PoPulation
By Radhika
Introduction
• India & many other Countries are now passing
through the phase of Population explosion.
• This situation ha...
Demographic Transition
• Population problem is an inevitable result of
reproductive behavior of man.
• But theory of Demog...
First Stage
• In the first stage, both birth & death rates are high.
Hence, the population remains more or less stable.
• ...
Second Stage
• The second stage is characterized by rapid growth of
population because despite substantial reduction in th...
Cont.
• In this situation the population increases at an
alarming rate.
• In the 2nd stage generally birth rate stays arou...
Third Stage
• In the 3rd stage of demographic transition the birth rate
declines significantly & thus the rate of populati...
India’s Population:
Size & Growth Trends
Census Year

Population in Crores

Annual Growth Rate

1901

23.83

0.18

1911

2...
India’s Population the
FUTURE
1. Absolute level of Population
–
–

–
–

Tim Dyson has estimated the population in 2026 at ...
Cont.
5. Urbanization projections
6. Consequences for economic growth
7. Pressure on environment
8. Political & administra...
Causes for Rapid Growth of
Population
1.
2.
i.
ii.

Causes of decline in the Mortality Rate
Causes of high Birth Rate
Econ...
Cont.
1. Causes of decline in the Mortality Rate
I. Elimination of Famines
II. Control of epidemics & decline in the incid...
Cont.
2. Causes of high Birth Rate
I. Economic Factors
1. Predominance of agriculture
2. Slow urbanization process
3. Pove...
Cont.
II. Social Factors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Near universality of marriage
Lower age at the time of marriage
Religious & socia...
Remedies for Population
Explosion
• Three fold measures:
1.Economic Measures
2.Social Measures
3.The Family Planning Measu...
1. Economic Measures
I. Expansion of the industrial sector
II. Creation of employment opportunities

III. Equitable distri...
2. Social Measures
1. Education
2. Improving the Status of women
3. Raising the minimum age of Marriage
3.The Family Planning
Programme
1. Public Information Programme
2. Incentives & Disincentives
3. Family Planning Centers
4...
Population unit - 2 BBA
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Population unit - 2 BBA

  1. 1. PoPulation By Radhika
  2. 2. Introduction • India & many other Countries are now passing through the phase of Population explosion. • This situation has arisen because Economic development failed to maintain pace with population growth. • Rapid growth of population causes……. Current Population of Gujarat in 2013 is 62,700,003
  3. 3. Demographic Transition • Population problem is an inevitable result of reproductive behavior of man. • But theory of Demographic Transition rejects this view, it talks about population explosion is result of sudden spurt in the rate of population growth & a rapid fall in the mortality rate. • According to this theory every country passes through THREE stages of Demographic Transition.
  4. 4. First Stage • In the first stage, both birth & death rates are high. Hence, the population remains more or less stable. • In backward economies where agriculture is main occupation of the people… • Mass population deprived of even basic necessities. • A large number of people live on inadequate & unbalanced diet. • Under these circumstances medical facilities are limited this results in high mortality rate. • Lack of education, superstitions social evils are cause of high birth rate.
  5. 5. Second Stage • The second stage is characterized by rapid growth of population because despite substantial reduction in the mortality rate there is no corresponding decline the birth rate. • With beginning the process of development…. • Government will make special efforts for medical facilities. • These development generally bring down the mortality rates. • But the society might not have been changed.
  6. 6. Cont. • In this situation the population increases at an alarming rate. • In the 2nd stage generally birth rate stays around 35 to 40 per thousand where as death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. • Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 % or more.
  7. 7. Third Stage • In the 3rd stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly & thus the rate of population growth remains low. • A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion where industrialization, urbanization & education becomes widespread. • Industrialization • Migration • In this situation birth rate declines from 35-40 to 15-20 per thousand. • Once this happens to the country…..
  8. 8. India’s Population: Size & Growth Trends Census Year Population in Crores Annual Growth Rate 1901 23.83 0.18 1911 25.21 - 1921 25.13 - 1931 27.9 - 1941 31.8 - 1951 36.1 1.96 1961 43.91 2.22 1971 54.82 2.20 1981 68.33 2.14 1991 84.63 1.93 2001 102.90 1.60 2011 121.02 -
  9. 9. India’s Population the FUTURE 1. Absolute level of Population – – – – Tim Dyson has estimated the population in 2026 at about 142 crores The UN’s recent “medium” projection puts the level of population in 2051 at 165 crores & “high” projection puts it at 196.4 crores India may become the most populous country in the world It might be only the country ever to contain 200 crore people 2. Regional pattern 3. Fertility & Mortality 4. Double Burden of Disease
  10. 10. Cont. 5. Urbanization projections 6. Consequences for economic growth 7. Pressure on environment 8. Political & administrative challenges
  11. 11. Causes for Rapid Growth of Population 1. 2. i. ii. Causes of decline in the Mortality Rate Causes of high Birth Rate Economic Factors Social Factors
  12. 12. Cont. 1. Causes of decline in the Mortality Rate I. Elimination of Famines II. Control of epidemics & decline in the incidences of malaria & tuberculosis III. Other factors – Supply of pure drinking water – Sanitation & Hygiene – Education & expanded medical facilitates
  13. 13. Cont. 2. Causes of high Birth Rate I. Economic Factors 1. Predominance of agriculture 2. Slow urbanization process 3. Poverty
  14. 14. Cont. II. Social Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Near universality of marriage Lower age at the time of marriage Religious & social superstitions Joint family Lack of education
  15. 15. Remedies for Population Explosion • Three fold measures: 1.Economic Measures 2.Social Measures 3.The Family Planning Measures
  16. 16. 1. Economic Measures I. Expansion of the industrial sector II. Creation of employment opportunities III. Equitable distribution of income
  17. 17. 2. Social Measures 1. Education 2. Improving the Status of women 3. Raising the minimum age of Marriage
  18. 18. 3.The Family Planning Programme 1. Public Information Programme 2. Incentives & Disincentives 3. Family Planning Centers 4. Research
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