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  • 1. 11 1 Roger Lukas23 3 Jing-Jia Luo4 1 11JAMSTEC-RIGC, Yokosuka, Japan,2University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, USA,3JAMSTEC-ESC Yokohama, Japan4JAMSTEC-RIGC, now at Bureau of Meteorology/Australian GovernmentJpGu 2012 22
  • 2. - -e.g., Lukas1988;Ueki et al. 2003)ISST →(e.g., Lindzen and Nigram 1987; Eisenman et al. 2005; Gebbie et al. 2007)→ SST
  • 3. - -(1) (2)
  • 4. ≈≈≈- -#* CTD R/V* TMI)* QuickSCATnot shown here#* OFES- 0.1 ° x 0.1 °- 3- MOM3,- QuikSCAT NCEP/NCAR (1999-2004)Masumoto et al. 2010
  • 5. ≈≈≈- -2002/03
  • 6. -Background- Coastal upwelling along Papua New GuineaCoastal upwelling along Papua New Guinea (New Guinea)→Generating relatively cool SSTWestern equatorial PacifcExistence of New Guinea coastalupwellinge.g., Lukas1988; Ueki et al. 2003)Purpose of the present study# To check existence of New Guinea coastal upwelling before onset of El Nino# To explore a mechanism of SST cooling related to New Guinea coastal upwellingNewGuineaPacific warm poolWesterly windBismarck Sea
  • 7. 2.7˚S EQCTD282002/03CTD80m20mCTD2002/03TMI-SSTSSTHasegawa et al. 2009 JO
  • 8. 2001 12 22→(Lukas1988; Webster & Lukas 1992)SST ( ) & SSW 2001 12 22
  • 9. TMI-SST20012SST :( )SSTHasegawa et al. 2009 JO
  • 10. SSTSST )SST →SST→ SLP→(e.g., Kessler&Kleeman 2000)(m/s:140-160E)SST:( )(150-160E minus 140-150E)SST:SSTHasegawa et al. 2009 JO2001
  • 11. OFES
  • 12. OFES SST/OFES SSTHasegawa et al. 2011 JPO1999-2004&Alongshore163%
  • 13. ●●
  • 14. : (SINTEX-F2)150[ 0.5°x0.5°; SINTEX-F (Luo et al. 2010)](C): #23540519SSTSST (model time; 62 )SST
  • 15. : (iRAM)SST(C): #23540519
  • 16. The OFES hindcast experiments were conducted at the Earth Simulator Centerwith the support of JAMSTEC.The cruise of the R/V Kaiyo (KY0111) was conducted under the Tropical Ocean ClimateStudy (TOCS) of JAMSTEC.Published paper concerning this study:Hasegawa, T., K. Ando, K. Mizuno, and R. Lukas (2009):“Coastal upwelling along north coast of Papua New Guinea and SST cooling over Pacific warm pool:A case study of 2002/03 El Nino”, Journal of Oceanography, vol. 65, 817-833.Hasegawa, T., K. Ando, K. Mizuno, R. Lukas, B. Taguchi, and H. Sasaki (2010):“Coastal upwelling along the north coast of Papua New Guinea and El Nino events during 1981-2005”,Ocean Dynamics, vol. 60, 1255-1269.Hasegawa, T., K. Ando, and H. Sasaki (2011):“Cold water flow and upper-ocean currents in the Bismarck Sea from December 2001 to January 2002”,Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 41, 827-834.
  • 17. Appendix
  • 18. Observation:Showing New Guinea coastal upwelling and related cool SSTin the late of 2001 to early 2002 prior to 2002/03 El Nino event.However, observational data are limited:# High resolution satellite data is obtained for 2000s# Not many current velocity observation by moorings, R/Vs, etc.Detail of surface current variations?High resolution OGCM hindcast# OFES QuikSCAT-run hindcast
  • 19. fig07-map-snapshot-tmi-tot-uwin-tot-vwin-tot-22dec2001-ver2QuikSCATSurface wind22DEC2001NCEP1Surface wind22DEC2001
  • 20. Heat balance in the south EQ in the Bismarck SeaHeat balance during coastal upwelling period (Dec 2001-Jan 2002)(BOX: 0 m to 30.8 m; similar current patterns are found in these depths)Upwelled cool water transported equatorwards from coastal areaby the northeastward current can havelarge cooling effect upon south EQ Pacific in the Bismark SeaBismarck SeaNew GuineaHasegawa et al. 2011 JPOResidual: +0.057( )Western Pacific: Relatively small SST change has a strong effect on climate(Palmer and Mansfield 1984; Goddard et al. 2009 )
  • 21. OFES: NCEP/NCAR forcing during 1981-2005Masumoto et al. 2004, Sasaki et al. 2008)Six El Nino events occur with coastal upwelling for 1981-2005Composite maps of SST (color shade) and surface currents (arrows) for six New Guinea upwellingsprior to six El Nino onsets during 1981-2005Hasegawa et al. 2010 OD30 days before zero day15 days before zero dayZero day (day of coldest SST)of New Guinea upwelling
  • 22. OFES-QuikSCAT run (DEC2001-JAN2002) :comparison to observationSST&SSHA: OFES vs ObsSurface current:SADCP vs OFESHasegawa et al. 2011 JPOOFES SSHAAltimeterSSHAOFES SSTTMI SSTOFES QuikSCAT run(Without any uning for Bismarck Sea)QuikSCATRED: Observation (Shipboard ADCP)BLUE: OFES
  • 23. OFES-QuikSCAT run (DEC2001-JAN2002) :comparison to observationSST&SSHA: OFES vs Obs (Average: DEC2001-JAN2002)Hasegawa et al. 2011 JPOOFES SSHAAltimeterSSHAOFES SSTTMI SSTSimilar patternOFES : Without any uning for Bismarck Sea
  • 24. Nino-3.4 index (OFES & Obs)Hasegawa et al. 2010 ODOFES well represent six El Nino events(1982, 1986, 1991, 1997, 2002, and 2005)The six events are used for composite analysisOFESObservation (Obs: OI-SST)
  • 25. NOAA OI-SST1981121997320011219801982/831986/861991/911997/922002/0319801982/831986/871991/921997/982002/035 3
  • 26. Uwin(raw)Vwin(raw)( & 7 )CTD3 7(e.g., Niller and Kraus 1977; Lukas 1988).5S-3S, 140E-145E2002/03SST
  • 27. Uwin(raw)Vwin(raw)( & 7 )CTD3 7(e.g., Niller and Kraus 1977; Lukas 1988).5S-3S, 140E-145E2002/03SST
  • 28. -Summary and discussion-zonal heat advectionSST coolingCase study for New Guinea coastal upwelling, related surface currents andSST cooling, prior to the onset of the 2002/03 El Nino, using observation & OFEShindcast, and long-term analysis using OFES NCEP/NCAR runNew Guineapositive zonal gradient of SST& strong westerly surface windComplicated surface currents in the Bismarck Sea can contribute to SST coolingin the south part of the equatorial western PacificSurface currentsBefore onset of El Nino