Most of the research on the interactions between plants, the environment, and other organismshas involved those parts of plants that are visible and easy to access. However, the undergroundsystem, mainly roots, interacts with the soil environment and with a multitude of organisms invery complex ways. The interaction of roots with mycorrhizal fungi is almost ubiquitous in bothnatural and man-made ecosystems. Because of this, there are a number of
While the classical Greek word for mushroom is part of the word mycorrhiza, there are many mycorrhizal fungi which have fruiting bodies other than mushrooms. An example is Hydnumrepandum . It’s superficially mushroom-like (stem and cap), but below the cap there are spines rather than gills. There’s more about the fruiting bodies of mycorrhizal fungi later on
Arbuscularmycorrhiza is the dominant type in the tropics, and in grasslands and deserts of temperate latitudes. Ectomycorrhizas predominate in temperate and boreal forests
Ectomycorrhizas are characterized by theformation of a mantle and a Hartig net of intercellularhyphae on roots of predominantly treespecies. Endomycorrhizas are more variable thanectomycorrhizas in that herbaceous and treespecies are involved and there is a diversity of fungalgroups involved in forming these associations.Endomycorrhizas have, therefore, been furtherclassified as either arbuscularmycorrhizas, ericoidmycorrhizas, arbutoidmycorrhizas, monotropoidmycorrhizas, ectendomycorrhizas or orchid mycorrhizas.Each of these categories is characterizedby the invasion of root cells by fungal hyphae butprofound differences occur in the nature of intracellularhypha development.
Compared to arbuscularmycorrhizas (AM), the range of plants colonised by ectomycorrhizas (ECM) is relatively small
Someectomycorrhizas develop linear aggregations ofhyphae (rhizomorphs or strands), in the extraradicalmycelium that are specialized for rapid transport ofnutrients and water. A few ectomycorrhizal fungidevelop sclerotia consisting of compact storagehyphae surrounded by a rind. Hypogeous or epigeousreproductive bodies may also be formed periodicallyfrom extraradical mycelium.
Fungal species involved ; Approximately 5,500 known species of fungi are able to form ectomycorrhizas,,The majority of fungal species involved in the ectomycorrhiza symbiosis belong to families in the Basidiomycotina (basidiomycetes), with a few species belonging to the Ascomycotina(ascomycetes).
•excretion of antifungal and antibiotic substances - 80% of Trichloma spp. produce antibiotics and Boletus and Clitocybe produce antimycotic substances;•stimulation of other microorganism, which themselves limit pathogens;•production of antibiotics by the plant, under the control of the mycorrhizal fungi;•structural protection of the root by the thick fungal coat, the mechanical barrier of the sheath gives very effective protection, since pathogens attack plant tissue and cannot infect fungal tissue.
Besides intraradical structures, AM fungi form also an extensive network of extraradical mycelium in soil that extends into bulk soil beyond the rhizosphere and enables the host plant to absorb nutrients, particularly relatively immobile phosphorus, from a considerably larger volume of the soil. By the differentiation of vegetative hyphae, AM reproductive structures - spores of different size, texture and colour (depending on the species) are formed asexually on extraradical mycelium in soil.
All AM fungi are obligatelybiotrophic, as they are completely dependent on plants for their survival. This is not usually a problem for AM fungi, as they show little or no host specificity
Short-life arbuscules with their main trunk and fine branches resembling small trees serve as a site of the intensive nutrient exchange between plant and fungus. In contrast, vesicles, i.e. globose or oval swellings formed terminally or intercalarly on intraradical hyphae, have a storage function.
Generally fungi have in its cell wall structure chitin that is responsible for the adsorption of the heavy metals like Cd, Ni, Th and Ur
Recent researchindicates that the fungi even help break down rock, increasing availability of the essentialnutrients within, such as potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium.
The fungal sheath can also aid plants growing in soils with high concentrations of heavy metals. Zinc, cadmium and arsenic have both been found in high concentrations in fungal sheaths and it is thought that certain mycorrhizal isolates accumulate and immobilise heavy metals in hyphae of their fungal sheaths. In this way, metals are unable to reach plant tissues and the plant remains undamaged.
Mycorrhizae0 The most prevalent beneficial organisms associated with plants, however, are soil-inhabiting fungi that form mutualistic root–fungal associations referred to as mycorrhizas0 All mycorrhizas have intimate contact between hyphae and plant cells in an interface where nutrient exchange occurs.0 Majority of plants form mycorrhizas, it is likely to lie somewhere between 80% and 90%. In many of these associations between 10% and 30% of the food produced by the plant moves through to the fungi.
Mycorrhizae0 Mycorrhizas are found in a wide range of habitats, including deserts, lowland tropical rainforests, high latitudes and altitudes0 Uptake of nutrient and Mineral nutrient acquisition from soil is considered to be the primary function of mycorrhizas, in addition to it’s roles in ecology, and man economic uses..
The pioneering work of Frank , resulted in therecognition of two broad subdivisions of mycorrhizas,Ectomycorrhizas and Endomycorrhizas
Mycorrhizae TypesTwo major types of mycorrhiza occur in Nature Endomycorrhiza “vesicullar-arbuscular” (common in more than 80 % of terrestrial plant species) Ectomycorrhiza (specific to conifers and some broadleaved woody species) %15 of plants There exists other types: Ericoid, Orchid, monotropoid mycorrhiza of less ecological importance.
EctomycorrhizaThe formation of a mantle or sheath ofhyphae that covers considerableportions of lateral roots, thedevelopment of hyphae between rootcells form a complex highly branchedstructure called the Hartig net, Ectomycorrhiza: root tip of Pinus nigra colonised by ectomycorrhizal fungus
EctomycorrhizaEctomycorrhizas are usuallyfound on tree speciesalthough a few shrub andherbaceous species may alsodevelop this association. Adetailed list of the coniferand angiosperm families.*Fungi groups withlarge fruiting bodies, e.g.mushrooms,truffles and puffballs.
Ectomycorrhizas canalso confer pathogenresistance to theirplant partner, andthey are moreeffective at this,compared to AMroots
It has been estimated that between 5,000 and 6,000 species of fungi form ecto- or ectendo-mycorrhizas. Around 4,500 of these are epigeous (have above-ground fruiting bodies), but up a quarter are hypogeous (with underground fruiting bodies) such as trufflesWhite Truffles (Tuber magnatum). Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).
EndomycorrhizaThey are either Vesicular or Arbuscular; Consists of hyphae that meander between the cortex cells, and often enter them. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza: Highly colonized root of maize dyed with trypan blue. Mycorrhizal formations are clearly visible: 1) vesicles; 2) arbuscules
Main cellular features of the arbuscular endomycorrhizaHyphae from a germinating spore infect a root hair and can growwithin the root between root cortical cells and also penetrate individualcells, forming arbuscules. These are finely branched clusters of hyphae,which are thought to be the major site of nutrient exchange betweenfungus and plant.
Fully developed arbuscule of Glomus mosseae incortical cell
•Arbuscules: transfer organs of the mycorrhizae. •Hyphae: connect root to soil. Act as pipeline •Spores: resting, lipid filled structures. Is the seed of the fungus world. •Identification is based on these.
Many common desert plants, including cacti, are heavilymycorrhizal.. indicating that mycorrhizas have a particularlyimportant role in water relations in dry ecosystems and in soilswith poor water retention
0 Mycorrhizas increase nutrient uptake from the soil.0 Mycorrhizal fungi can be used in the biocontrol of pathogenic fungi and nematodes.0 Some mycorrhizal fungi can bind heavy metals thus protecting plants from toxic levels of these substances.0 Mycorrhizas have a positive effect on the establishment of plant communities.
If no other factors are limiting, growth will be proportional to the amount of P absorbed by plants. Mycorrhizae may supply up to 80%* of the plant P.
Agriculturaladvantages• Allow plants to draw morenutrients and water from the soil,including phosphorus• Result in vigorous and healthyplants• Accelerate rooting• Increase plant survival• Increase drought tolerance andothers stresses• Enhance flowering and fruiting
Ecological Importance0 Improvement of soil structure • Stimulation of beneficial microbial activity0 Water infiltration improvement • Reduction of erosion and nutrient leaching
0 AM ; also contribute to microaggregate formation in soils due to the production of a glycoprotein called “glomalin”; glycoprotein that acts as a glue for soil structure.0 Aggregate formation reduces decomposition of SOM, maintaining C in the soil. SOM also holds water and retains nutrients.