Six wives of henry viii


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Six wives of henry viii

  1. 2. Six Wives of Henry VIII
  2. 3. Contents <ul><li>Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine of Aragon </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Boleyn </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Seymour </li></ul><ul><li>Anne of Cleves </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Howard </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Parr </li></ul>
  3. 4. Henry VIII <ul><li>King Henry VIII ruled England for almost four decades. His reign began in 1509, and ended with his death in 1547. This period was one of the most colorful in British history, in large part due to Henry's matrimonial adventures. In addition, a great deal of religious, political and social change occurred during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII was a true Renaissance prince. He was intelligent, handsome, artistic, adventurous, athletic and devoted to learning. He also wanted absolute power. He was a complex man, ruled by his conscience, which he conveniently flexed to suit his needs . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Henry VIII <ul><li>Henry's reign saw relative stability and prosperity. Henry's ministers guided the country through the dangerous web of European politics. With the exception of Scotland, England was never invaded by an outside force during Henry VIII's rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike his father, the grim-faced Henry VII, Henry VIII enjoyed immense popularity with his subjects. The English people had always loved glamorous, outgoing, larger-than-life characters, and preferred a ruler with those attributes that they could look up to and admire. Henry fit the bill to a tee. He created a brilliant, exciting Court befitting his image as one of the most powerful rulers in Christendom, and dressed himself and his family in the most extravagant riches. He loved elaborate tournaments and athletic competitions, and strove hard to win. To support this lifestyle, Henry depleted most of his father's carefully built-up treasury. However, he made up for his lavish spending by confiscating the immense wealth of various English religious houses, in the name of religious reform. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Henry VIII <ul><li>Henry was an enthusiastic patron of the arts, and became an accomplished musician and songwriter. He loved to dance, and was very fond of pageants and theatrics. He particularly liked to dress up in disguise and &quot;surprise&quot; people by pretending to be someone else. Masquerades became very popular in King Henry's time. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the major driving forces of Henry VIII's life was the desire for a son to succeed him. This obsession was to play a major role in the history of the world, and was largely responsible for Henry's marriages to a multitude of wives. It was not until his third marriage that Henry's dream of a son and heir came true. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Catherine of Aragon <ul><li>Catherine of Aragon was the first of Henry VIII's six wives. She was Queen of England from 1509 until 1533, when Henry divorced her to marry Anne Boleyn. </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine was born a Princess of Spain, the daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Catherine first came to England in 1501, at age fifteen, to marry the heir to the English throne. At the time, this was not Henry, but Henry's older brother Arthur Tudor. The young Catherine was very pretty and petite, with red-gold hair and a fair complexion. She was intelligent, scholarly, artistic, and dignified yet fun-loving. Like Henry, she enjoyed physical activity such as riding and hunting. She was also very religious. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Catherine of Aragon <ul><li>Catherine was very popular with the English people. Her in-laws and future husband Arthur were pleased with her as well. It was a great honor for a powerful country such as Spain to send one of its princesses to England. It was an even greater bonus that Catherine was attractive and intelligent, especially given the amount of inbreeding within the royal houses of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after his marriage to Catherine, Prince Arthur died. Catherine's father-in-law, Henry VII, wanted to keep her dowry, and did not let her return to Spain. Catherine stayed in England for six years, living in poverty because Henry VII would not pay for her support. Henry and Catherine had much in common, especially during the early years of their marriage. Both loved learning, music, pageantry, dancing, hunting, entertaining, literature and religion. There was also a great deal of physical attraction between them. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Catherine of Aragon <ul><li>The main unhappiness in their marriage stemmed from their inability to have a son. Over a course of many years, Catherine had a series of failed pregnancies that left the couple saddened and frustrated. Particularly tragic was the death of a baby son just two months after his birth. Catherine and Henry were ecstatic to have a healthy daughter, the Princess Mary, who thrived and showed much promise. Henry, however, was obsessed with having a son and heir to the throne. Catherine was a strong Catholic, and spent much of her time in religious activities. This intensified with each failed pregnancy, which left her with less time for the lively activities Henry enjoyed. Over the years her figure expanded, and her face showed increased signs of age. She was nearly six years older than Henry to start with, and the age difference became more noticeable with time. </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine and Henry had been married for about 16 years when the main crisis in their marriage occurred. By this time, Catherine was past her prime childbearing years, and her many unsuccessful pregnancies had taken their toll. It was then that Henry met Anne Boleyn. </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry divorced Queen Catherine after 23 years of marriage to marry his second wife, Anne Boleyn </li></ul>
  9. 10. Anne Boleyn <ul><li>Anne Boleyn was the second of Henry's six wives. She was Queen of England from 1533 until 1536. She was one of the first non-royal women to become a Queen of England, which caused quite a stir in those times. She was also the mother of Elizabeth I, one of the greatest monarchs in the history of England and of the world itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Anne was a glamorous, exotic young woman of the minor nobility. She had beautiful dark eyes, long black hair, and a slender figure. She was known for her intelligence, lively personality, and keen wit. She was a skilled musician and dancer, and attracted the attention of many men at Court. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Anne Boleyn <ul><li>In May of 1533, Anne was crowned Queen of England in a grand, elaborate coronation ceremony. It was supposed to be a festive occasion, but Anne was unpopular with the English people, and their sullenness dampened the event. Many resented Anne for displacing Queen Catherine, who was dearly loved by her subjects. Still in all, Anne's dream of becoming Queen had come true. She was now the most powerful woman in England. </li></ul><ul><li>After achieving their goals, Henry and Anne expected to be happy. Unfortunately, this did not happen. They were both tired and edgy from the stresses of the past several years. In addition, Henry started losing interest in Anne shortly after he fully attained her favors. Henry also finally realized how much his marriage to Anne had cost him. A number of good people, including friends and associates of Henry's, had lost their lives due to loyalty and treason issues stemming from the English church's break from Rome. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Anne Boleyn <ul><li>There was still a son for Henry to look forward to. Henry fully expected Anne to deliver a Prince as she had always promised. In the fall of 1533, Anne's long-awaited child was born. To Henry's disappointment, it was a girl. No one knew then that the Princess Elizabeth would turn out to be one of the greatest English monarchs of all time. </li></ul><ul><li>Anne had several more miscarriages after Elizabeth's birth. She and Henry quarreled more, and Anne's sharp temper took hold, especially when Henry became interested in other woman. After less than three years of marriage to Anne, Henry fell in love with a young gentlewoman named Jane Seymour. Jane Seymour was very different from Anne Boleyn. Unlike the dazzling, dramatic Anne, Jane was gentle, placid, quiet, and very pale. Henry saw her as a source of peace and comfort, and a refuge from life with the turbulent Anne. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Anne Boleyn <ul><li>After a final unsuccessful pregnancy, Henry decided he had had enough of Anne. He decided to replace her with Jane Seymour. Because Henry would lose face if he divorced Anne after all he went through to marry her, his advisors conspired some false adultery charges against her. To make the charges look outrageous, Anne was accused of adultery with five different men, including her own brother George. George's wife, the Lady Rochford, testified that her husband had been in intimate contact with Anne. George and Jane's marriage had been arranged, and was not a happy union. Jane Rochford hated both her husband and her sister-in-law, and envied their family closeness. Lady Rochford's words, although lies, carried a lot of weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Anne was truly innocent of all charges, she was found guilty of treason by a court of English statesmen who feared the King. Her own father and uncle voted to condemn her. Because treason was a capital crime, Anne was sentenced to death, and executed in May of 1536. Many were outraged at this miscarriage of justice, even those who had disliked Anne Boleyn in the beginning. As usual, Henry's advisors were blamed, and Henry kept his popularity among his English subjects. A few weeks after Anne's death, Henry married Jane Seymour in a quiet ceremony. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Jane Seymour <ul><li>Jane Seymour was Henry VIII's third wife. She was Queen of England for a very short time, from 1536 until 1537. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Seymour was a young noblewoman who served as a lady-in-waiting at Court. She was a modest, quiet, pale young woman in her mid-twenties when she caught King Henry's eye. She was a devout Catholic who was staunchly devoted to Queen Catherine and the Princess Mary. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Jane Seymour <ul><li>Henry and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, were not getting along when he became interested in Jane. Jane was a total contrast to the striking, glamorous, turbulent Anne. Jane's talents lay in domestic areas such as sewing, gardening and housekeeping, rather than in art, music, scholarship and athletics. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry found Jane's company to be a comfort. As with Anne before her, Henry gave her gifts, and asked Jane to be his mistress. Jane turned him down. Jane hoped to one day marry a young man from another noble family, and wanted to preserve her virtue. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Jane Seymour <ul><li>Henry was still hoping that his marriage to Anne Boleyn would produce a son. When Anne suffered one last miscarriage, and the child was determined to be a boy, Henry decided to replace Anne with Jane as his wife. To clear the way for a new marriage, Henry's councilors arranged to have Anne charged with, and found guilty of, treasonous adultery with several men. Anne was executed in May of 1536. Henry married Jane shortly afterward. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry found happiness in his marriage to Jane. To Henry's immense joy, Jane became pregnant soon after the wedding. She gave birth to a long-awaited son, Edward, in October of 1537. Sadly, Jane did not survive Edward's birth. She died of childbed fever soon after he was born. Henry was devastated by her death, and mourned her until the end of his life. This did not, however, stop him from marrying again (three more times). </li></ul><ul><li>Jane is remembered for being kind, gentle, pious and a good stepmother to Henry's eldest daughter Mary. She most likely would have made a very good queen if she had lived longer. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Anne of Cleves <ul><li>Anne of Cleves was Henry's fourth wife. She came from the German state of Cleves, and married Henry for political reasons. She was Queen of England for only a few months, during the year 1540. </li></ul><ul><li>After Queen Jane died, Henry started looking around for a new bride. He was still worried about the succession, and hoped to have more children. Henry's right-hand man, Thomas Cromwell, was in favor of a political alliance with a Protestant country. Cromwell encouraged Henry to consider marrying a German princess. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Anne of Cleves <ul><li>Anne of Cleves was one of the candidates that Cromwell brought to Henry's attention. Anne was a moderately attractive German princess in her mid-twenties, whose brother was the ruler of the German state of Cleves. She was reportedly kind, generous and intelligent. She was not, however, highly educated, and had no special musical or artistic training. She spoke little English, and dressed in the ornate, cumbersome Dutch fashions popular in Germany at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry wanted to see a picture of this prospective bride. He sent the artist Hans Holbein to Germany to paint Anne's portrait. Some say that Holbein fell in love with Anne, and portrayed her as more attractive than she really was. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Anne of Cleves <ul><li>Henry liked Anne's portrait and negotiated to marry her. Unfortunately, he decided to surprise her while she was en route to London to meet her future husband. Henry disguised himself in ugly old clothes, and rode to the place where Anne was staying. He burst in on Anne in her guest room, and pretended to be a messenger from the King. </li></ul><ul><li>Anne, who was watching a bear-baiting out the window, didn't act too interested in this odd visitor. She barely glanced at him, and answered his questions without much attention or enthusiasm. When he finally revealed his true identity as her bridegroom, Anne of Cleves was shocked. Henry may have still thought himself the handsomest prince in Christendom, but in all reality, he was no longer the golden Adonis of his youth. In his royal garments, he could present the illusion of his former self, and hide some of his fat, but his messenger outfit didn't flatter him in the least. Besides, what kind of rude behavior was this, to come bursting on a lady unannounced? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Anne of Cleves <ul><li>The net result of all this good fun was that both parties were offended, and Henry claimed to find Anne most unattractive. The feeling was probably mutual. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry went ahead with the marriage to save face, and to keep the German alliance, but soon convinced Anne to agree to a divorce. Anne thought this was a great idea. She shared Henry's negative feelings about the marriage, which, by all accounts, had never been consummated. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry was amazed at Anne's willingness to go along with the plan. As a reward for her cooperation, she was allowed to stay in England, was given the honorary title of &quot;Henry's dear sister&quot;, and held a high position in the royal circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry provided well for Anne, and she lived a happy life at her country estate. She gave fine parties, wore beautiful English fashions, and gave generous gifts to just about everyone she knew. She enjoyed a close relationship with Henry's children, and even became good friends with Henry. All things considered, Anne of Cleves's life story had the happiest ending of that of any of Henry VIII's six wives! </li></ul>
  20. 21. Katherine Howard <ul><li>While in the process of divorcing Anne of Cleves, Henry's attentions fell on a pretty young lady-in-waiting of the Queen. She was Katherine Howard, the niece of one of the highest-ranking noblemen in England, the Duke of Norfolk. The Duke saw an opportunity to gain power and prestige by placing one of his family on the soon-to-be-vacant throne of the Queen of England, and brought young Katherine to Court. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine was still in her teens when Henry fell in love with her. By contrast, Henry was in his late forties. He was very obese, and troubled by an ulcerated leg. He also suffered bouts of depression. Katherine provided youth and cheer, and Henry was dazzled by her beauty. Coached by her family, Katherine learned to flatter and flirt with the aging King, and to make him feel desirable. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Katherine Howard <ul><li>The Howards assured Henry that Katherine was pure and innocent, and had never been involved with another man. Unfortunately, all this was untrue. Katherine had had two lovers while growing up on her step-grandmother's estate. She had fully consummated her relationship with one of them, amidst promises of marriage. Various members of the household knew about Katherine's indiscretions. For some reason, however, Katherine kept silent about her past, allowing Henry to think that he was her first and only lover. This was to prove a huge mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Howard was petite, attractive and amiable, but not known for her good sense or judgment. Unlike Henry's previous consorts, Katherine could barely read or write. To help with her correspondence and paperwork, Katherine hired a personal secretary. She did not, however, make a very wise choice. She hired her former fiancé, Frances Derham, to be her secretary. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Ktherine Howard <ul><li>Henry and Katherine's marriage went along fairly smoothly for about a year. He was enchanted with her, and she enjoyed being Queen. She was particularly delighted with the power and riches that came with Queenship. Soon, however, material wealth and prestige gave way to boredom for young Katherine. She began to flirt with Thomas Culpeper, one of the King's household gentlemen. Apparently Culpeper, a distant cousin of Catherine's, initiated the affair. The flirtation eventually led to a physical relationship, conducted in secret. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry had no idea of what was going on behind his back. After about a year of marriage, however, rumors began to surface about the Queen's past. There were many in England who felt threatened by the power and influence held by the strongly Catholic Howard family. Having a Howard Queen on the throne was a potential danger to these people. The Protestant religious reformers were particularly disgruntled. They feared a possible return of the English Church to Roman Catholicism. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Katherine Howard <ul><li>One of these reformers had a sister who had known Katherine Howard in her youth. This woman told her brother about Katherine's past love affairs, and the brother paid a visit to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Archbishop, Thomas Cranmer, sympathized with the reformers, and listened to the story of Katherine's past adventures. After investigating the news, and determining that the story was true, Cranmer gave the information to King Henry. </li></ul><ul><li>At first, Henry refused to believe that his lovely young bride had been involved with other men before she met Henry. He agreed to a fact-finding mission, which confirmed the news. The fact that Katherine's private secretary was one of her lovers was damning evidence in itself. Henry became furious at Katherine's deception, and his anger turned to depression. </li></ul><ul><li>At this point, he still knew nothing about Thomas Culpeper's current affair with the Queen. Soon, however, that relationship came to light. Members of Katherine's household began telling tales of private meetings and secret messages passed between Culpeper and Queen Katherine. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry was angry enough about Katherine's past, but was inclined to spare her life. The new revelations about Katherine and Culpeper, however, spelled High Treason. Katherine's affair with Culpeper threatened not only the King, but the entire succession to the English throne. Culpeper and Frances Derham were arrested and charged with treason. The Queen's arrest soon followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine was found guilty of treason against the King, as were her lovers. She was executed in 1542. She was probably not even twenty years old. Henry was plunged into misery, and never fully recovered from the heartbreak of Katherine Howard. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Katherine Parr <ul><li>Katherine Parr was the sixth and final wife of King Henry VIII. She was Queen of England from 1543 until Henry's death in early 1547. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Parr had already outlived two husbands when she met Henry VIII. Many people envision Katherine Parr as an ancient crone because was twice-widowed, but she was actually quite young. She was just thirty-one when she married King Henry. </li></ul><ul><li>By this time Henry was in his early fifties. He suffered from various ailments, including a badly ulcerated leg, and wanted a nurse and companion in his old age. Katherine, who was intelligent, kind and attractive, was looking forward to marrying Jane Seymour's brother Thomas, when King Henry decided to seek Katherine's hand in marriage. Katherine had often been at Court with her late husband, Lord Latimer, and had known Henry for some time. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Katherine Parr <ul><li>Katherine did not want to be King Henry's sixth wife. She knew what happened to unwanted queens in England. Furthermore, she was looking forward to finally marrying someone she loved. When Henry asked her to marry him, she answered that she would be his mistress, but not his wife. (Quite a switch from Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour!) Henry would not take &quot;no&quot; for an answer, and he and Katherine Parr were wed in 1543. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine temporarily put aside her dream of marrying her true love, and concentrated on being a good wife and stepmother. She adored her royal stepchildren Mary, Elizabeth and Edward, and the feeling was mutual. Katherine had a strong influence on the children's' education, especially that of Edward and Elizabeth. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Katherine Parr <ul><li>Katherine was known for her love of scholarship, and for her interest in the emerging Protestant religion. Although the Church of England was not Catholic in the sense that it was no longer headed by Rome, it was virtually the same as the Catholic Church in most other ways. The true Protestant religions such as Lutheranism were a different matter. Many people were against the growth of the &quot;New Religion&quot; in England, and many were punished for their beliefs. Those who followed the new teachings had to tread carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine got along well with Henry, and proved to be an excellent nurse. She humored his moods and whims, and provided stimulating intellectual companionship coupled with gentleness and concern. However, she made enemies because of her religious leanings, and came dangerously close to trouble when she argued with Henry about religion. Katherine's foes tried to convince Henry to remove her, but her diplomacy saved the day. She was able to convince her husband that she was only trying to entertain him with interesting debate. He was appeased, but from then on, Katherine steered away from controversial topics with Henry. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Katherine Parr <ul><li>Henry's marriage to Katherine Parr lasted until his death in January of 1547. Their union was, if not a true love match, an agreeable partnership. Katherine and Henry had grown quite fond of each other, and Katherine was saddened when Henry died. He was just 55 years old. That seems like an early age to us, but in those times peoples' lives were shorter, and Henry had been in failing health for some time. </li></ul><ul><li>At last, Katherine was free to marry Thomas Seymour. They were married in secret just three months after Henry's death. Unfortunately, she did not have much time to enjoy her long-awaited marriage to her sweetheart. In 1548, at age 36, she died shortly after giving birth to her first child. The baby, a daughter, was named Mary after Mary Tudor. Not long after, Thomas Seymour was executed for treason, leaving little Mary an orphan. Mary disappears from the historical records early in her life, and is thought to have died in childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Parr is remembered mainly as the wife who outlived King Henry. Katherine's kindness and good sense helped to pacify Henry during his final years, which undoubtedly made life easier for his subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine Parr left her mark in other areas, too. Katherine was a strong influence on Henry's children Elizabeth and Edward, who were both exceptional scholars, and favored the new religion. She was also a strong advocate of women's learning. She took young women into her household, and helped them to develop their intellectual powers. Katherine herself produced some highly-regarded written works of religious and philosophical scholarship. In those times, when women's education was not stressed, and many women could neither read nor write, these were notable achievements. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Thank you for attention! </li></ul>