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  • 1. More information will be provided about this topic as we go through the semester.
  • 2.
    • For several assignments in this module, you will be asked to “cite your sources.”
    • This means, you must read the required text, and formulate your own opinions on the questions presented to you.
    • Then, you must use the textbook as your source to back up your claims.
  • 3.
    • It is imperative that you “cite” your source.
    • This means, if you are using information from the textbook (which is your assignment to do), you must tell me where you got the information.
    • Please continue reading for more information.
  • 4. When Sources Must Be Cited
    • Information that always must be cited includes:
      • Quotations, opinions, and predictions—— whether directly quoted or paraphrased.
      • Statistics derived by the original author.
      • Visuals in the original.
      • Another author’s theories.
      • Case studies.
      • Another author’s direct experimental methods or results.
      • Another author’s unique research procedures or findings.
    • If you use specific information of the type just mentioned, document it;
    • otherwise you could be plagiarizing. Better safe than lazy. By citing the
    • source of your information you point to an authority rather than ask your
    • reader to trust your memory or what might appear to be your own idea.
  • 5. Anatomy of a Well-Documented Paragraph
    • Writing a paragraph with the sources properly cited can seem a tricky task at first, but the process is straightforward enough, especially when we analyze an example.
    • Writing and documenting a paragraph is really just a matter of thinking clearly about a topic you have researched and transferring that thinking to the page.
    • To illustrate, a tidy sample paragraph follows, with the sources properly documented in the author-year system. Next, the genesis of the paragraph is analyzed through the author’s eyes.
  • 6. Well-Documented (Cited) Paragraph
    • The millions of species of plants and animals on the earth have a phenomenal influence on the human species. Not only do they provide a substantial amount of our food, they are of great value in medicine and science. Over 60 percent of the purchases we make at the pharmacy contain substances that are derived from wild organisms (Myers 1988). Studies of plants and animals have led to discoveries in virtually all of the sciences, from biology and chemistry to psychology and astronomy (Wilson 1991). Furthermore, plants and animals are vital to the maintenance of our ecosystem. Their diversity and balance directly control food webs, nutrient diversity, supplies of fresh water, climate consistency, and waste disposal (Ehrlich 1988). Finally, many species act as barometers of our environment. The salmon, for example, is extremely sensitive to changes in the condition of the water in which it lives. Any abnormality in population or behavior of fish usually indicates some type of chemical imbalance in the water. The same is true of butterflies and their relationship with prominent agricultural areas. Clearly, the millions of species of plants and animals in the world are vital to the continued thriving of the human population.
  • 7.
    • Later in this course, you will be asked to provide a Works Cited page.
    • But, we will get to that later. For now, when you cite a source in your paragraph responses to me, you will put the author’s name of the text and the page number in parenthesis at the end of the sentences which you paraphrase or quote.
  • 8. How?
    • Here are the textbooks we will be using.
    • Faigley, Lester.  Writing: A Guide for College & Beyond (Brief 2 nd Edition). Longman, 2009. 
    • Lunsford, Andrea A. The Everyday Writer . 4 th Edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. 
  • 9. If…
    • You were going to use information you found on page 113 of Writing: A Guide for College & Beyond , either paraphrased or as a direct quotation, here is how you would put it in your paragraph AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE YOU PARAPHRASE OR USE A QUOTATION:
      • (Faigley 113)
    • Why? Because it is the author’s name and the page number the information came from.
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    •   Should you have any questions, please feel free to email me. 
    • Portions of this page have been modified from: http://www.ems.psu.edu/~schall/Sources.html