CHAPTER 11WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• to differentiate between weather and climate• about the use and siting of weather instru...
Why is the weatherimportant to you?
CLOTHES!
FOOD!
HOLIDAYS!
Why is the weather      important to you?• Weather affects our daily lives.• Weather affects the ways we lead  our daily a...
What is the differencebetween weather and      climate?
Definition of Weather• Conditions in the atmosphere of a  particular area at a particular point in  time.• Short-term cond...
Definition of Climate• Climate refers to the weatherpattern of a place over a long periodof time, usually 30 years or more...
What’s the climate      like?
Weather                 Climate     Short term             Long Term    Daily, Weekly       Usually 30 years or           ...
What are the basic elements of    weather and climate?
• The basic elements of weatherand climate: Temperature Rainfall Wind
Temperature   What is Temperature?
Describe the temperature in the morning, at noon  and evening yesterday
Definition of Temperature• Temperature refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of the air• It varies throughout the da...
It varies throughout the day in aplace
It varies from place to place                                Equator
It varies from place to place• Places nearer the Equator are warmer  throughout the year than places farther  away from it...
It varies from place to place                          Mount Kenya
It varies from place to place• Temperature gets cooler as we go to  higher grounds• As the Altitude gets higher, the  Temp...
How do we measure  Temperature?
• Air temperature is measured with a thermometer• The scale is in degree Celsius (OC)• Daily maximum temperature refers to...
A Minimum and Maximum  Thermometer ( Six’s Thermometer)Minimum thermometer        Maximum thermometer        Contains alco...
How do we read thetemperature using a Six’s thermometer?
• What is the minimum and  maximum temperature shown in  the thermometer on the right? Minimum temp = 13 oC Maximum temp =...
Where are thethermometers placed     to measure    temperature?
•Stevenson Screen
•Describe theStevensonScreen on theright.
•Stevenson Screen    Parts          Why1   White in color reflects heat2   Louvres        allows air to flow freely       ...
Where should aStevenson Screen be  located and why?
•Describe thelocations ofthe StevensonScreen on the
Where is the best location to place a   Stevenson Screen in School
A: In an open field– Air will circulate easily in the Stevenson Screen asthe Screen is in an open space and is far awayfro...
C: Under the trees– The Screen will be in the shade, protected fromdirect sunlight.– Air may not circulate freely under th...
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• Definition of rainfall.• How it is rainfall formed• How is rainfall measured.
Rainfall
Why do we study rainfall?   Too much? Too little?  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1BgYeepNlE&feature=re  lated
Definition of rainfall• refers to the amount of rain that an area  receives over a period of time•It is measured in millim...
How is rain formed                         3   Condensation 2   Transpiration                     4   Rain or snow        ...
How is rainfall measured?                • A rain gauge                  is an                  instrument                ...
Rain Gauge  • Parts of a rain gauge:                             Funnel                               Copper Cylinder     ...
Calculating Rainfall• Daily rainfall refers to the amount of rain thatfalls over 24 hours• Monthly rainfall refers to the ...
Rainfall Map(Refer to textbook page 142)                           •Rainfall map                           shows the      ...
•Refer to textbook page 142                                 CVSS                                                    isohye...
• Temperature isdisplayed as a linegraph in aclimograph• Rainfall isdisplayed as barin a climograph
• Rain Gauge• Look at the two photographs below, describe        the locations of the rain gauge?
• Discuss in pair: (5 minutes)1. Which is the most suitable location   to place a Rain Gauge. Give Two   reasons for your ...
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• Definition of wind.• How it is wind formed?• How to read wind directions?• Where should ...
WindWhy do we study wind?  Too much? Too Little?
What is wind?
Definition of wind:• Wind is defined as the movement of air overthe surface of the Earth.
How is wind formed?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itj-x1XhzQo&feature=related
• The Earth is heated up at a differentrate.• Warm air expands and rises up whilecool air condenses and sinks.• Low Pressu...
How is wind direction measured?• Wind direction is given by the compass point of North,   South, East and West.• A wind va...
How is wind direction measured?• The pointer on the wind vane points to  the direction that the wind is blowing  from.  SE...
Where should the wind vane be sited tomeasure the wind directions accurately?• A wind vane is usually  placed on a high,  ...
Where should the wind vane be sited tomeasure the wind directions accurately?                         B                   ...
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• To compare weather and climatic data to  understand weather and climatic variations• Abo...
Major Climatic Types of the World• Temperature and rainfall are commonly used to  classify different climates of the world...
Climograph:Describe the key information that you canderive from the climograph of Singaporeshown below.
Climograph:                                 11. Location of the place                                     22. Latitude of ...
Climograph:              • A line graph shows              the mean monthly              temperature during              t...
Climograph:              • What is the average              annual temperature for              Singapore?              • ...
Major Climatic Types of the World-                   Tropical Climate• Places with a tropic climate Lie on or near the Eq...
Major Climatic Types of the World-                  Tropical Climate• Places with a tropic climate                        ...
Major Climatic Types of the World-                Temperate Climate• Places with a temperate climate Lie between the Trop...
Major Climatic Types of the World-                  Temperate Climate• Places with a temperate climate Experience four se...
Major Climatic Types of the World-                    Polar Climate• Places with a polar climate                          ...
Major Climatic Types of the World-                    Polar Climate• Places with a polar climate Experience only summer a...
•    Guide to describe the climate of a     place :1.   Describe the temperature.2.   Describe the total annual rainfall.3...
Major Climatic Types of the World-Practise time:Base on the climographs provided in the next slide:a. Describe the climate...
Major Climatic Types of the World-Climograph 1   Climograph 2      Climograph 3
Major Climatic Types of the World-         Climograph 1            1. It has low to moderate temperature               dep...
Major Climatic Types of the World-         Climograph 2              1. It has high temperature averaging                2...
Major Climatic Types of the World-         Climograph 3            1. It has very low temperature              throughout ...
Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• how weather and climate affect humans positively and negatively.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Study the photographs on the next slide               1st row to look at picture A     ...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Daily activities Weather will determine whether we stay indoorsor participate in outdo...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• The Daily activities Weather will determine the types of activities wecan engage in.
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Housing The locations people choose to live in. People prefer to live in places where...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Housing The climate will also influence the types ofhousing people live in. eg In man...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Tourism The different climates experienced around theworld encourage tourism
How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Production of electricity Modern-day windmills harness the energy from thewind to gener...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Production of electricity The wind, water and sun are known as renewableresources. Can...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Food and water supplies Different crops thrive under different climaticconditions
How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Food and water supplies Changes in the climate will affect crops andanimals   e.g a dr...
How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Loss of lives and property Extreme weather conditions can destroy manylives and propert...
Spend 3 minutes to answer these questions EXIT SLIP: Describe any 3 ways that weather and climate can affect us: Something...
Chapter 11  Weather and Climate lesson slides published
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Attached are the lesson slides for Chapter 11 on Weather and Climate.

The Earth is fragile, everyone plays a part!

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Chapter 11 Weather and Climate lesson slides published

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11WEATHER AND CLIMATE
  2. 2. Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• to differentiate between weather and climate• about the use and siting of weather instruments• to compare weather and climatic data to understand weather and climatic variations• about the distribution and characteristics of the world’s major climatic types• how weather and climate affect people positively and negatively
  3. 3. Why is the weatherimportant to you?
  4. 4. CLOTHES!
  5. 5. FOOD!
  6. 6. HOLIDAYS!
  7. 7. Why is the weather important to you?• Weather affects our daily lives.• Weather affects the ways we lead our daily activities.• Weather affects the types of houses we live in.
  8. 8. What is the differencebetween weather and climate?
  9. 9. Definition of Weather• Conditions in the atmosphere of a particular area at a particular point in time.• Short-term conditions.• Changes all the time and varies from place to place.
  10. 10. Definition of Climate• Climate refers to the weatherpattern of a place over a long periodof time, usually 30 years or more• Long- term conditions.• Seldom change.
  11. 11. What’s the climate like?
  12. 12. Weather Climate Short term Long Term Daily, Weekly Usually 30 years or moreChanges all the time Seldom change.and varies from place to place.
  13. 13. What are the basic elements of weather and climate?
  14. 14. • The basic elements of weatherand climate: Temperature Rainfall Wind
  15. 15. Temperature What is Temperature?
  16. 16. Describe the temperature in the morning, at noon and evening yesterday
  17. 17. Definition of Temperature• Temperature refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of the air• It varies throughout the day in a place• It varies from place to place
  18. 18. It varies throughout the day in aplace
  19. 19. It varies from place to place Equator
  20. 20. It varies from place to place• Places nearer the Equator are warmer throughout the year than places farther away from it• The increase in distance away from the from the Equator is known as Latitude.
  21. 21. It varies from place to place Mount Kenya
  22. 22. It varies from place to place• Temperature gets cooler as we go to higher grounds• As the Altitude gets higher, the Temperature gets lower• Give me 1 location in Malaysia that is influence by Altitude.
  23. 23. How do we measure Temperature?
  24. 24. • Air temperature is measured with a thermometer• The scale is in degree Celsius (OC)• Daily maximum temperature refers to the highest temperature reading for the day• Daily minimum temperature refers to the lowest temperature reading for the day
  25. 25. A Minimum and Maximum Thermometer ( Six’s Thermometer)Minimum thermometer Maximum thermometer Contains alcohol mercury and a metal indexMeasure the minimum Temperature rises>temperature mercury expands Why is alcohol used? mercury pushes the index up Temperature falls > mercury contracts and stays in place How do you reset t he thermometer?
  26. 26. How do we read thetemperature using a Six’s thermometer?
  27. 27. • What is the minimum and maximum temperature shown in the thermometer on the right? Minimum temp = 13 oC Maximum temp = 32 oC• By taking the bottom of the index.
  28. 28. Where are thethermometers placed to measure temperature?
  29. 29. •Stevenson Screen
  30. 30. •Describe theStevensonScreen on theright.
  31. 31. •Stevenson Screen Parts Why1 White in color reflects heat2 Louvres allows air to flow freely through it3 Raised above shelters the instruments form ground the heat radiating from the ground4 Face north Do not get the direct heat and south from the sun
  32. 32. Where should aStevenson Screen be located and why?
  33. 33. •Describe thelocations ofthe StevensonScreen on the
  34. 34. Where is the best location to place a Stevenson Screen in School
  35. 35. A: In an open field– Air will circulate easily in the Stevenson Screen asthe Screen is in an open space and is far awayfrom buildings.B: Within the school– Heat within the building may affect theinstruments inside the Screen.– The Screen may be disturbed by people. Eg People may open the Screen door and this will affect the reading of the instruments.
  36. 36. C: Under the trees– The Screen will be in the shade, protected fromdirect sunlight.– Air may not circulate freely under the trees.D: On the basketball court– Instruments inside the Screen may be affectedby the heat from the ground.– People in the basketball court may disturb theScreen. Ans: Choice A best fulfills the criteria set for the siting of a Stevenson Screen.
  37. 37. Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• Definition of rainfall.• How it is rainfall formed• How is rainfall measured.
  38. 38. Rainfall
  39. 39. Why do we study rainfall? Too much? Too little? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1BgYeepNlE&feature=re lated
  40. 40. Definition of rainfall• refers to the amount of rain that an area receives over a period of time•It is measured in millimetres (mm) or centimetres (cm)
  41. 41. How is rain formed 3 Condensation 2 Transpiration 4 Rain or snow falls 1 Evaporation
  42. 42. How is rainfall measured? • A rain gauge is an instrument used to measure rainfall
  43. 43. Rain Gauge • Parts of a rain gauge: Funnel Copper Cylinder Outer CasingGround Glass bottle
  44. 44. Calculating Rainfall• Daily rainfall refers to the amount of rain thatfalls over 24 hours• Monthly rainfall refers to the total amount of rainwater collected throughout the month• Annual rainfall is the total amount of rainwater collected throughout the year
  45. 45. Rainfall Map(Refer to textbook page 142) •Rainfall map shows the distribution of annual rainfall in a place for a period of time
  46. 46. •Refer to textbook page 142 CVSS isohyets •Name 1 location that has the same amount of rainfall as CVSS •Name 1 location that has less amount of rainfall than CVSS •Name 1 location that has more amount of rainfall than CVSS
  47. 47. • Temperature isdisplayed as a linegraph in aclimograph• Rainfall isdisplayed as barin a climograph
  48. 48. • Rain Gauge• Look at the two photographs below, describe the locations of the rain gauge?
  49. 49. • Discuss in pair: (5 minutes)1. Which is the most suitable location to place a Rain Gauge. Give Two reasons for your answer2. Explain why the other sites are not suitable?
  50. 50. Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• Definition of wind.• How it is wind formed?• How to read wind directions?• Where should a wind vane be sited?• How to read a wind rose?
  51. 51. WindWhy do we study wind? Too much? Too Little?
  52. 52. What is wind?
  53. 53. Definition of wind:• Wind is defined as the movement of air overthe surface of the Earth.
  54. 54. How is wind formed?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itj-x1XhzQo&feature=related
  55. 55. • The Earth is heated up at a differentrate.• Warm air expands and rises up whilecool air condenses and sinks.• Low Pressure is formed when warm airrise.•Cool air will move in from area of highpressure to replace the warm air thatrises.•Wind if formed when cool air blows fromarea of high to area of low pressure.
  56. 56. How is wind direction measured?• Wind direction is given by the compass point of North, South, East and West.• A wind vane is used to measure the direction of the wind.
  57. 57. How is wind direction measured?• The pointer on the wind vane points to the direction that the wind is blowing from. SE N
  58. 58. Where should the wind vane be sited tomeasure the wind directions accurately?• A wind vane is usually placed on a high, open place with little or no obstruction to the flow of wind
  59. 59. Where should the wind vane be sited tomeasure the wind directions accurately? B C A
  60. 60. Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• To compare weather and climatic data to understand weather and climatic variations• About the distribution and characteristics of the world’s major climatic types
  61. 61. Major Climatic Types of the World• Temperature and rainfall are commonly used to classify different climates of the world• Three broad types of the world’s climates Tropical Temperate Polar• A climograph is used to present the climatic data of a place
  62. 62. Climograph:Describe the key information that you canderive from the climograph of Singaporeshown below.
  63. 63. Climograph: 11. Location of the place 22. Latitude of the place3. Months ( J,F,M,A……..) 4 54. Temperature (o C )5. Amount of Precipitation (mm or cm) 3
  64. 64. Climograph: • A line graph shows the mean monthly temperature during the year • A bar graph shows the average precipitation for each month
  65. 65. Climograph: • What is the average annual temperature for Singapore? • What is the total annual rainfall for Singapore? •What is the annual temperature range?
  66. 66. Major Climatic Types of the World- Tropical Climate• Places with a tropic climate Lie on or near the Equator In the region known as the Tropics, between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5oN) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5oS)
  67. 67. Major Climatic Types of the World- Tropical Climate• Places with a tropic climate o o Experience high temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C Receive almost the same amount of sunlight all year around Receive high annual rainfall ranging from 1000 to 2000 millimetres or more Has a small annual temperature range.• Characteristics of places with a tropical climate: High temperature and high rainfall throughout the year Hot and wet climate eg Singapore, Malaysia, Brazil and Kenya
  68. 68. Major Climatic Types of the World- Temperate Climate• Places with a temperate climate Lie between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5oN) and Arctic Circle (66.5oN), and between the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5oS) and Antarctic Circle (66.5oS)
  69. 69. Major Climatic Types of the World- Temperate Climate• Places with a temperate climate Experience four seasons every year: spring, summer, autumn (or fall) and winter Receive different amounts of sunlight in different periods of the year hence, temperatures vary greatly throughout the year Annual rainfall is moderate(300 to 1000 millimetres)• Characteristics of places with a temperate climate Low to Moderate temperatures dependingon the seasonModerate rainfall throughout the year Examples: Korea, Japan and the United States of America
  70. 70. Major Climatic Types of the World- Polar Climate• Places with a polar climate o o Lie between Arctic Circle (66.5 N) and the North Pole (90 N), o o and between Antarctic Circle (66.5 S) and the South Pole (90 S)
  71. 71. Major Climatic Types of the World- Polar Climate• Places with a polar climate Experience only summer and winter From March to September: the North Pole receives six months of continual sunshine while the South Pole faces six months of darkness Are very dry because the air lacks water vapour for the formation of clouds and rain or snow• Characteristics of places with a polar climate Very low temperatures (often below freezing point) and rainfall throughout the year eg Arctic, Antarctica, Northern Canada and Siberia
  72. 72. • Guide to describe the climate of a place :1. Describe the temperature.2. Describe the total annual rainfall.3. Describe the annual temperature range.4. Describe any distinct rainfall or temperature if they are present. E.g. Hot and wet, four seasons etc.
  73. 73. Major Climatic Types of the World-Practise time:Base on the climographs provided in the next slide:a. Describe the climate of the locations.b. Identify the type of climate associated withthe locations.
  74. 74. Major Climatic Types of the World-Climograph 1 Climograph 2 Climograph 3
  75. 75. Major Climatic Types of the World- Climograph 1 1. It has low to moderate temperature depending on the season. In winter, the temperature is around -10oC and 22oC in the summer. 2. It has a low annual rainfall of less than 1000mm 3. It has a large annual temperature range of about 32 oC 4. It has 4 seasons. 5. It probably has a Temperate climate.
  76. 76. Major Climatic Types of the World- Climograph 2 1. It has high temperature averaging 27 degree Celsius. 2. It has a small annual temperature range of about 2 to 3 degree Celsius. 3. Its has high annual rainfall of more than 2000mm 4. This place is hot and wet. 5. It has no season. 6. It probably has a Tropical Equatorial climate.
  77. 77. Major Climatic Types of the World- Climograph 3 1. It has very low temperature throughout the whole year. ( -28oC to - 3oC 2. It has very low rainfall throughout the year with an annual rainfall of less 300mm 3. It has a large annual temperature range of about 25oC 4. It probably experience summer and winter only 5. It probably has a Polar climate.
  78. 78. Learning OutcomesYou Will Learn:• how weather and climate affect humans positively and negatively.
  79. 79. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Study the photographs on the next slide 1st row to look at picture A 2nd row to look at picture B 3rd row to look at picture C 4th row to look at picture D 5th row to look at picture E 6th and 7th row to look at picture F• Write down on the same piece of paper earlier: Describe any activities or things that caught your attention on the photographs Describe how they can be related to climate and weather?
  80. 80. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Daily activities Weather will determine whether we stay indoorsor participate in outdoor activities.
  81. 81. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• The Daily activities Weather will determine the types of activities wecan engage in.
  82. 82. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Housing The locations people choose to live in. People prefer to live in places where it is neithertoo hot nor too cold.
  83. 83. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Housing The climate will also influence the types ofhousing people live in. eg In many Southeast Asian countries, housesare built on stilts to prevent water from damagingtheir property during floods
  84. 84. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Tourism The different climates experienced around theworld encourage tourism
  85. 85. How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Production of electricity Modern-day windmills harness the energy from thewind to generate electricity. Solar energy is harness from the sun to generateelectricity. Hydroelectric power is harness from fast-movingwater to generate electricity.
  86. 86. How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Production of electricity The wind, water and sun are known as renewableresources. Can be naturally restored or replenished Petroleum, natural gas and coal arenon-renewable resources
  87. 87. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Food and water supplies Different crops thrive under different climaticconditions
  88. 88. How Weather and Climate Affect Us• Food and water supplies Changes in the climate will affect crops andanimals e.g a drought will destroy crops and reduce watersupplies which can result in a famine and affectlivestock
  89. 89. How Weather and Climate Affect Us•Loss of lives and property Extreme weather conditions can destroy manylives and property e.g. floods, heat waves andhurricanes
  90. 90. Spend 3 minutes to answer these questions EXIT SLIP: Describe any 3 ways that weather and climate can affect us: Something that I still do not understand is :
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