Legalization Of Discrimination


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Legalization of Discrimination from Reconstruction to Cold War, US History, Lisa Lane

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Legalization Of Discrimination

  1. 1. Tanja Schimming-Muniz Lisa Lane US History 111, MiraCosta College Fall 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>On paper, it looked like the 14 th and 15 th Amendment of the Constitution was intended to give equal rights to all citizens of the United States, but history shows us that “legal” mechanisms were put in place to enforce discrimination. Discrimination does not only pertain to blacks, it also pertains to women, artists, and people of a different race, or ideology. This slideshow will take a look at the sanctioning of discrimination from Reconstruction to the Cold War. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>United States v. Reese , 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>United States v. Cruikshank, 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>Court declares Civil Rights Act of 1875 </li></ul><ul><li>unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curtailed federal protection of black civil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by disenfranchising African Americans </li></ul></ul>Source: Out of Many , p. 336-37
  4. 4. <ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>halted Chinese immigration, limited civil rights of residents Chinese, and forbade their naturalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Out of Many , p. 372 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Dawes Severalty Act, 1887 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermined Indian sovereignty by splitting up tribal land which ultimately went to hungry investors </li></ul></ul>Source: Out of Many, p. 361 Lisa Lane Workbook , p. 10 Lisa Lane Lecture , The West-1900
  6. 6. <ul><li>Jim Crow Laws began </li></ul><ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson , 1896 (segregation on railroads based on ‘separate but equal’) </li></ul><ul><li>Cumming v. Richmond , 1899 (segregation in schools) </li></ul>Segregation on trains Sources: Out of Many , p. 399 Lisa Lane Workbook , p. 19 Segregation in schools
  7. 7. Source
  8. 8. <ul><li>Espionage Act, 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool used by the government to suppress anti-war sentiments. Penalties were up to 20 years imprisonment and $10,000 in fines. </li></ul></ul>Emma Goldman Arrested and deported for her opposition to the draft Sources: Out of Many, p. 438 Lisa Lane Workbook, p. 45 Eugene Debs Socialist, imprisoned for speaking out against American involvement during WW I
  9. 9. <ul><li>Women suffragists were arrested, 1917 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice Paul and her suffragist friends were convicted, incarcerated, and tortured at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia for their beliefs that women should get the right to vote </li></ul></ul>Sources: Out of Many, p. 436 Alice Paul Woman suffragist
  10. 10. <ul><li>Immigration Act, 1921 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quota of 357,000 new immigrants each year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johnson-Reed Immigration Act, 1924 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>revised quotas to 2 percent of number of foreign-born nationality Source : Out of Many , p. 454-55 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A final push to legally restrict immigration in the wake of WW I and its increasing anti-immigrant feeling fostered by eugenics. </li></ul>Henry H. Laughlin head of the American Eugenics Society provided statistical evidence to Johnson-Reed act
  11. 11. <ul><li>Forced deportation of 2 million Mexican Americans backed by Hoover’s policy of “Mexican Reparation” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass unemployment and the desire to cut relief efforts to Mexican Americans led to about 2 million forced deportations of legal Mexican Americans </li></ul></ul>1930’s 2 million legal Mexican-Americans were deported
  12. 12. <ul><li>Korematsu v. the United States , 1944 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 9066 was upheld, allowing 110,000 Japanese Americans to be put in internment camps </li></ul></ul>Sources: Out of Many , p. 488 Lisa Lane Workbook , p. 70 Official notice of Exclusion and removal Many were innocent children
  13. 13. <ul><li>National Security Act, 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 9835 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Security Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration and Nationality Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source : Out of Many , p. 515 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resulted in the firing and forced resignations of many federal government employees, the outlawing of political and social organizations, and the barring of citizenship to “ subversives ” and homosexuals . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>HUAC, 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Un-American Activities Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>investigated Hollywood artists and their communist ties barring them from working and arresting some of them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source : Lisa Lane, Lecture Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workbook , p. 76 </li></ul></ul>Albert Maltz Successful Hollywood writer put on the blacklist because of his “leftist” beliefs
  15. 15. <ul><li>I hope that this slideshow raised your awareness of governmental mechanisms that curtailed equality and gave you an understanding why current and future entities will fight for true equality. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanja Schimming-Muniz, November 4 th , 2008 </li></ul>