Let us do something we want to do</li></ul>Idea to Remember: In Public Relations behavior is the final evaluation.<br />
Behavioral Public Relations Model(Jackson 1990)<br />
Situational Behavioral Publics<br /><ul><li>All-issue: publics that are active on any and all issues.
Apathetic: publics that are inactive and disinterested.
Single-issue: publics that are active on one or a few issues.
Hot-issue: publics that are bandwagon jumpers.</li></ul>Idea to Remember: Psychographics may sometime be of more help than demographics when trying to target a public, although psychographics can be of limited worth when you are trying to segment publics by issue. <br />
What is Public Opinion?<br /> <br />-Definition: Collection of beliefs, attitudes, and opinions expressed by the majority of individuals within a particular group or public about an issue or topic of interest to them.<br />-Public opinion is collective, not just what one person thinks, it is what the collective whole thinks.<br />-The opinion is identified with a certain public, not just “whoever” is out there. <br />-The topic at hand must hold a particular interest to the individuals within the group, or it must involve their self interest.<br />
Opinion Formation<br />Frame of reference is a collection of our past experience, knowledge, culture, and environment<br />We establish our own personal beliefs, values, and attitudes within our frame of reference<br />Public opinion focuses more on expected results than in methods to achieve those results<br />The sleeper effect is an individuals fear of social rejection or isolation which may cause them to not verbalize opinions they perceive to be in the minority<br />
Measuring Public Opinion<br />Majority opinion is not stable, it changes depending on circumstances<br />Any measure of public opinion is never absolutely accurate <br />Three tips: <br />honest is the best policy<br />getting your message out first puts you in control <br />know your customer<br />Opinions do not necessarily directly lead to behavior<br />Companies measure public opinion as a foundation for persuasive efforts<br />The most typical methods for measuring public opinion is through survey research, personal interviews, and focus groups <br />
<ul><li> Perception is an unpredictable phenomenon, largely because it is so individually determined.
Selective Perception: the human function of choosing only to perceive a select amount of the millions of stimuli that one is exposed to on a daily basis
Selective Retention: the human function of choosing only to retain only a few of the hundreds of stimuli that one has chosen to perceive
Stereotypes are often useful in helping us deal with the world around us, but they become dangerous when they prevent us from perceiving things as they really are, and when they create an environment in which people are denied the opportunity to reach their potential.
There are three motives for media use: environment surveillance, environmental diversions, and environmental interaction.
A basic problem with user-driven access to information (such as blogs and social media sites) is the variable reliability of the information. </li></ul>The Phenomenon of Perception<br />
Attitudes, Values, & Beliefs<br />Our frame of reference and everyday life experiences make up our values and beliefs.<br />Beliefs: these are fundamental building blocks of attitudes. <br />Some beliefs are more central to a person’s cognitive system than others. <br /> <br />These core beliefs or values are well established and relatively stable<br /> <br /><ul><li>Beliefs are difficult to change because they are important to the individual and their belief system.
And they function as “life guides” which determine our daily behavior and actions towards any situation.</li></li></ul><li>There are two types of attitudes:<br />Attitudes towards objects<br />Attitudes toward situation <br /><ul><li>The combination of these attitudes will determine an individual’s behavior in any given situation.
Communication professionals must tap into their core beliefs and attitudes to be successful
They also mush sometimes Attempt to change and motivate people to change their beliefs and attitudes</li></ul>Attitudes<br />Collections of beliefs organized around a focal point (EX: an issue, a person, or an event) make up an attitude.<br />
Ways to Change Beliefs…<br /><ul><li>Try to tap into a value and base the alteration of peripheral beliefs on a central belief
Motivate people to change the depth of their belief to help build a foundation for attitude change
The balance or cogitative consistency theories
This study shows that people are comfortable when their beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and behaviors are consistent.
If these are not consistent people tend to search for new elements
The process of changing the cognitive elements is in the process of persuasion.</li></ul>Idea to Remember: People behave in their own self-interest, according to their own beliefs and attitudes.<br />
The Powerful Influence of Conformity<br />The pressure to be accepted into certain social groups is often a motivator even when attitudes and opinions have not been altered through persuasive communication. <br /><ul><li>An opinion leader is someone that is often looked to for advice and counsel because they typically have more knowledge or information about the issue in question.
An opinion leader could be anyone from an authority figure to your next door neighbor.
The most effective opinion leaders are peers, and the Internet is the great equalizer for peer-to-peer communication.</li></ul>Agenda-setting theory contends that mass media do not tell people what to think, rather they tell people what to think about.<br />Agenda-setting studies have shown that people select what they pay attention to for the purpose of reinforcing the decisions they've already made.<br />
Persuasive Appeals<br />Idea to Remember: Aristotle’s ideas of logos, pathos, and ethos… or logical argument, emotional appeal, and source credibility.<br /><ul><li>Self-Interest-
Convince the public that the desired behavior is in their best interest
Subversive rhetoric</li></ul>Idea to Remember: The line between propaganda devices and ethical persuasion is very thin. It is important to be aware of your actions and not attempt to manipulate publics.<br />
Engaging Public Ethically<br />Simply steer away from using propaganda and be honest with your respective publics. Advocacy is ethical when done right.<br />Guidelines for Ethical Persuasion:<br /><ul><li>Do not use fabricated, distorted, or irrelevant evidence or reasoning, or diversionary tactics
Do not deceive or mislead your audience or conceal your purpose
Do not oversimplify complex issues or minimize detrimental effects
Do not engage in advocacy for something or someone you do not trust or believe in personally</li></li></ul><li>DISCUSSION<br />