“THE TRANSPARENCY IN ADVERTISING SPENDING IS
APPROACHING UNPRECEDENTED LEVELS, AND THE EXPECTATION
OF ACCOUNTABILITY AND PROVEN ROI IS COMING TO THE
FOREFRONT OF MARKETING DEPARTMENTS - FAR DIFFERENT FROM
THE DAYS OF MR. WANAMAKER, IN WHICH IT WAS ACCEPTABLE
FOR A SUCCESSFUL CAPITALIST TO WASTE ONLY HALF OF THE
The Reality Today
We were initially taught to measure
Directly attributable conversions
We now know these don’t tell the whole
Keyword assists are important (Search)
Display Ads can be effective without
Social contributes throughout the process
Clicks don’t matter for measuring Display
8% of users contribute 80% of Display
In reality, conversions
take place over many
days and across
Marketing attribution is the practice of
determining the role that channels play in
informing and influencing the customer
”Last Ad or Click” Model Attributes 100% of
the credit for a conversion to the last ad
seen or clicked. Is based on only a single
engagement. Attribution to last click has
forced marketers to allocate more budget
to media that sit at the bottom of the
conversion funnel like search.
How can we visualise our customer path to purchase?
•If customer journeys are relatively
simple with the majority
converting on the first visit, then
it’s unlikely that attribution
modelling will give you such a
great return on investment.
•This is most likely where it’s a
simple purchase such as flowers
and where a trusted brand is
involved with limited price or
•The next stage of analysis is to
consider the sequence of media
and How do different channel’s
journeys vary during the path to
Q4. What is
•If, when you investigate the
number of visits per purchase, you
find that over three quarters
convert on the first visit the need
for a conversion attribution study
is going to be relatively small.
•As a rule of thumb, if more than
three quarters of your visitors
convert on a single visit then
channel interactions are less
Q3. Number of
•The next level of detail is to
understand how many
touchpoints or interactions with a
brand occur before conversion.
There be some interactions on
other sites, particularly display ads
which aren’t recorded in the site
Question: . How complex are our customer journeys?
Is there a high amount of overlap between any channels
on the multi-channel funnels overview report?
Question: Number of touchpoints involved before conversion?
Are more than 20% of conversions multi-path?
Question: How many visits involve a single visit before conversion?
Are more than 20% of conversions multi-day?
Q. What is the different sequence of media prompting conversion?
Simple Media Sequences
Start by identifying your
marketing goals. Are you focused
on branding and awareness,
lead generation, developing
new business, or repeat business?
Are your current campaigns
meeting these objectives?
Develop a basic outline for your
customer journey, including path
length, time to conversion, and
the relevant marketing channels.
Look for key details: does the
path differ based on the first
touchpoint? Does it differ by
order size or product category?
Think about how you assign
credit to these interactions today
– even if you’re new to attribution
modeling, you surely have some
sort of intuitive model. What
would happen if you valued
interactions in the path
Define the role and expected
impact of each campaign
element. When you start
modeling, check whether the
models match or contradict your
NOW LET’S START WITH
THESE BASIC ATTRIBUTION
Attributes 100% of the
conversion value to the first
channel with which the
This model is appropriate if you
run ads or campaigns to
create initial awareness. For
example, if your brand is not
well known, you may place a
premium on the keywords or
channels that first exposed
customers to the brand.
Attributes 100% of the
conversion value to the last
channel with which the
customer interacted before
buying or converting.
This model is extremely
common – most likely
you’re already using some
version of it – so it’s a great
baseline for comparison
with other models.
If your ads and campaigns are designed to attract people at the moment of purchase, or your business is
primarily transactional with a sales cycle that does not involve a consideration phase, the Last Interaction model
may be appropriate.
Gives equal credit to each channel
interaction on the way to
This model might be used if your
campaigns are designed to
maintain contact and awareness
with the customer throughout the
entire sales cycle. In this case, each
touchpoint is equally important
during the consideration process.
Assigns the most credit to
touchpoints that occurred
nearest to the time of
If the sales cycle involves only a
short consideration phase – for
example if you’re running a one
or two-day promotion – then
interactions that occurred a
week earlier would have less
value than those during the
Instead of giving all the credit to
either the first or last interaction, you
can split the credit between them.
The Position Based model allows you
to assign credit based on position in
the customer journey. The first
position highlights campaigns that
introduce customers, while the last
emphasizes those that close
conversions. This model can be used
to give more credit to those
interactions, or to assign customized
weights according to position.
Plan your next steps when you go
back. If you learn that a certain
campaign, source, or interaction
is performing differently than
expected, will you be able to
take action to change it?
Questions To Take Home
How long is my path to conversion?
How many sales did a channel or keyword contribute to?
Where in the path to conversion does a channel contribute (first, middle or
When does a channel or keyword contribute in the path to conversion?
What are the channel and keyword combinations that work best?
Where are performance partners (affiliates, referrals, etc) contributing?
How could I improve my performance partners commercials terms?
How does display and remarketing impact the path to conversion?
Summary One attribution model does not fit all
• or a subset of the visits.
Flexible allocation of sales across all
Configurable rules for defining attribution period:• Fixed length of time.
• Period defined by visit gaps.
Configurable rules for weighting:• Control of channel weighting.
• Control of brand weighting.
• Control of chain position weighting.
Allocation of multiple sale related values (e.g. margin).