Mathematics EducationConstructivismInstructionIndividual learningBehaviorismStimulusReinforcementStandardsEstimationNumber Sense
Spatial SensePattern and RelationshipMathematical StructureBody of knowledgeResponsibilityCareerProfessional StandardsMathematical Pedagogy
Our task is to determine whichmethod will be best to themathematical teaching of eachstudent and most effecting
Constructivism Say that children learn effectively through interactions with experiences in their natural environment .
Steffe and Killion (1986) say :mathematics teaching consistprimerly of mathematicalinteractions between a teacherand children
this theory does not focus onthe action of the teacher orthe learner but on theinteractions between the two .
Constructivism focuses onstudent – centered instruction .The student plays a major role inthe decision-making process aswhat , when and how learning isto occur .
Behaviorism connections describe the linkbetween stimuli and responsesthat can be initiated throughreinforcement or repeated use ofthe stimuli .
Behaviorism has been the dominantstrategy for teaching mathematics inthe U.S.A for many years and ittreats mathematics as a collection ofskills , learn all the skill and learnMathematics .
Behaviorism and Constructivism generate aquestion about which is best way to teachmathematics : give the student theinformation or encourage them to use thevarious curriculum materials and teachersupport to actively discover the information incontext through learning activity ? this mean, what the best way direct or indirectinstruction ?
Although there are theories discuss thelearning but often of them are created outof observation , the real world of theclassroom often does not resemble thetheory environment and put the theory topractice is not simple .
The standardsSome member of the mathematicscommunity realized in the mid-1980s that “business as usual “ would not be effectivefor future mathematics teaching andlearning .NCTM took the lead and publishedCurriculum and Evaluation Standards forSchool Mathematics in 1989 .
The Standards focus on five general goals are:1) Learn to value mathematics .2) Develop confidence in their ability to use mathematics .3) Become problem solvers , not answer finders .4) Learn to communicate mathematically.5) Know how to reason mathematically
The additional standards for grades k-4: - Number sense and numeration . Estimation . Concepts of whole number operations Whole-number computation .
Geometry and spatial sense .Measurement .Statistics and probabilityFractions and decimals