Fotografi
<ul><li>Sejarah perkembangan fotografi </li></ul><ul><li>Bahagian asas dan fungsi kamera </li></ul><ul><li>Jenis-jenis dan...
Jenis-jenis kamera <ul><li>Point and shoot </li></ul><ul><li>SLR and DSLR </li></ul>
Twin lens reflex Twin lens reflex camera Twin Lens cameras have two look-alike lenses, hence the name &quot;twin lens.&quo...
Single lens reflex The Single Lens Reflex (SLR) uses a series of mirrors so that one may view the scene to be photographed...
Instant camera cth: Polaroid
Disposable Camera
Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya (Light-sensitive medium) digital sensor filem Semakin banyak cahaya yang jatuh pada media i...
Kamera Lensa  /kanta besarkan dan fokuskan imej pada media sensitif cahaya melalui satu pembukaan (aperture) Shutter   Buk...
 
Lensa (kanta) <ul><li>Digunakan untuk membentuk imej yang jelas di atas fillem/digital sensor </li></ul><ul><li>Diukur dal...
Jenis Lensa (kanta) <ul><li>sesuatu lensa diukur dalam bentuk mm yang dikenali sebagai ‘focal length’ </li></ul><ul><li>3 ...
Jenis lensa <ul><li>Normal/ standard lens (paparkan secara tepat apa yang boleh dilihat oleh mata manusia) – cth 50mm </li...
Jenis Lensa Lain <ul><li>Prime lens (mempunyai  focal length yang tetap, cth 35mm, 100mm)  </li></ul><ul><li>Macro </li></...
Telephoto Lens <ul><li>membawa objek jauh ke jarak yang dekat  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70-300mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8...
Zoom Lens <ul><li>Mempunyai gabungan beberapa jenis kanta pada satu unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28mm-50mm (sudut luas ke no...
Focal length dan komposisi gambar
Macro
Macro
Fish Eye
Fish Eye
Kawalan cahaya <ul><ul><li>Shutter speed (kelajuan pengatup)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO (100, 200, 400 – dua kali gan...
Exposure <ul><li>'exposure' jumlah cahaya yang masuk pada media, filem atau digital sensor </li></ul>
Underexposed
Overexposed
If we get it just right, the image will look similar to what our eyes see
Shutter Speed Tempoh pembukaan pengatup Unit ukuran = saat / pecahan/fraction  (cth: 1/1000, 1/30).
Shutter Speed (Pengatup)
Slow shutter speed - motion
Shutter speed
High shutter speed, “freeze” the action of this surfer
The shutter speeds are 1/30th of a second, 1/60th of a second, 1/125th of a second, 1/250th of a second, etc.  Moving from...
Petua untuk penggunaan shutter speed Shutter speed tidak boleh kurang daripada focal length. Cth: jika guna lensa 200mm, s...
Aperture The next item we can change on the camera is  aperture . The aperture is the hole through which the light passes ...
Depth of Field (kawasan jelas) <ul><li>Kawasan yang jelas dalam </li></ul><ul><li>Ditentukan oleh aperture dan jarak fokus...
Depth Of Field
The following depth of field test was taken with the same focus distance and a 200 mm lens (320 mm field of view on a 35 m...
Aperture vs DOF Kawasan mana yang jelas? Jenis aperture apa yang boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan gambar ini?
Aperture vs DOF Aperture?
ISO vs Noise/Grain
ISO vs Noise
White Balance Proses mengeluarkan warna yang tidak dikehendaki supaya objek yang berwarna putih akan ditunjukkan sebagai w...
White balance Reddish/Yellowish image  Correct white balance
White Balance Gambar mana mempunyai white balance yang betul?
Incorrect white balance Correct white balance
Optical zoom vs digital zoom <ul><li>Optical zoom – gunakan lensa pada kamera untuk membawa sabjek jauh kepada jarak dekat...
Komposisi Gambar
Rule of Third The rule of thirds simply says that, instead of placing the main focus of interest in the centre of the fram...
Rule of third
Repetition of Form
Leading Lines railroad tracks bring your eye from the railroad worker to the train wreck behind him:
Framing the child is framed between the lines of the abacus
Layering the child drawing on the ground is the foreground element, but the children behind him add an additional layer. I...
Bright Spots the subject in very bright light wearing colorful clothes while the rest of the image is very dark.
Negative Space the sky acts as the negative space and balances the buildings in the frame.
Selective Focus selectively focusing on the girl to draw attention to her and separate her from the environment.
Camera Height or Angle Shot from high angle
Lensing
Symmetry
Memberi fokus kepada objek melalui pemilihan DOF yang sesuai
Panning
Tilt Up
Tilt down
Tilt Down
Kad Memori
Aksesori kamera
Camera Accesories
Extension tube
 
Perisian berkaitan dengan fotografi <ul><li>Adobe photoshop </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Photo editor </li></ul><ul><li>Mic...
Apakah peranan gambar foto dalam P-P?
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Asas fotografi

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Asas fotografi

  1. 1. Fotografi
  2. 2. <ul><li>Sejarah perkembangan fotografi </li></ul><ul><li>Bahagian asas dan fungsi kamera </li></ul><ul><li>Jenis-jenis dan aksesori kamera </li></ul><ul><li>Jenis-jenis filem </li></ul><ul><li>Teknik penggambaran </li></ul><ul><li>Komposisi </li></ul><ul><li>Fotografi digital </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jenis-jenis kamera <ul><li>Point and shoot </li></ul><ul><li>SLR and DSLR </li></ul>
  4. 4. Twin lens reflex Twin lens reflex camera Twin Lens cameras have two look-alike lenses, hence the name &quot;twin lens.&quot; The scene before the camera is actually photographed through the bottom lens while viewed through the top lens. As the picture is focused through the top lens, the bottom lens is adjusted at the same time.
  5. 5. Single lens reflex The Single Lens Reflex (SLR) uses a series of mirrors so that one may view the scene to be photographed through the same lens that takes the picture. When the shutter release is depressed the lower mirror snaps up, the picture is taken, and the mirror returns to its original position. (Hence, a &quot;reflex&quot; action.) At the time the picture is taken, the viewfinder is blackened for a split second.
  6. 6. Instant camera cth: Polaroid
  7. 7. Disposable Camera
  8. 8. Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya (Light-sensitive medium) digital sensor filem Semakin banyak cahaya yang jatuh pada media ini, semakain cerah gambar tersebut
  9. 9. Kamera Lensa /kanta besarkan dan fokuskan imej pada media sensitif cahaya melalui satu pembukaan (aperture) Shutter Buka dan tutup bila shutter release dilepaskan, benarkan cahaya masuk Media yang sensitif kpd cahaya(light-sensitive device) (filem atau digital sensor) Viewfinder tempat kita lihat melalui kamera untuk pilih bahagian gambar yang diperlukan dan fokus
  10. 11. Lensa (kanta) <ul><li>Digunakan untuk membentuk imej yang jelas di atas fillem/digital sensor </li></ul><ul><li>Diukur dalam unit ‘mm’ yang menentukan focal length (jarak fokus) </li></ul><ul><li>Focal length yang berlainan membentuk saiz imej yang berlainan </li></ul>
  11. 12. Jenis Lensa (kanta) <ul><li>sesuatu lensa diukur dalam bentuk mm yang dikenali sebagai ‘focal length’ </li></ul><ul><li>3 jenis utama: </li></ul>Normal/ Standard/biasa Wide angle (bidang luas) Telephoto/ Foto Jauh
  12. 13. Jenis lensa <ul><li>Normal/ standard lens (paparkan secara tepat apa yang boleh dilihat oleh mata manusia) – cth 50mm </li></ul><ul><li>Telephoto </li></ul><ul><li>Wide angle (paparkan kawasan yang lebih luas) – kurang daripada standard focal length, cth 24 & 35mm </li></ul>
  13. 14. Jenis Lensa Lain <ul><li>Prime lens (mempunyai focal length yang tetap, cth 35mm, 100mm) </li></ul><ul><li>Macro </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheye (uses an angle of view up to 180 degrees. The angle distorts the photograph so the four sides appear to be farther away) </li></ul><ul><li>Teleconverter (A teleconverter attaches between the camera and another lens. It increases the focal length of your lens) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Telephoto Lens <ul><li>membawa objek jauh ke jarak yang dekat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70-300mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85-120mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>135-200mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300-600mm </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Zoom Lens <ul><li>Mempunyai gabungan beberapa jenis kanta pada satu unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28mm-50mm (sudut luas ke normal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50mm-100mm (normal ke sederhana) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70-200mm (normal ke jauh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>135-300mm (sederhana ke jauh) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Focal length dan komposisi gambar
  17. 18. Macro
  18. 19. Macro
  19. 20. Fish Eye
  20. 21. Fish Eye
  21. 22. Kawalan cahaya <ul><ul><li>Shutter speed (kelajuan pengatup) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO (100, 200, 400 – dua kali ganda) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aperture (saiz bukaan lensa) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Exposure <ul><li>'exposure' jumlah cahaya yang masuk pada media, filem atau digital sensor </li></ul>
  23. 24. Underexposed
  24. 25. Overexposed
  25. 26. If we get it just right, the image will look similar to what our eyes see
  26. 27. Shutter Speed Tempoh pembukaan pengatup Unit ukuran = saat / pecahan/fraction (cth: 1/1000, 1/30).
  27. 28. Shutter Speed (Pengatup)
  28. 29. Slow shutter speed - motion
  29. 30. Shutter speed
  30. 31. High shutter speed, “freeze” the action of this surfer
  31. 32. The shutter speeds are 1/30th of a second, 1/60th of a second, 1/125th of a second, 1/250th of a second, etc. Moving from one speed to the next one halves the amount of light that can enter the camera. On the other hand, moving the other way, to a slower shutter speed, doubles the amount of light that can get into the camera. The change from one speed to another (and halving or doubling the light that enters the camera) is called moving a stop .
  32. 33. Petua untuk penggunaan shutter speed Shutter speed tidak boleh kurang daripada focal length. Cth: jika guna lensa 200mm, shutter speed sekurang-kurangnya 1/200 sec
  33. 34. Aperture The next item we can change on the camera is aperture . The aperture is the hole through which the light passes through to reach the sensor or film. You can actually control the diameter of this hole on your camera. On old style cameras, there is an aperture ring that goes around the outside of the lens. Moving it around changes the diameter of the aperture. Aperture rings look something like this:
  34. 35. Depth of Field (kawasan jelas) <ul><li>Kawasan yang jelas dalam </li></ul><ul><li>Ditentukan oleh aperture dan jarak fokus </li></ul>
  35. 36. Depth Of Field
  36. 37. The following depth of field test was taken with the same focus distance and a 200 mm lens (320 mm field of view on a 35 mm camera), but with various apertures: f/8.0 f/5.6 f/2.8
  37. 38. Aperture vs DOF Kawasan mana yang jelas? Jenis aperture apa yang boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan gambar ini?
  38. 39. Aperture vs DOF Aperture?
  39. 40. ISO vs Noise/Grain
  40. 41. ISO vs Noise
  41. 42. White Balance Proses mengeluarkan warna yang tidak dikehendaki supaya objek yang berwarna putih akan ditunjukkan sebagai warna putih dalam gambar Berkaitan dengan color temperature – satu cara untuk menyukat kualiti punca cahaya ( It is based on the ratio of the amount of blue light to the amount of red light, ignoring green light) .
  42. 43. White balance Reddish/Yellowish image Correct white balance
  43. 44. White Balance Gambar mana mempunyai white balance yang betul?
  44. 45. Incorrect white balance Correct white balance
  45. 46. Optical zoom vs digital zoom <ul><li>Optical zoom – gunakan lensa pada kamera untuk membawa sabjek jauh kepada jarak dekat </li></ul><ul><li>Digital zoom – crop bahagian gambar berkenaan dan membesarkan bahagian yang dicrop sahaja – kualiti terjejas </li></ul>
  46. 47. Komposisi Gambar
  47. 48. Rule of Third The rule of thirds simply says that, instead of placing the main focus of interest in the centre of the frame, which gets a little boring, that you look to position it on an intersection of the thirds. That is to say one third up and one third in or two thirds up and one third in etc Placing the boat near the top of the picture tells the viewer that what they are supposed to be looking at is the reflection
  48. 49. Rule of third
  49. 50. Repetition of Form
  50. 51. Leading Lines railroad tracks bring your eye from the railroad worker to the train wreck behind him:
  51. 52. Framing the child is framed between the lines of the abacus
  52. 53. Layering the child drawing on the ground is the foreground element, but the children behind him add an additional layer. It shows that he is participating in an activity with others and isn’t just by himself.
  53. 54. Bright Spots the subject in very bright light wearing colorful clothes while the rest of the image is very dark.
  54. 55. Negative Space the sky acts as the negative space and balances the buildings in the frame.
  55. 56. Selective Focus selectively focusing on the girl to draw attention to her and separate her from the environment.
  56. 57. Camera Height or Angle Shot from high angle
  57. 58. Lensing
  58. 59. Symmetry
  59. 60. Memberi fokus kepada objek melalui pemilihan DOF yang sesuai
  60. 61. Panning
  61. 62. Tilt Up
  62. 63. Tilt down
  63. 64. Tilt Down
  64. 65. Kad Memori
  65. 66. Aksesori kamera
  66. 67. Camera Accesories
  67. 68. Extension tube
  68. 70. Perisian berkaitan dengan fotografi <ul><li>Adobe photoshop </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Photo editor </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Paint </li></ul>
  69. 71. Apakah peranan gambar foto dalam P-P?
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