are outcomes and feedback.

Iistec 2013 game_design for id_m_broyles_id13333 Iistec 2013 game_design for id_m_broyles_id13333 Presentation Transcript

  • Game/Simulation Development and Instructional Design ID: 13333 Dr. Marie Broyles marie.broyles@oakgrovetech.com Mibroyles@comcast.net
  • Tutorial Objectives This tutorial will focus on game/simulation development and instructional design:     Explain key differences between game/simulation design and instructional design. Describe how the game story drives everything in the game world (levels, scenes, objectives and gameplay). Describe creating a believable game world (game/simulation/virtual) methods and elements. Explain objectives, obstacles, set pieces and decisions and how these affect gameplay. 2
  • A Question Elder-Scrolls-Online 3
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  • World of Warcraft • • Each team faces a fastpaced, complicated series of obstacles called quests. Each player, via their avatar, must contribute to resolving the quest or else lose her/his place on the team. Successful quest completion requires: World of Warcraft - Unsong-Ranch • Working in a team • Communication • Individual contributions 5
  • World of Warcraft For players, it’s not about the gameplay, as much as it is being part of the story! Well-designed games compel players to continue playing through a combination of action, puzzle solving, rewards and group activities. 6
  • Considerations    Video games are a form of popular culture society interaction. Good game designers really are practical learning theoreticians. What makes games deep is that players are exercising their learning muscles.   Players often do it without even knowing it. Players do it without having to pay overt attention to the matter. 7
  • Game Designers Game designers have hit on profoundly good methods of getting players to learn and to enjoy learning. Game designers create worlds where players have meaningful new experiences. These world experiences allow players to have or even experience what no human being has ever had before. And, these experiences have the potential to make people smarter and more thoughtful. 8
  • The Tug of War 9
  • Game/Simulation Design and Instructional Design Processes 10
  • Processes Concept Analysis Preproduction Design Prototype Development Production Implement Alpha Beta Gold Post Production Evaluation 11
  • Game Design Process Develops game idea. Develop storyline & background. Creates concept document. Creates game pitch presentation. Presents game pitch presentation. Products Pitch Presentation Concept Document Concept Art – characters, game world, environmental features Develops game proposal. Start pre-production planning. Starts art style guide. Starts game design document Products Game Proposal, Preproduction Plan, Production Plan. Art Style Guide & Game Design Document started Technical Design Document started Develop paperbased game to test idea. Develop game digital prototype (1 level) to test look and feel. Products Paper-based Prototype Digital Prototype Art Style Guide Game Design Document Technical Design Document Storyboard Character Modeling Level Created Game development goes into full production. Products Art Style Guide Game Design Document Technical Design Document Storyboard Asset/Character Creation Levels/World Created Alpha Version Game 12
  • Game Design Process Game is playable from beginning to end and has some gaps & missing assets. Engine & user interface complete. Products Art Style Guide Game Design Document Technical Design Document Bug Lists Beta Version Game Beta release is for consumer testing. Beta Release Testing is either open or closed. Closed (open only to fan-base) and Open (anyone can sign up). Products Art Style Guide Game Design Document Technical Design Document Bug List Gold Version Game The game has been tested and found to be good to go manufacturing. Sr. Managers review the game and agree. Products Game Design Document Completed Art Style Guide Completed Reviews what was eliminated due to constraints. Monitors game site to review fan comments. Products Patches Release Upgrades Final Game Released 13
  • Instructional Design Process Target audience identified & characteristics. New desired behavior identified. Project parameters identified. Products Knowledge/skills/atti tude Gap Analysis Target Audience Identify objectives. Identify instructional strategies. Create prototype. Apply visual design. Products Production Plan Instructional Design Document Storyboards Screen Layouts/Templates Produce instructional materials. Create & assemble content assets. Create storyboards & graphics. Programmers produce the multimedia product. Products Instructional Materials Elearning Course CBT Simulation Serious Game Pilot Test Create Training Plan Develop procedures for training facilitators/learners. Design evaluation. Ensure that all materials are complete & functional. Deploy the training and/or courseware. Products Conduct Train-theTrainer Implement Training Plan Conduct formative evaluation. Expert review. One-on-one review. Small group review. Field test review. Products Formative Evaluation Reports Training Evaluation Reports 14
  • Common Elements Concept Preproduction Analysis Prototype Design Production Development Alpha Beta Implement Gold Post Production Evaluation 15
  • Key Differences Game Design Instructional Design Iterative Approach Waterfall Approach Story Objectives Characters User Control Defined Game World Story User Control Characters 16
  • Working Together Game Designers Programmers Artists Instructional Designers Technical Directors Subject Matter Experts 17
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  • Learning Objectives Given a game simulation a learner (acting as a security agent) will perform a visual room inspection, using divide the room by height method and documenting inspection findings accurately on the Security Review Worksheet. A learning objective is NOT a gaming goal! It could be if aligned properly. Explicit goals do motivate players. Goals are strongly influenced by the STORY. 19
  • Compelling Story Game designers develop the story during concept development since the story drives everything that will be included the game. This includes: • • • • • • Game World Game levels • Level objectives • Level challenges, decisions, obsta cles and set pieces Game scenes • Scene objectives • Scene challenges, decisions, obsta cles and set pieces Characters Assets Everything that goes into the game 20
  • Traditional Storytelling Act 1 Capture Attention Introduce Problem Act 2 Act 3 Provide Tension Provide Closure Present Obstacles Resolve Problem 21
  • Monomyth & the Hero’s Journey Return with the Elixir Ordinary World Call to Adventure Refusal of the Call Resurrection Meeting with the Mentor The Road Back Reward Sizing the Sword Crossing the First Threshold Ordeal Approach to the Inmost Cave Tests Allies Enemies 22
  • Story Elements Assassin’s Creed takes place in a historical setting (1191 A.D. during the time of the Third Crusade). Premise – one or two sentences about the game’s purpose and theme. Backstory – provides information about what leads the player to this point. Synopsis – storyline can exists throughout the game. Theme – represents what the story is really about for example (usually relates from the primary obstacle in the story by the character). Setting – represents the world that is being explored by the character. Plot – represents how the story unfolds rather than what the story is about. 23
  • Plot Devices • • Half-Life, stylized as HλLF-LIFE, is a science fiction first-person shooter developed and published by Valve. • • Call to Duty puts players in the shoes of a foot soldier in the American, British, and Russian armies during the Second World War. • Balancing conflict – there must be a balance between the character and the action. Shifting focus – players must make choices and have seem to have freedom while they play the game, the player can be drawn into the main storyline. Foreshadowing events – is a device that ominously alert the audience about an impeding event or change that will happen in the future. Suspension of disbelief – means that you want to create a story that draws the player in and makes the player forget “real life” and immerses themselves in the game world reality. Realism – is used to mimic real world as closely. 24
  • Story Devices Final Fantasy draws players in with story, characters, and gameplay that are so powerful that players find themselves deeply caught up in the game world. • Interactivity – Games have higher interactivity levels than other mediums. • Non-linearity (story layers/pathing) – Games can have different paths: linear or non-linear. • Player control – allows the player to manipulate the game in some way. • Collaboration – multiplayer games allow players to engage in collaborative storytelling. • Immersion – game immersion is when a game storyline engages players in that the story, characters, and gameplay are so engaging that players become engulfed in the game. Collaboration storytelling. 25
  • Story Devices Final Fantasy draws players in with story, characters, and gameplay that are so powerful that players find themselves deeply caught up in the game world. • Cinematics/cut-scenes – cinematic sequences are usually placed at the beginning or end of game. Cut scenes runs during the game both are minimovies. • Scripted events – a scripted event is a short sequence that is triggered by the player or it is timed-base. 26
  • Story Brainstorm A global conference client wants your company to design a simulation to train security personnel on how to conduct a visual room inspection. 27
  • Creating the Identity 28
  • How, What and Why How did the player arrive to the story? What happened prior (background/history) to the player entering the story? What were the set of events that brought the player there? Why is this important to the player? How will the player navigate through the environment? 29
  • Character Archetypes • Hero – is the central character to the game/simulation and is usually controlled by the player. • Shadow – represents the hero’s opposite, often the evil character. • Mentor – represents the character that provides the hero with guidance towards some action. • Allies – represents the characters that help the hero progress, journey and helps the hero complete tasks that may be difficult to accomplish by him/her. • Guardian – represents a character that blocks the hero’s progress. • Trickster – represents a neutral character who loves to create mischief. • Herald – represents a character that facilitates a story change. 30
  • Character Arc Humanity Protagonist now goes through spiritual growth. Achievement of love, comfort and acceptance among a larger community. Level 4 Community Level 3 Team Level 2 Interpersonal Protagonist bonds with another character. Protagonist no longer just looking out for himself but, another character as well. Level 1 Intrapersonal Protagonist is concerned with his own needs and thoughts. Increasing Self-Actualization Level 5 The smaller team becomes a part of a larger group (organized). Protagonist bonds with a team who have common interests. 31
  • Character Description/Synopsis Character development things to think about & consider: Name – character name/nickname Type – class, race, archetype fantasy/mythic/historical Gender/age – female/male and age Physical appearance – body type, height, hair color/style, eye color, skin tone, costume, color scheme, signature pose, profile, gestures, facial expressions, distinguishing marks, etc. • Background & history – personality (and this must reflect back • • • • to the character’s physical appearance, mood, motivation, nervous ticks, and idle moves) • Vocal characteristics – vocal tone – pitch, accent and pace • Relevance to story synopsis – importance to storyline 32
  • Character Development Example Lara Croft character from Tomb Raider Name – Lara Croft, Lady Croft Type – Heroine Gender/age – female, born February 14, 1968 Physical appearance – gymnast body, athletic, long brown hair worn in a pony tail, Background & history – raised as an aristocrat, attend the best British schools, accredited genius, accomplished archeologist Vocal characteristics – British accent, formally educated Relevance to story synopsis – main character, vital 33
  • Character Visual Development The character’s physical characteristics are art driven and at the same time these characteristics also need to correlate with the character’s role in the story. 34
  • Character Brainstorm Consider the character (avatar) that the player is going play as in this game/simulation. What other characters should be created for this simulation? 35
  • Creating the World 36
  • Creating A Believable Game World Once you have a defined storyline and the setting (locations where the game will be played). It is time to collect as many visual reference photos and graphics that will help you create a visually stimulating game world. As you collect images, you will learn more about the game’s subject matter. 37
  • Three Dimensional Thinking 38
  • Game Worlds A Game World (is the entire game) may include multiple locations. A game world is made up of multiple levels and may have multiple scenes. Levels • Each level will have a specific player objective that the player must achieve prior to moving to the next level. Scene • Each scene will also have a subtask or objective that the player must accomplish. 39
  • Level Layouts and Flow Level layouts include level descriptions, obsta cles, objectives, sc ope, and sequence. Game/simulation designers create level layouts (top-down drawings that show the location of all buildings & major assets. Level layouts also show the character path through level. 40
  • World Building Methods Describe visually of how the game world is to look like. This includes: the board characteristics such as world inhabitants, technology level, major geographic features, climate, and history. Description Building Exterior Two story building with sloping roof. Main door located on left building side. Door constructed out of wood with a steel lock on the door. Building has a wood construction with a clay brick façade. First Floor Layout The first floor has a large a kitchen, just off from the doorway, an entry way that has stairs leading upstairs and a hallway with access to a large dining/living area. Towards the rear of the first floor, there are two armed guard near two rear rooms. Second Floor Layout He has never been upstairs, thinks there are three rooms facing the street and two across the hall. 41
  • Level Brainstorm Now let’s consider what should be included in a level layout for a conference meeting room.   The player’s navigation throughout the environment: where will the player go? How will the player move through the environment? 42
  • Level Brainstorm         Level Objectives Locations and landmarks Player spawn points Possible objects, prop, weapon and item placement Chokepoints Enemy battles Pacing Which areas will be accessible and which areas will non-playable.
  • Gameplay Is Story
  • Gameplay Defined Gameplay can be defined as: • Choices • Challenges • Consequences . . . that players face while navigating through a game or simulation. 45
  • Challenges & Game Goals/Objectives • Advancement – reaching a higher level. • Race – accomplishing something before another player does. • Puzzles – apply mental processes to solve a puzzle. • Exploration – move into new location and explore. • Conflict (competition) – disagreement or competition between players. • Capture – taking or destroying something. • Chase – catching or eluding capture. 46
  • Challenges & Game Goals/Objectives • Organization – arranging items in a particular order. • Escape – rescuing items or players & taking them to safety. • Break the rules (taboo) – getting the competition to break the rules. • Construction – building and maintaining objects. • Solution – solving a problem or puzzle. • Outwit – applying intrinsic or extrinsic knowledge to defeat competition. 47
  • Gameplay Creating objectives, obstacles and set pieces for gameplay is very important. Objectives Obstacles Refers to the objective that the player must accomplish in order to move to the next level and level designers usually incorporate subobjectives that the player sub-objectives that the player must also accomplish. Refers to the obstacles that the player encounters when going through the level for example the door is locked and the player must either know the combination, locate the key, or whatever the access trigger is. Set Pieces Refers to the different game responses that are dependent on the choice that the player makes (for example, the player enters doorway- lights go on). Decisions Refers to the decisions that player must make when faced with a challenge or obstacles. 48
  • Objectives Progression Chart Key Obstacles Various Wanders Infected Spawn Start Map Objective Objective Indicates level objective. Decisions Decision Navigate to the Market Decision Indicates a decision that needs to be made by the player.. Obstacle Various Wanders Infected Obstacle Set Piece Various Wanders Infected Escape Garage Navigate to the Bridge Blow Lowering of the Bridge Obstacles Obstacles Obstacle Obstacles Time Based Obstacle Survive the Zombie Hordes Cross the Bridge Decision Blow Up the Bridge Drop the Bridge to Cross It Time Based Obstacle Survive the Zombie Hordes Something that the player has to overcome. Set Piece Set Piece Obstacles Response to player or a response by the player. Close Quarter Wandering Zombies NO Lights, Must Use Flashlight, Low Visibility Obstacle Close Quarter Wandering Zombies Navigate Through Downtown Tourist Traps Obstacle Survive and Outrun the Zombie Hordes to reach the end of level Cross Through the Underground Tunnel Make It to the Coffee Shop and Through It Set Piece Lights go – Out as soon as player enters the coffee shop Set Piece Zombies spawn out of everything to run after survivors 49
  • Level Map with Objectives 50
  • Put Yourself in the Player’s Shoes     What do you want the player to feel as they play the game? What decisions can the player make? How does the player affect the course and outcome of the game? What must the player do that might not be fun (especially: recordkeeping)? 51
  • Game Mechanics Defined Game mechanics can be defined as the set of rules applied in the game that is intended to produce an enjoyable gaming experience. 52
  • Victory! A game’s victory condition correspond to how the player wins the game. 53
  • Victory Conditions     How does the player win the game? Is there only one winner, can there be several? What does the player have to do to win? How does the player know when he/she has won? 54
  • Loss Conditions A game’s loss condition specifies how a player loses the game. 55
  • Loss Conditions There are 2 types:   Implicit – losing because you did not come in first is an implicit condition. Explicit – losing because your character dies or runs out of vital resources is an explicit conditions. 56
  • Summary     Explain key differences between game/simulation design and instructional design. Describe how the game story drives everything in the game world (levels, scenes, objectives and gameplay). Describe creating a believable game world (game/simulation/virtual) methods and elements. Explain objectives, obstacles, set pieces and decisions and how these affect gameplay. 57