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Yes but the adage implies that you get what you train for, there are several complexities behind the body’s adaptation process.
Different tissues within the body adapt to stimuli at different rates
The degree of adaptation correlates to the mechanical, neuromuscular and metabolic specificity or the training program
Understanding Adaptation: Principle of Specificity
Mechanical Specificity This refers to the weight and movements placed on the body.
Neuromuscular Specificity This refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection.
Metabolic Specificity This refers to the energy demand placed on the body. Energy systems being used
Motor unit recruitment
“ Size Principle”
Neuromuscular Specificity: The Motor Unit
Each fast-twitch motor unit consists of a single neuron and 300-800 muscle fibers (compared with only 100-180 muscle fibers in each slow-twitch motor unit).
Fast-twitch motor units are therefore much stronger than slow-twitch motor units.
How slow or fast am I asking them to go & in what sequence
Variable of Muscle Fiber Type
Resistance Training Adaptations
Training Intensity: An individual’s level of effort, compared with their maximal effort, which is usually expressed as a percentage.
Repetition Tempo: one of most important for specific adaptations
Training Volume: The total amount of physical training performed within a specific period
Progressive Strength Adaptations From Resistance Training
Four Primary adaptations from resistance training
All occur in a progressive sequence:
Recruits mostly Type I muscle fibers
Slow to fatigue
Low force production
Critical to joint stabilization and postural alignment
Increased stabilization will enhance the ability to train for additional adaptations
0-90 4/2/1 50-70% 12-25 2-3 Rest Tempo Intensity Reps Sets
Muscle fiber recruitment is dependant upon the body’s ability to stabilize the joints
A fiber must be recruited in order for hypertrophy to be achieved
Skeletal muscle fiber enlargement occurs as a direct response to increased volumes of training
An increase in cross sectional areas of individual fibers and an increase in myofibril proteins can be seen in beginners and advanced lifters regardless of age or gender
0-60sec 2/0/2-3/2/1 75-85% 6-12 3-5 Rest Tempo Intensity Reps Sets
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension & exert force against external resistance
To produce force, motor units must be recruited in a synchronized manner
To recruit motor units, joints must stabilize
Increased number of motor units recruited= increased force production
45s-5min 2/0/2 70-100% 1-12 3-6 Rest Tempo Intensity Reps Sets
Maximal force generation over minimal time
Joint stability & optimal motor unit recruitment are key to optimal power production
Heavy loads moved slowly & light loads moved quickly for increased power
force production w/ speed = increase activation
1-2 min btwn supersets X/x/x X/x/x 85-100% 30-45% or 10% bw 1-5 8-10 3-5 Rest Tempo Intensity Reps Sets
Resistance Adaptations: Acute Variables
The NEW OPT™ Model!
A Training Session
7 Training Components 1. Take a comprehensive approach to training that improves ALL the components necessary for optimum performance. STABILIZATION POWER STRENGTH 3 Adaptations 2. Build a proper foundation based on training for stabilization first, then strength, then power. 1. Stabilization Endurance Training (12-20) 2. Strength Endurance Training Strength (8-12), Stabilization (8-12) 3. Hypertrophy Training (6-12) 4. Max Strength Training (1-5) 5. Power Training (Strength 1-5), Power (8-10) 5 Specific Phases (each adaptation has specific exercises, reps, sets, tempos & rest periods) 3. Consistently combat the common postural distortion patterns caused by sport & life by following a progressive plan that simultaneously reduces injury potential and enhances performance.
Training Phase Manipulation
All that changes from phase to phase is the exercise selection and acute variables
Most training phases are 4 to 6 weeks in length to allow each phase’s adaptation (results) to occur.
After progressing through the necessary phases for each specified goal a new training baseline is created. (Importance of Assessment)
After desired phases have been experienced, the client will re-start the training cycle.
The OPT Model for General Performance
Appropriate Phases of Training:
Phase 1: Stabilization Endurance Training
Phase 2: Strength Endurance Training
Phase 3: Hypertrophy (Optional)
Phase 4: Maximal Strength (Optional)
Phase 5: Power Training
Example Combination Monthly Plan
Perform a different phase of training 3 days/week
M: Phase 2 Strength Endurance
W: Phase 1 Stabilization Endurance
Fri: Phase 5 Power
Typically, combination programs should be done after successful completion of 4 weeks of Stabilization Endurance Training, and 4 weeks of Strength Endurance Training.
EPOC: Exercise Post Oxygen Consumption
Exercise Post Oxygen Consumption
Restoring back to pre-exercise state
Replenish of Energy Sources (Phosphagen system creatine phosphate & ATP; glucose)
RE-oxygenation of blood & restoration of circulatory hormones
Decrease in body temperature
Return to normal ventilation & heart rate
Factors that Influence EPOC
Metabolism (resting fat metabolism)
Intensity, load, volume, tempo
Prior research has demonstrated that resistance training results in a number of physiological changes within the human body.
alterations to resting metabolic rate, resting fat oxidation, and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.
EPOC, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption stems from the body’s use of the anaerobic energy pathway.
Homeostatic imbalances of hormones along with protein degradation and reparation, also occur after resistance exercise.
EPOC appears to take place as a result of such factors combined.
Example Super Set: Perfect Pairs Strength :Endurance: Adaptation Leg Press DB Frontal Plane Lunge to balance DB OH Press S.Leg Balance DB Scaption Pull Ups Squat to cable row DB Press SB Fly Resistance KB’s (25 swings)& Quarters 1/4 mile run 3-5 minutes of AT Cardio/KB’s T-Pushups S.Leg Hip Bridge Bosu S. Leg Squats Side-Prone Iso Ab 20sec Bosu Hip Bridges S. Leg MP Reaches Core Circuit SMR & Active-Isolated Flexibility
Example Tri Set: Strength : Power: Endurance: Adaptation Leg Press Squat Jumps DB Frontal Plane Lunge to balance DB OH Press KB Snatch or Swing S. Leg Balance on Disc w/ Rev Cable row Pull Ups MB Pullover Throws Squat to cable row DB Press MB Chest Throw SB Fly Resistance KB’s (25 swings)& Quarters 1/4 mile run 3-5 minutes of AT Cardio/KB’s T-Pushups S.Leg Hip Bridge Bosu S. Leg Squats Side-Prone Iso Ab 20sec Bosu Hip Bridges S. Leg MP Reaches Core Circuit SMR & Active-Isolated Flexibility
WORKOUT TIME! Kettle’s & Tri Sets
Quick Core Warm-up
Push-ups (Strength) (8-12)
MB Chest Pass throw (OR)
Band Punches or P.Pushup (Power)
Stability Bosu Pushup (Stability) **
Bent-Over KB Row
MB Throws or KB Power Row (8-10)
Bent-over KB Row BOSU***
Legs & Shoulders:
Lunge w/ KB Curl-OH Press (8-12)
Squat Jumps (8-10)
Slow Frontal Plane lung- balance**
10 Cleans each side-15 swings
Tanya L. Colucci, M.S., NASM-CPT, PES, CES
Wellness Director MINT
Master Instructor NASM
President & Co-Founder Infinity Wellness Foundation
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Wilmore, Costill, and Larry Kenney. 2008. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Clark, Lucett, and Rodney Corn. 2008. NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training. 3 rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincottt Williams & Wilkins.
Levangie and Cynthia Norkin. 2005. Joint Structure & Function: A Comprehensive Analysis . 4 th ed. F.A. Davis Company.