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# Basic formulas and functions

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### Basic formulas and functions

1. 1. Basic formulas and functionsAdding a formula to a worksheet*Instead of entering the actual cell values the cell references are entered.Type the following in Microsoft excel starting at A4:Purchases Apples Oranges melons PearsJan 20 35 36 25Feb 30 56 12 48Mar 50 24 45 48TotalsInstruction:*Use formulas to work out the totals fruit sold for the three month*Use formulas to calculate the total fruit purchased for each monthComputer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]1
2. 2. Class exercise: Absolute and relative cell addressType the following in Microsoft Excel in starting at A4:Information keyMonthly delivery costs 65Estimated annual profit 12Estimated weekly profit 52Month Stock sold Profit Estimated annual profit Estimated weekly profitJanuary 450February 365March 257April 478May 147June 487July 789Instruction:* Use formula to calculate the profit for each month by subtracting 65 from the stock sold.* Use formula to calculate the estimated annual profit by multiplying the profit for each month by 12* Use formula to calculate the estimated weekly profit by dividing the estimated annual profit by 52Computer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]2
3. 3. Class exercise: FormulasUse Microsoft Excel to type the following starting at 4A:The Fruit StoreQtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4Melons 367Apples 8389Mandarins 2441Grapefruit 2547Kiwi Fruit 3257Pears 2973Pineapples 690Oranges 5871TotalInstructions*Merge and centre the heading: “The Fruit Store”Use formulas to do the following:*The figures for QTR2 are twice QTR1*The figures for QTR3 are found by subtracting \$200 from the figures of QTR2*The figures for QTR4 are found by dividing the figures of QTR3 from figures of QTR1*Use formulas to find the total for each fruit for each quarter.Computer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]3
4. 4. Pre-defined FunctionsSUM - the SUM function can be used to calculate the sum of number of valuese.g. =SUM (range)AVERAGE - THE AVERAGE OF A RANGE OF numbers is calculated by first adding together allthe values of the range and then dividing it the number of item in the rangeThe Average function can be used to calculate the average of range of number of values.e.g. =AVERAGE (range)MIN - the MIN function is used to find the minimum value in a range. e.g. =MIN (range)MAX - the MAX function is used to find the maximum value in a range. e.g. =MAX (range)COUNT - the COUNT function tells you how many cells in the selected range contain numeric valuese.g. =COUNT (range)COUNTA - the COUNTA FUNCTION counts all the cells in a range that contain data either numericor text.e.g. =COUNTA (range)SQRT - The Square root function finds the square root of a number. The square root of numberis found by multiplying the number by itself.e.g. =SQRT (number)Use Microsoft Excel to type the following starting at A4:Name ofStudents Total marks in Subjects Student’sMATH ENGLISH POA POA Total Average markNewton 100 25 47 80Lopez 45 90 54 78Barrel 80 98 87 90McDonald 3 45 52 71Stapleton 90 50 80 98TotalSubject’sMinimum markMaximum markAverage markNumber of Student in Class*use formulas to work out the above.Computer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]4
5. 5. COPYING FORMULASAbsolute and relative cell addressesWhen you are copying formulas in a spreadsheet, its important to understand the concepts of absoluteand relative cell addresses.Relative formulas will change relatively to the cell address when copied into other cellsAbsolute formulas will contain a cell address that does not change. THE CELL ADDRESS THATDOES NOT CHANGE IS KNOWN AS THE ABSOLUTE CELL. To make a row or columnabsolute, you should had a \$ before the row or column e.g. \$B\$3Type the following in Microsoft Excel starting at A4:Sales performance bonusBonus 10%Rate paid \$1000Hours worked Salary Bonus Software Sales Bonus-figureJim Myers 10 50,000Sally King 45 65,200Tom Moore 87 36,781Salary = hours worked * rate paidBonus = salary * bonusComputer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]5
6. 6. Exercise on Basic formulas and functionsName of Student: ________________________Grade: _________________________________Please answer all questions1. A cell reference in a formula is called:□ An operator □ an argument □ a function □ a result □ a series2.3.Computer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]6
7. 7. 4. Select the formula that will calculate the average required for the selected cell.5.6.Computer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]7
8. 8. THE IF FUNCTIONAn IF function carries out a logical test for a condition that you specify.If that condition is met, the function returns one value; if it is not met, then it returns a different value.If functions are often referred to as logical functions because they use logical operators such as > or <to test if a value is true or false.ExampleIF the weather is cold, eat inside, otherwise eat outsideIF function=IF (logical test, value if true, value if false)=If (weather is cold, eat inside, eat outside)*use the If function to calculate the bonus figure for each sales representative. IF the software sales aremore than 50000 then the bonus figure returns "bonus", otherwise it should return "no bonus"Sales performance bonusBonus 10%Rate paid \$1000Hours worked Salary Bonus Software Sales Bonus-figureJim Myers 10 50,000Sally King 45 65,200Tom Moore 87 36,781Computer StudiesTutor-Maulton R. T. Campbell [2009]8