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Ecology ct
 

Ecology ct

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    Ecology ct Ecology ct Presentation Transcript

    • E c o l o g y basics P r e s e n t s 1.
    • Introduction To Ecosystems
    • What is Ecology ? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems.
    • What is an ecosystem ? An ecosystem is an interelated system that includes all the autotrophs , heterotrophs , and the physical and chemical factors of the environment at a given place and time.
    • autotrophs heterotrophs environment Arrows show a transfer of: ENERGY & MATERIALS What is an ecosystem ?
    • REVIEW CHECKPOINT: 1. NAME THE 3 COMPONENTS OF AN ECOSYSTEM. 2. NAME THE ONLY 2 THINGS THAT ARE TRANSFERRED WITHIN AN ECOSYSTEM.
    • e c o l o g y basics P r e s e n t s 2.
    • E N E R G Y The Laws of Thermodynamics & the Ecosystem
    • WHAT DO SCIENTISTS KNOW ABOUT HOW ____?____ BEHAVES ?
    • WHAT DO SCIENTISTS KNOW ABOUT HOW _ENERGY_ BEHAVES ?
    • The First Law of Thermodynamics: ENERGY cannot be created or destroyed.
    • meaning: 1- The total or net amount of ENERGY in the universe is constant. 2- There is same amount of ENERGY now as there always has been.
    • The Second Law of Thermodynamics: ENERGY tends to spontaneously degrade. (. . .from a concentrated form to a dispersed form.)
    • WHAT ARE... CONCENTRATED FORMS OF ENERGY ? Light Electricity DISPERSED FORMS OF ENERGY? Heat
    • What is an ecosystem ? (in terms of ENERGY ! ) A controlled series of ENERGY transformations between in-coming LIGHT and out-going HEAT .
    • Review Checkpoint 1. STATE THE 1st LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. 2. STATE THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. 3. WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM IN TERMS OF ENERGY? 4. WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR MOST ECOSYSTEMS?
    • E c o l o g y basics 3. P r e s e n t s
    • The 3-Step ENERGY PATHWAY THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM.
    • ENERGY in the ecosystem BEGINS WITH SUNLIGHT bleep ENERGY !
    • MANY FORMS OF ENERGY. THE SUN GIVES O FF
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    • 2 pm 10 am noon ocean surface
    • ocean surface
    • absorbed reflected
    • The 3-Step ENERGY Pathway
    • LIGHT PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1.
    • photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 chemical energy
    • LIGHT CHEMICAL ENERGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION 1. 2.
    • respiration O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 + H 2 O chemical energy work for cells HEAT
    • LIGHT HEAT CHEMICAL ENERGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION 1. 2. 3.
    • PHOTOSYNTHESIS CO 2 + H 2 O ---------> C(H 2 O) + O 2 RESPIRATION CO 2 + H 2 O <--------- C(H 2 O) + O 2 <--------- <--------- <--------- <--------- environment + solar energy IN + energy for cell OUT organisms
    • ___________ MUST be be recycled. REVIEW CHECKPOINT: CHEMICALS
    • W H Y ? REVIEW CHECKPOINT:
    • CHEMICALS essential for life are in short supply and must be re-used. SO 4 NO 3 PO 4 SiO 2 Sulfate Nitrate Phosphate Silicate on land in ocean Examples:
    • FERTILIZERS essential for life are in short supply and must be re-used. SO 4 NO 3 PO 4 SiO 2 Sulfate Nitrate Phosphate Silicate on land in ocean Examples:
    • CHEMICALS essential for life are in short supply and must be re-used. WHERE DO THEY COME FROM?
    • FERTILIZERS essential for life are in short supply and must be re-used. WHERE DO THEY COME FROM ? THINK ABOUT IT !
    • ___________ cannot ever be recycled. E N E R G Y REVIEW CHECKPOINT:
    • W H Y ? REVIEW CHECKPOINT:
    • The Second Law of Thermodynamics: ENERGY tends to spontaneously degrade. (. . .from a concentrated form to a dispersed form.)
    • REVIEW CHECKPOINT: 1. What is the Source of Energy for most Ecosystems? 2. a. Describe the entire Solar System. b. What part is good for Plants? 3. a. Describe the Visible Spectrum. b. What part is good for Plants? 4. Why are Green Plants Green to your Eye? 5. List 3 things that can affect the amount of sunlight that penetrates the ocean. 6. Discuss the selective absorption of the Visible Spectrum by seawater. a. What color penetrates the deepest? b. What color penetrates the shallowest?
    • E c o l o g y basics 4. P r e s e n t s
    • FOOD CHAINS and TROPHIC LEVELS
    • ENERGY flowing through an E C O S Y S T E M creates a simple FOOD CHAIN diagram.
    • A food chain (follow the ENERGY coming from the SUN)
    • PRODUCERS 1 A food chain ( autotrophs capture ENERGY coming from the SUN )
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1 2 A food chain (herbivores get ENERGY & MATERIALS from the PRODUCERS they eat)
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 1 2 3 A food chain (carnivores get ENERGY & MATERIALS from the HERBIVORES they eat)
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 1 2 3 4 A food chain
    • 1 2 3 4 the numbers are called Trophic levels
    • 1 2 3 4 trophic levels tell how far away each feeding level is from THE SUN
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 1 2 3 4 Food chains show trophic levels
    • 5 4 3 2 1
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 1 2 3 4 Zuma Beach food chain
    • ZUMA PHYTOPLANKTON 1.
    • ZUMA 2. ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON
    • ZUMA ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 1st Order CARNIVORES 3.
    • ZUMA ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 4.
    • ZUMA ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES
    • Review Checkpoint 1. What is a FOOD CHAIN ? 2. What are “trophic levels?” 3. Give the ecological term for each trophic level. 4. Give a Zuma example for each trophic level. 5. Why are the number of “links” in a food chain usually limited to 3 or 4 ?
    • E c o l o g y basics 5.
    • THE 10% RULE and ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
    • The Laws of Thermodynamics and FOOD CHAINS !
    • The 10 % RULE !
    • The maximum amount of ENERGY that passes from one trophic level to the next is 10%. 90% of the ENERGY at each trophic level is used to keep the organisms alive and is converted to HEAT.
    • Always start with the SUN.
    • PHYTOPLANKTON The 10% RULE ! 90% of the ENERGY captured by PRODUCERS is used to keep themselves alive (converted to heat). Max. 10 % to HERBIVORES HEAT
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 3rd Order CARNIVORES Producers are the BASE of the pyramid of biomass because their ENERGY comes direct from the SUN .
    • ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON The 10% RULE ! 10% HEAT Max. 10 % to CARNIVORES 90% 90% was used to keep the HERBIVORES alive.
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 3rd Order CARNIVORES HERBIVORES exist on only 10% of the ENERGY from PRODUCERS .
    • ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 1st Order CARNIVORES The 10% RULE ! 90% HEAT Max. 10 % to 2nd O. CARNIVORES 10% 10% 10%
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 3rd Order CARNIVORES 1st O. Carnivores are max.10% of HERBIVORES .
    • ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES The 10% RULE ! 10% 10% 10%
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 3rd Order CARNIVORES There isn’t much ENERGY left near the top.
    • PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES 3rd Order CARNIVORES The 10% RULE . . . ...results in this ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID
    • PRODUCERS - 1000 HERBIVORES - 100 1st Order CARNIVORES - 10 2nd Order CARNIVORES - 1 3rd Order CARNIVORES 0.1 The 10% RULE . . . ...is used to help predict NUMBERS .
    • 1000 100 10 1 0.1 The 10% RULE . . . ...is used to help predict BIOMASS .
    • The ecological pyramid at ZUMA. ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 2nd Order CARNIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES 10% 10% 10%
    • Population size ratios at ZUMA. 10% 10% 10% 1,000 100 10 1 individuals individuals individuals individual
    • Biomass at ZUMA. 10% 10% 10% 1,000 100 10 1 pounds pounds pounds pound
    • For every 1 lb. of halibut, how many lbs. of Zalophus can be supported ? ? 1 lb.
    • For every 1 lb. of halibut, 0.1 lbs. of Zalophus can be supported ! 0.1 lbs 1 lb.
    • ZOOPLANKTON PHYTOPLANKTON 1st Order CARNIVORES 2nd Order CARNIVORES For a 30 lb. halibut, 30,000 lbs. of phytoplankton are necessary ! 30 lbs. 300 lbs. 3,000 lbs. 30,000 lbs.
    • REVIEW CHECKPOINT: 1. What is the 10% rule ? 2. Where does most of the ENERGY go at each trophic level ? 3. What 2 things can the ecological pyramid help predict? 4. If there are 14,963 kg of anchovies at Zuma, tell how many kg are predicted: a. Zooplankton c. Halibut b. Phytoplankton d. Zalophus
    • E c o l o g y basics 6. P r e s e n t s
    • FOOD WEBS ! Show all the possible FOOD CHAINS. Show all the OMNIVORES. Show multiple feeding preferences.
    • Decomposers (bacteria & fungi)
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    • Oooops ! What’s wrong with this food web ? 1. No producers. 2. Arrows point backwards.
    • FOOD WEBS: WHAT DO THE ARROWS MEAN ? REVIEW CHECKPOINT: 1- FLOW OF ENERGY. 2- FLOW OF MATERIALS.
    • E c o l o g y basics 7. P r e s e n t s
    • MARINE FOOD WEBS and YOUR ZUMA RESEARCH
    • IN SHALLOW WATER THERE ARE TWO ECOSYSTEMS: 1. ONE BASED ON PHYTOPLANKTON . 2. ANOTHER BASED ON BENTHIC PLANTS .
    • WHERE SUNLIGHT HITS THE SEA FLOOR
    • THIS IS THE ONLY REGION WITH DUAL ECOSYSTEMS
    • Let’s look at a marine food web diagram that shows both ecosystems side-by-side.
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    • How do your Zuma organisms fit on this food web ? Here’s how to do it . . .
    • This is a blank layout or template .
    • First, fill in the PHYTOPLANKTON- BASED ECOSYSTEM side of the food web.
    • THIS IS THE PHYTOPLANKTON SIDE
    • Write the names of all the phytoplankton species here. PHYTO- PLANKTON
    • Write the names of all the zooplankton species here. ZOO- PLANKTON PHYTO- PLANKTON
    • Write the names of all the suspension feeders here. SUSPENSION FEEDERS PHYTO- PLANKTON ZOO- PLANKTON
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE SUSPENSION FEEDERS ? Suspension feeders, or “filter feeders,” pump, strain, filter or otherwise collect plankton and particles of detritus from water. Sand crabs, barnacles, mussels, clams, sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, and many tube-dwelling polychaete worms are suspension feeders. Emerita analoga Bivalve mollusks Barnacles mussels clams
    • Write the names of all the carnivore species here. CARNIVORES ZOO- PLANKTON SUSPENSION FEEDERS PHYTO- PLANKTON DECOMPOSERS
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE CARNIVORES ? Animals that sting or have jaws, teeth, fangs and are quick and smart are carnivorous. All fish . All mammals . All birds at Zuma (except 2) All mammals . All Cnidarians. . Blepharipoda !
    • Next, fill in the BENTHIC PLANT- BASED ECOSYSTEM side of the food web.
    • BENTHIC PLANTS THIS IS THE BENTHIC PLANT SIDE
    • Write the names of all the BENTHIC PLANT species here. BENTHIC PLANTS PHYTO- PLANKTON SUSPENSION FEEDERS CARNIVORES DECOMPOSERS
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE BENTHIC PLANTS ? Benthic plants do not grow in sandy environments like Zuma Beach, but they enter our food web as debris washed in from neighboring shores. Zostera Macrocystis Ulva
    • Write the names of all the BENTHIC HERBIVORE species here. BENTHIC PLANTS BENTHIC HERBIVORES SUSPENSION FEEDERS PHYTO- PLANKTON CARNIVORES DECOMPOSERS
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE BENTHIC HERBIVORES ? RADULA Wherever you find benthic plants you’ll find benthic herbivores. They’re slow, not too smart, and must eat constantly so they stay close to plants. Many snail-like molluscs use their radula to scrape and eat seaweed.
    • Write the names of all the SCAVENGER species here. BENTHIC PLANTS SCAVENGERS BENTHIC HERBIVORES SUSPENSION FEEDERS PHYTO- PLANKTON CARNIVORES DECOMPOSERS
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE SCAVENGERS ? Scavengers are opportunistic feeders that will eat sessile animals, dead or injured animals, as well as plant materials. They take advantage of opportunities as they happen. At Zuma Beach 2 birds are scavengers: Larus occidentalis & Larus delawarensis
    • Last, put the DETRITAL FEEDER species here, if any. BENTHIC PLANTS SCAVENGERS BENTHIC HERBIVORES SUSPENSION FEEDERS PHYTO- PLANKTON CARNIVORES DETRITAL FEEDERS DECOMPOSERS ZOO- PLANKTON
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE DETRITAL FEEDERS ? What is DETRITUS ? Detritus in the ocean is made up of bits and pieces of decomposing plants, animals and their waste products. They are coated with bacteria and fungi, and represent a source of energy and materials for detrital feeders.
    • HOW CAN YOU TELL WHICH ZUMA SPECIES ARE DETRITAL FEEDERS ? sea cucumber Brittle star Am phipod As particles of detritus sink down to the ocean floor, a variety of slow moving “vacuum cleaner” animals feed on it. Sea cucumbers, brittle stars, free- living polychaete worms, and tiny benthic crustaceans such as amphipods and isopods feed on detritus.
    • BENTHIC PLANTS SCAVENGERS BENTHIC HERBIVORES SUSPENSION FEEDERS PHYTO- PLANKTON CARNIVORES DETRITAL FEEDERS DECOMPOSERS ZOO- PLANKTON
    • How do your word-process the names of organisms to fit on this food web ? Here’s how to do it . . .
    • Begin in the upper left corner by typing all the species of phytoplankton you have seen .
    • Add the rest of the categories and species you have seen.
    • Use the drawing tool to add circles or boxes around each category.
    • Finish your food web by adding your arrows.
    • REVIEW CHECKPOINT: 1. What are the 2 ecosystems found in shallow oceans like Zuma Beach ? 2. What is the maximum depth for photosynthesis in clear ocean water? 3. Name 3 different categories of food for suspension feeders to eat. 4. Name 3 different examples for each: suspension feeders carnivores detrital feeders phytoplankton herbivores zooplankton scavengers benthic plants 5. What exactly is detritus ?
    • e c o l o g y basics 8. P r e s e n t s
    • transport systems in plants. transport systems in plants.
    • photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 required chemicals carbon dioxide gas liquid water
    • HOW DO TERRESTRIAL ANGIOPHYTES OBTAIN WATER AND NUTRIENTS ? CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
    • 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT
    • 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT
    • 1. L E A F
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    • WATER MOLECULES ARE COHESIVE THEY STICK TOGETHER COHESIVE
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    • THERE IS AN UNBROKEN COLUMN OF H 2 O RUNNING FROM LEAVES TO STEMS TO ROOTS H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O
    • TRANSPIRATION of H 2 O FROM BOTTOM OF LEAF PULLS H 2 O FROM XYLEM THROUGH ENTIRE PLANT
      • Transpiration:
        • supplies water for photosynthesis
        • transports minerals from the soil
      • to all parts of the plant
        • cools leaf surfaces some 10 to 15 degrees
      • by evaporative cooling
        • maintains the plant's shape and structure
      • by keeping cells turgid
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    • XYLEM PHLOEM
    • Lower leaf epidermis & stomates . H 2 O
    • TRANSPIRATION OF H 2 O THROUGH the STOMATE
    • 2. S T E M
    • XYLEM UP, PHLOEM DOWN in a STEM
    • LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH PHLOEM CELLS
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    • XYLEM PHLOEM
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    • 3. R O O T S
    • ROOT HAIRS INCREASE SURFACE AREA FOR ABSORPTION OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS.
    • ROOT PRESSURE ROOT HAIRS HAVE SO MUCH SURFACE AREA THAT THEY CREATE WATER PRESSURE PUSHING UPWARD IN THE PLANT.
    • ROOT CROSS SECTION xylem phloem
    • CROSS SECTION OF A ROOT
    • 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT
    • 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT Transpiration pulls H 2 O Sugar Produced
    • 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT Xylem up Phloem down Transpiration pulls H 2 O Sugar Produced
    • 1. LEAF 2. STEM 3. ROOT Transpiration pulls H 2 O Sugar Produced Xylem up Phloem down Root Hairs push H 2 O nutrients enter
    • T H E E N D Painting by Ron B. Kitaj