Art Name: The Man in the Bowler HatDate Created: 1964Medium: Oil on Canvas
Art Name: Hector and AndromacheDate Created: 1917Medium: Oil on Canvas Size: Collection: Fondazione Gianni Mattioli
Art Name: Sun TableDate Created: 1936Medium: Oil on panelSize: 60cm x 46cmCollection: Boymans-vanBeuningen Museum, Rotterdam
Giorgio de Chirico, Portrait prémonitoire de Guillaume Apollinaire (Premonitory Portrait of Guillaume Apollinaire), 1914 Oil on canvas 81.5 x 65 cm
Salvador Dalí, Lion, Cheval, Dormeuse invisibles, 1930 Oil on canvas 50.20 x 65.20 cm
Max Ernst, Ubu Imperator, 1923 Oil on canvas 81 x 65 cm Automatic Drawing as well as Automatic Painting , the hand is allowed to move 'randomly' across the paper. In applying chance and accident to mark-making, drawing is to a large extent freed of rational control. Hence the drawing produced may be attributed in part to the subconscious and may reveal something of the psyche, which would otherwise be repressed. Frottage is a production developed by Max Ernst in which one takes a pencil or other drawing tool and makes a &quot;rubbing&quot; over a textured surface. Exquisite Corpse is a method by which a collection of words or images are collectively assembled. It is based on an old parlour game called consequences in which players wrote in turn on a sheet of paper, folded it to conceal part of the writing, and then passed it to the next player for a further contribution.
René Magritte, Querelle des universaux, early 1928 Oil on canvas 53.5 x 72.5 cm
Art Name: Chocolate Grinder No. IDate Created: 1916-17Medium: Oil on CanvasSize: Collection: Philadelphia, Louise And Walter Arensberg Collection
Art Name: FountainDate Created: 1917Medium: Readymade: UrinalSize: 360 x 480 x 610 Collection: Original Lost, Tate Modern There is no clear consensus about the end of the Surrealist movement Some historians suggest that the movement ended by WWII Art historian Sarane Alexandrian (1970) states that &quot;the death of André Breton in 1966 marked the end of Surrealism as an organized movement.”
Art Name: Napoleon in the DesertDate Created: 1941Medium: Size: Collection: Museum of Modern Art Some say that the movement extended through the 1950s For example, Czech Surrealism Group in Prague, though driven underground in 1968, re-emerged in the 1990 In 1976 the largest-ever exhibition of international surrealism, the World Surrealist Exhibition, went up in Chicago
Cirkus Simonette,” by Czech surrealist artist Jindřich Štyrský Though the Czechoslovakian state was newly formed after WWI, the younger generation felt there was still room for improvement and that a radical solution was necessary to gain true liberation Most of these intellectuals had a zest for revolution and professed their allegiance to Lenin Although Thomas Masaryk gave the people their the first real socially-minded democracy, Nezval and others did not accept this regime as representative of their beliefs and goals. In their writings they expressed their preference for the Marxist-internationalist consciousness of class solidarity.
book: Anima Animus Animation which was published in Prague in 1998 to catalogue an exhibition of Švankmajers and of his wife Eva’s art Czech surrealism is said to have started when renowned Czech painter Josef Sima traveled to Paris in 1921 However it was not until 1934, when the Czech Surrealist Group was founded by Karel Teige, Jindřich Štyrský, Toyen and Vítězslav Nezval Nezval frequently traveled to Paris where he forged a friendship with André Breton and the French Surrealists Nezval was instrumental in founding Czech Surrealist Group and served as an editor of the group's journal Surrealismus Czech Surrealist Group was the first group of its kind outside France.
Josef Sima was a renowned Czech painter and an important figure of modern European art He graduated from Academy of Arts in Prague where he was the student of Jan Preisler Sima was involved in the Devětsil movement and in Umělecká beseda in Prague
Dubois by Sima Josef Sima was a renowned Czech painter and an important figure of modern European art He graduated from Academy of Arts in Prague where he was the student of Jan Preisler Sima was involved in the Devětsil movement and in Umělecká beseda in Prague In 1921 he traveled abroad to France where he was granted French citizenship in 1926 In 1928 he co-founded the literary magazine Le Grand Jeu of which he became the artistic director The movement centered around this magazine was disliked by Breton
Church by Sima Sima’s sources of inspiration spanned from sensual experience, through civil themes, geometric abstraction, imaginative seeking of archetypes of nature, things and human existence pictured as crystals, cosmic egg and female torsos to fascination by landscapes and mythology, until he finally united all these elements and made a synthesis of them in cosmic visions and symbols of human destiny. Also illustrated many books, made book covers, scenic paintings and designed stained glass windows (eg. in The Church of St Jacques in Reims) However I could not find a picture of this :(
Josef Šíma: Vítězslav Nezval, 1932 Nezval was a founding figure of the Surrealism as well Poetism movement His output consists of a number of poetry collections, experimental plays and novels, memoirs, essays, and translations Nezval wrote a poem focusing on the forms, sounds, and functions of the alphabet
Painting by Jindřich Štyrský Vítězslav Nezval and Joseph Sima were a member of the avant-garde group of artists Devětsil Devětsil members were the most prolific Czech artists of their generation In 1922, the Devetsil group included, but was not limited to, Vítězslav Nezval, Jindřich Štyrský, Jaroslav Seifert, Karel Teige, and Toyen (Marie Cerminova) Also associated with the group was the later founder of the Prague Linguistic School, Roman Jakobson Like the proletarian group before it, Devětsil looked to France for inspiration for their avant-garde literature and their Marxist political ideology originating from Russia Devětsil (literally &quot;nine forces&quot;, the Czech name of the Butterbur plant but to a Czech-speaker an obvius reference to the nine founding members of the group. Devětsil urged young, progressive artists to look deeper into ordinary objects for poetic quality. Skyscrapers, airplanes, mimes, and poster lettering were the new arts.
Collage by Karel Teige The group was very active in organizing the Czech art scene of the period Members published sereval art magazines - ReD (Revue Devětsilu), Disk and Pásmo, as well as occasional anthologies (most importantly Devětsil and Život) and organized several exhibitions For the most part, Devětsil artists produced poetry and illustration, but they also made contributions to many other art forms, including sculpture, film and even calligraphy
Although usually considered exclusively French, Surrealism was international from the beginning, with both the Belgian and Czech groups developing early (Czech group continues uninterrupted to this day) Some the most significant Surrealist theorists are: Karel Teige from Czechoslovakia, Shuzo Takiguchi from Japan, Octavio Paz from Mexico The most radical of Surrealist methods have also hailed from countries other than France, for example, the technique of cubomania was invented by Romanian Surrealist Gherasim Luca Surrealism had influence on later movements, including many aspects of postmodernism Manifestations of surrealism is also can be found in Russia and China
Surrealism has spread throughout Europe to North America, Japan and the Caribbean during the course of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s In 1960s Surrealism has spread to Africa, South America and much of Asia By the 1980s the movement has reached all the way to Australia
Surrealism is a revolution, a cultural, artistic, and intellectual movement oriented toward the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative faculties of the "unconscious mind" and the attainment of a state different from, "more than", and ultimately truer than everyday reality: the "surreal", i.e. more than real.