Talking Point

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WEDNESDAY APRIL 24th
Five years of research in nightclubs: implications for policy and practice
Associate Professor Peter G. Miller, Principal Research Fellow, Commissioning Editor Addiction
School of Psychology, Deakin University.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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Talking Point

  1. 1. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchA/Prof Peter Miller1 School of Psychology, Deakin University2 National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, UK3 NDRI, Curtin University4 Commissioning Editor, Addiction5 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Ontario, CanadaThe projects were funded by the National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund,which is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. "
  2. 2. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•••
  3. 3. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•––––––––––––––•–––––––––––––
  4. 4. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research
  5. 5. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchIntervention (voluntary) Police DateLiquor Accord in various forms 1991Safe City CCTV network 2004Dry zones 2006Safe Taxi Rank Jan 2005Nightlife 1 (increased policing, police working with licensees) Jan 2007Geelong night watch radio program April 2007ID scanners Dec 2007Nightlife 2 (Linking of scanners, NWRP, CCTV – more activity) Jan 2009Nightrider bus Nov 2009Nightlife 3 (Renewed activity – change in focus to fines) early 2010Increased Fines and focus – State government Aug 2010Safer streets taskforce / Operation Razon
  6. 6. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchTrading restrictions Reduced trading hours: all premises are prohibited from trading later than 3.30am Lock-out: patrons must be prohibited from entering after 1.30amAlcoholic drink restrictions (after 10pm) No shots No mixed drinks with more than 30mLs of alcohol No RTD (ready to drink) drinks with an alcohol by volume greater than 5% alcohol Not more than 4 drinks may be served to any patron at the one timeResponsible service of alcohol actions Free water stations on all bar service areas Responsible Service of Alcohol Marshall from 11pm until closure (staff member withthe sole responsibility of supervising RSA practices and consumption). No stockpiling drinks/more than 2 unconsumed drink Ceasing the sale and supply of alcohol at least 30 minutes prior to closing time.
  7. 7. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•••
  8. 8. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchItem Total%(693)% Reside in each city % Patron of premises in the last yearGeelong(n=318)(95% CI)Newcastle(n=376)(95% CI)P<.01Patron(n=247)(95% CI)Non-patron(N=446)(95% CI)P<.01Feel very unsafe/unsafe walkingalone in the precinct area afterdark:21.5 21.8[16.3-28.5]21.3[16-27.6]- 36.6[28.1-46.1]13.3[9.8-17.7]<0.001Increasing penalties forpremises and staff whoneglect to serve alcoholresponsibly87.2 88.5[82.9-92.3]86.2[80.4-90.4]NS 87.2[80-92.1]87.2[82.4-90.8]NSPolice asking intoxicatedoffenders location of theirlast drink, and warningpremises77.3 79.8[73.3-85]75.3[68.6-80.9]NS 70.8[61.8-78.4]80.9[75.7-85.2]0.008
  9. 9. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchStrategy Total %(693)% Reside in each city % Patron of premises in the lastyearGeelong(n=318)95% CINewcastle(n=376)95% CIP<.01Patron(n=247)95% CINon-patron(n=446)95% CIP<.011. Restrict alcohol accessClosing all late-night licensed premises earlier 71.1 71.5[64.7-77.6]70.7[64.3-76.7]NS 55.1[46.6-63.7]79.8[74.5-84.2]<0.001If supported, appropriate closing time: Before 12am 21 11.7[8.1-16.8]28.5[22.9-35.7]<0.001 8.5[5.3-14.4]27.7[22.3-34.1]<0.001 12.01am to 1am 20.7 14[9.9-19.6]26.1[20.3-33.2]<0.001 15.3[10.1-22.8]23.6[18.7-29.5]NS 1.01am to 2am 25.1 29.3[22.9-36.7]21.8[16.7-28.1]NS 24.6[17.8-33.3]25.4[20.4-31.3]NS 2.01am to 3am 23 31.9[25-39.5]15.9[11.5-21.5]<0.001 32.6[24.5-41.9]17.9[13.7-23]<0.001 After 3am 8.1 11.8[7.6-17.5]5.1[2.8-8.7]<0.001 16.7[10.7-24.8]3.4[1.9-6.1]<0.001Reducing trading hours of premises located inhigh-risk areas79.2 78.2[71.7-83.7]80.1[74-85.1]NS 65[55.9-73.3]87[82.5-90.5]<0.001Stricter restrictions on alcohol discounts andpromotions71.9 72.1[65.1-78.3]71.8[65.1-77.8]NS 65[56-73.2]75.7[70.1-80.6]NS
  10. 10. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••
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  13. 13. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•––Self-rated intoxication (mean) over time• Patron interviews showed changes in cultureo declining levels of pre-drinking and peoplegoing out earlier
  14. 14. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•••–––Can’t rely on market forces
  15. 15. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••––•––
  16. 16. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••
  17. 17. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••••–
  18. 18. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•Intervention β t1. Night Watch Radio Program .007 .082. ID-scanners .016 .143. Just Think Campaign .433 4.7*4. Operation Nightlife -.006 -.10
  19. 19. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchItem Geelong Newcastle TotalStandard drinks consumed pre‘going out’- 0- 1-5- 6-10- 11+27.9%38.7%24.2%9.1%37.1%37.8%19.1%5.9%32.8%38.2%21.5%7.4%Why do you Pre-drink- Price 34.8% 35.3% 35.1%Involved in fight 15.7 15.3 15.5How often have you seen police tonight?- never- once- twice- a few times58.0%23.2%8.5%6.0%53.1%26.1%9.9%8.0%55.4%24.7%9.2%7.1%χ2=9.372,p=.00230%
  20. 20. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•–––•
  21. 21. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•••••
  22. 22. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•••••
  23. 23. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchItem Geelong Newcastle TotalOther drug use (any) 8.5% 5.7% 7.0%- Methamphetamine- Cannabis- Speed- Ecstasy- Refuse to tell (indicated druguse)2.7%2.3%1.4%0.5%1.1%1.2%1.9%1.3%0.4%1.2%1.9%2.1%1.3%0.5%1.1%• Those who reported using drugs were significantly more likely toreport being in a fight (χ2=39.381, p<0.000).• 12.6% of people who reported other drug use had been in a fight,• whereas only 5.6 percent of those that did not report drug usehad been in a fight.
  24. 24. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••••••••
  25. 25. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research–––––
  26. 26. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••••
  27. 27. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•–••••• 898 venue observations• 68 venues• Teams of 2-3• Hourly observations• Incident observations• 1 venue per team per night
  28. 28. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchMean BAC level by time of day for each site
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  31. 31. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•••••••••
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  33. 33. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••
  34. 34. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research• 23% of participants consumed energy drinks that night• 14.6 % combined energy drinks with alcohol.• Males and females similar.Participants who consumed energy drinks withalcohol :• consumed significantly more energy drinks• consumed significantly more alcohol• significantly more likely to report illicit drug use
  35. 35. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•––––––Dailyrecommendedlimit
  36. 36. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••Drug TOTALn %Ecstasy 231 3Cannabis 196 3Methamphetamine 179 3Cocaine 97 1Pharmaceuticalstimulants 30 <1LSD 15 <1Opiates 10 <1Benzodiazepines 8 <1GHB 8 <1Mephedrone 6 <1Ketamine 5 <1Other 32 1ANY 1,072 16••••
  37. 37. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•––––––
  38. 38. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchLargemainstreampubBar Nightclub TotalTOTAL n 223 391 284 898% of Total 25 44 32 100
  39. 39. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research
  40. 40. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing ResearchFigure 28 Patron intoxication trends by hour:high visible intoxicationlow visible intoxication
  41. 41. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research
  42. 42. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research••••••
  43. 43. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research• Pre-drinking is a major – and growing – problem withvery few viable approaches excluding price• Illicit drug use predicts greater harm, but a minorityreport drug use• People who use energy drinks are typically higher risknightlife patrons who experience significantly moreharm, and exceed safe ED limits early night whileintoxicated• RSA is failing demonstrably and needs far greaterenforcement• We need more research on effective policing practises
  44. 44. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research1. Trading hour restrictions, applied consistently across regions to ensurebusinesses can compete on a level playing field.2. An integrated strategy with a clearly-defined enforcement pyramid.3. Bans on bulk-buys, two-for-one offers and other promotions based on pricedeserve consideration as policy responses to reducing heavy episodicdrinking4. Levies on each unit of alcohol sold by packaged liquor outlets to recover costsassociated with alcohol5. For every alcohol advertisement, a government-produced public healthadvertisement immediately follows which is funded via a levy on all sales byalcohol producers informing the public of the harms associated with drinkingand addressing social norms around intoxication.6. Policy trials of banning energy drink sales after 10pm7. Public education campaigns should be trialled about the potential dangers ofmixing alcohol and energy drinks8. Funded trials of interventions such as the ‘clubs against drugs’ program
  45. 45. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research•–•–•–•
  46. 46. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research

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