Audience TheoryThe Cultural Studies Approach to Audience
Morley According to Morley, audiences aren’t just passively affected by media texts, they take an active role in reading a text. The approach tries to understand the intended effects of media texts, but also sees audiences as active, starting that different audiences adopt different standpoints in relation to the values expressed within a media text.
Preferred ReadingThe audience recognize the values being offered by the text and accepts them as natural and correct.
Negotiated ReadingThe audience recognize the values in the text as legitimate and accept them in general, but adapt their reading of the text to fit in with their experiences and interest.
Oppositional ReadingThe audience understands the values in the text, but disagrees with them and rejects them.
Example:• A preferred reading would be that I find this image acceptable of a beautiful woman and accept the image as it celebrates the attractiveness of women and how they can take on a manly role.• A negotiated reading may be that although I don’t like the way the image connotes masculinity in women, it still shows true beauty in women and how they can take on both roles.• An oppositional reading may be produced by someone concerned by the idea of women being connected with violence and with the image consisting of the woman holding a gun it may be seen as degrading and offensive to women.
Music video The audiences may read the values expressed in the music video in an oppositional way with the men with guns being violence towards women and can be offensive to women. To encourage the target audience to take a preferred reading we have made the idea of the music video to be sad but also uplifting with its uniqueness and abstract narrative. A woman that has been a victim of violence against men may take an oppositional reading as there are scenes which will connote violence towards the ballerina.