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Commonwealth Games and the scams related to that

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>An international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) , which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The host city is selected from across the Commonwealth, with eighteen cities in seven countries having hosted it. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>MOTTO : Humanity-Equality-Destiny </li></ul><ul><li>HEADQUARTERS : London, UK </li></ul><ul><li>COMMONWEALTH : Hon. Michael Fennell SECRETARIAT </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTORY <ul><li>Proposed by the Reverend Astley Cooper in 1891. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1928, Melville Marks Robinson of Canada was asked to organize the first British Empire Games. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Games were held in 1930 under the title of the British Empire Games in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>The event was renamed as the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954, the British Commonwealth Games in 1970, and gained its current title in 1978. </li></ul>
  5. 5. TRADITION <ul><li>From 1930 until 1950, the parade of nations was led by a single flag bearer carrying the Union Flag. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1958, the Queen's Baton Relay has taken place, in which athletes carry a baton from Buckingham Palace to the games opening ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>All other nations march in English alphabetical order, except that the first nation marching in the  Parade of Athletes  is the host nation of the previous games, and the host nation of the current games marches last. </li></ul><ul><li>Three national flags fly from the stadium on the poles that are used for medal ceremonies: Previous host nation, Current host nation, Next host nation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. FACTS <ul><li>There are currently 54 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and 71 teams participate in the Games. </li></ul><ul><li>The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>The Commonwealth is an association of independent sovereign states spread over every continent and ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>From Africa to Asia, the Commonwealth’s people make 30% of world’s population. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a unique, world class, multi sports event which is held once every 4 years. It is often referred to as the “FRIENDLY-GAMES” . </li></ul>
  7. 7. EDITIONS <ul><li>The first edition of the event was the 1930 British Empire Games and eleven nations took part. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule of the games was interrupted by World War II and the 1942 and 1946 Games were abandoned. </li></ul><ul><li>  The games were continued in 1950. </li></ul><ul><li>The event was briefly known as the British Commonwealth Games for the 1970 and 1974. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada, were the first to held the Games under the title of the “Commonwealth Games”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Total Commonwealth Games by Country Rank Country Region Editions hosted 1   Australia Oceania 4(1938, 1962, 1982, 2006) 1   Canada Americas 4(1930, 1954, 1978, 1994) 2   New Zealand Oceania 3 (1950, 1974, 1990) 2   Scotland Europe 3 (1970, 1986,  2014) 3   England Europe 2 (1934, 2002) 4   India Asia 1 (2010) 4   Jamaica Caribbean 1 (1966) 4   Malaysia Asia 1 (1998) 4   Wales Europe 1 (1958)
  9. 9. APPROVED SPORTS <ul><li>There are a total of 21 sports (with two multi-disciplinary sports) and a further 7 Para-sports which are approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation. </li></ul><ul><li>They are categorized into three types. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized sports </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. SPORTS PROGRAMME <ul><li>Each candidate city looking to host CWG must include a minimum of 10 core sports on their programme: Aquatics , Swimming , Badminton, Boxing{men only} Hockey, Lawn bowls, Netball {women only} Rugby 7s{men only} Squash and Weight lifting. </li></ul><ul><li>They can then include up to an additional 7 from a list of optional sports and additional 3 from listed optional PARA sports , but not exceeding 15 events </li></ul>
  11. 11. APPROVED SPORTS LIST Sport Type Archery Optional Athletics Core Badminton Core Basketball Optional Billiards Recognised Boxing Core Canoeing Recognised Cricket Recognised Cycling Optional Diving Optional Fencing Recognised Golf Recognised
  12. 12. CONT… Sport Type Gymnastics(Artistic and Rhythmic) Optional Handball Recognised Hockey Core Judo Optional Lawn bowls Core Life saving Recognised Netball Core Rowing Optional Rugby sevens Core Sailing Recognised Shooting Optional
  13. 13. CONT… Sport Type Softball Recognised Squash Core Swimming Core Synchronized swimming Optional Table tennis Optional Taekwondo Optional Tennis Optional Tenpin bowling Recognised Triathlon Optional Volleyball Recognised Weightlifting Core Wrestling Optional
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games. </li></ul><ul><li>Held in Delhi (India) from 3 to 14 October 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Nations : 71 </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes : 6081 </li></ul><ul><li>Events : 272 Events in 21Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Motto : Come Out and Play </li></ul><ul><li>Official Mascot : Shera </li></ul><ul><li>Official Song : Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto </li></ul><ul><li>Main Stadium : Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Several concerns and controversies surfaced before the start of the game </li></ul><ul><li>All members of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the event except Fiji and Tokelau </li></ul><ul><li>Officially the games were opened by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and President of India Pratibha Patil </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes oath was given by Mr. Abhinav Bindra </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Sushil Kumar was the Queen’s Baton final Runner. </li></ul>
  17. 17. BIDDING <ul><li>There were two principal bidders for the 2010 CWG’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delhi, India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delhi won the bid by a margin of 46 votes to 22. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s bid motto was – </li></ul><ul><li>“ NEW FRONTIERS AND FRIENDSHIPS.” </li></ul><ul><li>India promised that it would provide US$ 100,000 to each participating country along with tickets, boarding, lodging and transport. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ORGANISING COMMITTEE <ul><li>CEO - Mr. Jarnail Singh (Former Secretary of Govt. of India) </li></ul><ul><li>HEAD OF THE - Mr. Suresh Kalmadi (Indian Olympic </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITTEE Association President) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Club of India (BCI) was formed through the partnership of the organizing committee, CII and the FICCI. </li></ul><ul><li>BCI was formed to both market the Games and promote Indian business interests internationally. </li></ul>
  19. 19. COST OF GAMES <ul><li>The initial total budget estimated by the IOA in 2003 for hosting the Games was  1,620 crore  (US$ 351.54 million). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010 it escalated to 11,500 crore  (US$2.5 billion). </li></ul><ul><li>2010 Commonwealth Games are reportedly the most expensive Commonwealth Games ever. </li></ul>
  20. 20. TRANSPORT <ul><li>ROAD - A four-lane flyway, 2.2 km stretch from Lodhi Road to trans-Yamuna, linking the Games Village to the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium was constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>RAIL - Delhi Metro had been expanded to accommodate more people.   </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>AIR - Indira Gandhi International Airport has been modernized, expanded, and upgraded and connected to the city via a six-line expressway. </li></ul>
  22. 22. GREEN GAMES <ul><li>Delhi 2010 CWG’s were recognized as the first ever “Green Games”. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizers signed a MoU with the United Nations Environment Program to take the environment into consideration when constructing and renovating venues. </li></ul>
  23. 23. OTHER PREPARATIONS <ul><li>Delhi government has implemented a program to teach English to key workers for serving tourists. </li></ul><ul><li>Took initiative to increase power production from 4,500 MW to 7,000 MW to end chronic power cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Offered free accommodation for all athletes. </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale construction resulted in the demolition of hundreds of homes and displacement of city dwellers. </li></ul>
  24. 24. QUEEN’S BATON RELAY <ul><li>Relay began when the baton left Buckingham </li></ul><ul><li>Palace on 29th October 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>It arrived at the 2010 Games opening </li></ul><ul><li>ceremony on 3rd October 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>The baton was designed by Michael Foley </li></ul><ul><li>and has a number of features including- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to capture images and sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Positioning System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text messaging capability </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. OPENING CEREMONY <ul><li>The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the  Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium on 3 rd October. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and President of India Pratibha Patil officially declared the Games open. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Manmohan Singh also attended the opening ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>It was praised throughout the world as &quot;dazzling&quot; and &quot;a moment of pride for India&quot; </li></ul>
  26. 26. VENUES <ul><li>Events took place at 12 competition venues </li></ul><ul><li>CWG’s village provided accommodation and training for athletes of the games. </li></ul>
  27. 27. SPORTS <ul><li>There were 272 events in 21 disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Kabaddi was demonstration sport at the games. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizers removed basketball and cricket. </li></ul><ul><li>Archery, Tennis and Wrestling were included. </li></ul>
  28. 28. MEDAL TABLE Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total 1   Australia 74 55 48 177 2   India 38 27 36 101 3   England 37 59 46 142 4   Canada 26 17 32 75 5   South Africa 12 11 10 33 6   Kenya 12 11 9 32 7   Malaysia 12 10 13 35 8   Singapore 11 11 9 31 9   Nigeria 11 10 14 35 10   Scotland 9 10 7 26 Total 272 274 282 828
  29. 29. CLOSING CEREMONY <ul><li>Games closed on 14 th October . </li></ul><ul><li>Performers from India and Scotland participated in it. </li></ul><ul><li>CWG’s flag was handed over to representatives of Glasgow, Scotland which will host 20 th CWG’s. </li></ul>
  30. 30. CONCERNS AND CONTROVERSIES <ul><li>Several concerns were raised over the preparations of the Games. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive budget overruns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of floods in Delhi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructural compromise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor living conditions at the CWG Village. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delays in construction of the main Games venues.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The withdrawal of prominent athletes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread corruption by officials of the Games Organizing Committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of a terrorist attack by militants. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. CONCERNS AND CONTROVERSIES <ul><li>Games were criticized by several prominent Indian politicians and social activists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I will be unhappy if the Commonwealth Games are successful” - Mani Shanker Aiyar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miloon Kothari questioned the justification of spending millions of dollars on a 12-day sports event “when 46% of India's children and 55% of women are malnourished”. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. CONCERNS AND CONTROVERSIES <ul><li>Indian media alleged that Games Organizing Committee officials were involved in serious corruptions. </li></ul><ul><li>T S Darbari and Sanjay Mahendroo were suspended on 5 th August 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Tresurer Anil Khanna resigned from the post. </li></ul><ul><li>UK Newspaper showed Child Labor. </li></ul><ul><li>It was said that more rent was paid for items which could have purchased cheaply. </li></ul>
  33. 33. SOCIO ECONOMIC CONCERNS <ul><li>FINANCIAL COSTS </li></ul><ul><li>Miloon Kothari asked that when one in three Indians lives below the poverty line and 40% of the hungry live in India, when 46% of India's children and 55% of women are malnourished, does spending billions of dollars on a 12-day sports event build national pride or is it a matter of national shame ? </li></ul><ul><li>Mani Shankar Aiyar commented that the Games are &quot;irrelevant to the common man&quot; and criticized the Indian government for sanctioning billions of dollars for the Games. </li></ul><ul><li>Azim Premji called the 2010 Commonwealth Games a &quot;drain on public funds&quot; and said that hosting the high-expense Games in India is not justified as the country had more important priorities such as education, infrastructure and public health </li></ul>
  34. 34. SOCIO ECONOMIC CONCERNS <ul><li>SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 400,000 people from three large slum clusters in Delhi have been relocated since 2004.  </li></ul><ul><li>2010 Commonwealth Games have resulted in &quot;an unprecedented increase in the degree, frequency and scale of indiscriminate evictions without proper resettlement” </li></ul><ul><li>No tolerance zones  for beggars are enforced in Delhi, and the city has arbitrarily arrested homeless citizens under the &quot;Bombay Prevention of Begging Act 1959&quot;. </li></ul>
  35. 35. SOCIO ECONOMIC CONCERNS <ul><li>LABOUR LAWS VIOLATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Independent investigations have discovered more than 70 cases where workers have died in accidents at construction sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 50 construction workers have died in the past two years while employed on Games projects. </li></ul><ul><li>It was said that wages paid to the workers is less than the minimum wages stipulated by Delhi state. </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>CNN has broadcast evidence showing children, as young as seven, being used in the construction of the game venues. </li></ul><ul><li>Siddharth Kara (who provided CNN with the evidence) said that he documented 14 cases of child labor within a few days. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  36. 36. ORGANISATIONAL FAILURE <ul><li>VIGILANCE-RELATED IRREGULARITIES AND OVER-INVOICING </li></ul><ul><li>The  Central Vigilance Commission released a report showing irregularities in up to 14 CWG projects. </li></ul><ul><li>There are allegations of widespread corruption in various aspects of organising the games including procurement and awarding contracts for constructing the game venues. </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet paper rolls valued at $2 were costed at $80, $2 soap dispensers at $60, $98 mirrors at $220, $11,830 altitude training simulators at $250,190. </li></ul>
  37. 37. ORGANISATIONAL FAILURE <ul><li>On 5th Aug 2010 joint director T S Darbari and Deputy Director General Sanjay Mahendroo were suspended because of financial irregularities. </li></ul><ul><li>Treasurer Anil Khanna resigned from the post in the wake of allegations that his son's firm had secured a contract for laying synthetic courts at a tennis stadium. </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATION DELAYS </li></ul><ul><li>In September 2009, CGF chief Mike Fennell reported that the games were at risk of falling behind schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>  A report by the Indian Government found that construction work on 13 out of the 19 sports venues was behind schedule.  </li></ul>
  38. 38. ORGANISATIONAL FAILURE <ul><li>All CWG projects were to be completed by May 2009 and the last year should have been kept for trial runs whereas the first stadium was handed over for trial runs in July 2010 only. </li></ul><ul><li>POOR TICKET SALES AND ATTENDANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Games saw extremely poor ticket sales, with many venues near empty. </li></ul><ul><li>CWGs chief Mike Fennell admitted that many venues had been nearly empty on the opening day of the Games. </li></ul>
  39. 39. ORGANISATIONAL FAILURE <ul><li>Suresh Kalmadi was booed by spectators at the start of his welcome speech to 60,000 spectators.  </li></ul><ul><li>He further came under strain when he &quot;thanked&quot; the late  Princess Diana  for attending the opening ceremony of the games. </li></ul><ul><li>RACISM ALLEGATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>African countries have complained that they are getting second-class treatment from the Games organisers. </li></ul>
  40. 40. SAFETY AND SECURITY CONCERNS <ul><li>INFRASTRUCTURAL COMPROMISE </li></ul><ul><li>On 21 September 2010, a footbridge under construction for the Games near the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium collapsed, injuring at least 23 people, mainly workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress was stopped and facilities such as wireless internet, fitted toilets and plumbing were lacking. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian bantamweight boxer Akhil Kumar's bed in the Games village collapsed when he sat on it. </li></ul><ul><li>On 27 September 2010, a South African athlete reported that a snake was present in his room. </li></ul><ul><li>On the 7th of October, a large scoreboard crashed to the ground at the rugby venue. </li></ul>
  41. 41. SAFETY AND SECURITY CONCERNS <ul><li>TERROR THREATS </li></ul><ul><li>On 19 September 2010, unknown gunmen on a motorbike opened fire on a tourist bus outside the Jama Masjid mosque in Delhi.  </li></ul><ul><li>Two hours later, a Maruti car exploded in the vicinity. </li></ul><ul><li>This raised questions regarding the safety of athletes during the Commonwealth Games. </li></ul><ul><li>FEAR OF DENGUE OUTBREAK </li></ul><ul><li>The heaviest monsoon rains in 15 years raised concerns over increased levels of mosquito-borne disease in Delhi. </li></ul>
  42. 42. BOYCOTT <ul><li>CALLS FOR BOYCOTT </li></ul><ul><li>Amid allegations of corruption, shoddy construction work at venues and security concerns for participating athletes, the 2010 Commonwealth games has faced numerous boycott calls from individuals in India, England and Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Spin bowler Bishan Singh Bedi and bestselling Indian author Chetan Bhagat also urged people to boycott the games. </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER WITHDRAWALS </li></ul><ul><li>Number of athletes including Jamaican world record holder Usain Bolt  and his predecessor  Asafa Powell  pulled out of the event. </li></ul>
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