Visual Attension


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it is a 3d model enhansment technology

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Visual Attension

  2. 2. THE MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS PAPER ARE THE FOLLOWING: 1. We introduce the concept of persuading visual Attention through geometry modification. 2. We present a general class of mesh filters that can Increase the saliency of a mesh over an arbitrary Region of interest. 3. We are the first to present a view-independent Method of visual attention persuasion that directly Operates on meshes. 4. We examine the effectiveness of persuading visual Attention through geometry using an eye-tracking based User study.
  3. 6. One of the simplest and most effective ways to specify regions on a mesh is by a WYSIWYG painting User specifies a T-shaped region on a mesh, the confluence of two linear regions is likely to elicit greater attention due to perceptual principles other than the ones we are targeting in this paper Therefore, we have only used simple circular or rectangular region selections
  4. 22. Lee have defined the mesh saliency of a vertex v at a scale using the centre -surround mechanism as where C denotes the mean curvature values around a vertex v and GðC; v; Þ is the Gaussian-weighted average of the mean curvature of vertices in the neighborhood. In fact, the center-surround mechanism used in this definition is the Difference of Gaussians (DoG) function at a fine scale and a coarse scale 2 .
  5. 40. <ul><li>Cornea is a transparent structure that covers the iris and pupil; a part of the focusing system of an eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil is the adjustable opening at the center of the iris that allows varying amounts of light to enter the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Lens helps to focus light on the retina. </li></ul><ul><li>Retina includes rods (94%), which are sensitive to light and cones (6%) that capture colors. Cones are concentrated in the centre of the retina - the fovea </li></ul>
  6. 41. <ul><li>Eye movements are arguably the most frequent of all human movements. virtually all animals with developed visual systems actively control their gaze using eye or head movements. </li></ul><ul><li>This frenetic movement is a consequence of the enormous amount of visual information that is available to an organism. </li></ul>
  7. 42. <ul><li>Consequently, the human eye monitors a visual field of about 200º, but receives detailed information from only 2º (Levi, Klein, & Aitsebaomo,1985 </li></ul><ul><li>eye movements can be controlled to some degree, and tracked by modern technology with great speed and precision, they can now be used as a powerful input device, and have many practical applications in human-computer interactions . </li></ul>
  8. 43. HISTORY&METHODS <ul><li>The first data regarding eye movements were obtained either through introspection or by the experimenter observing a subject’s eye using a mirror, telescope . </li></ul><ul><li>The first significant advance, therefore, was the invention of mechanical devices that would translate the eye’s movements into permanent, objective records of its motion. (Taylor, 1971) </li></ul>
  9. 44. <ul><li>At the end of the nineteenth century, eye movement research served a pressing theoretical need. </li></ul><ul><li>some of the first empirical studies, Javal (1879) used mirrors to observe the eye movements of subjects while reading, and was the first to note that the eyes moved in a series of ‘jerks’. </li></ul><ul><li>These fixations were counted by placing a microphone on a closed eyelids. </li></ul>
  10. 45. <ul><li>Delabarre writes, “I cannot say with assurance”. He reports that he was able to record his own eye movements for up to an hour, and suffered no ill effects after a week’s recuperation. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1970s, a host of techniques were developed in which the eye was scanned with a television camera, and certain distinct features were electronically detected and localised. </li></ul>
  11. 46. <ul><li>These methods are most sensitive to high contrast, and so one technique scanned the image of the eye for the limbus, the boundary between the white sclera and the coloured iris. </li></ul>
  12. 47. <ul><li>Huey (1898) simultaneously developed a similar mechanical method to study the behaviour of subjects reading an article in the magazine Cosmopolitan. </li></ul><ul><li>By varying the 4 distance between the subject and the text, he found that ‘the number of jerks was shown to be a function of the matter read rather than of the arc described by the eye’s rotation’. </li></ul>
  13. 48. Cont … <ul><li>Although the temporal resolution of his apparatus was too poor to measure the speed of the eye movements. </li></ul><ul><li>He conjectured that they maybe so fast that “ we really do not see what we read except at the few points on the ordinary line where the eye </li></ul><ul><li>pauses.” </li></ul>
  14. 49. Our experimental setup for the user study with the ISCANETL-500eye tracker