The child who pretended he or she was an explorer may now show interest in learning where countries are or reading a map. As kids enter school they become more aware of the
Incremental v fixed view of ability
Children begin to display a strong desire for group belonging by the end of middle childhood. Peer contact is very important because it contributes to perspective taking and understanding of themselves and others. Conflicts begin to be resolved more effectively, sharing & helping increases, and aggression declines, especially physical attacks. (Read first half Slide) Group belonging can be satisfied through informal peer groups, or formal ones, such as membership in Scouting, 4-H, and religious youth groups. In these groups, the presences of adults holds in check the negative behaviors that can be associated with informal peer groups. In fact, in formal peer groups children can gain in social and moral maturity, through working on joint projects and helping in their communities. (read 2nd half slide)From experience, I can tell you that When I was in fifth & sixth grade, peer groups seemed to start becoming very important. I was never in one firm group, I seemed to float between a couple. I played softball, so I was a part of the athletes at school. However, I always seemed to be on the outskirts. The athletes seemed to be the most popular kids, and they would hang out and drink and smoke on the weekends. My mom somehow had a sixth sense about it, and she would never let me hang out with them at night. As a result, I was never completely accepted by the group, because I deviated from their “normal” behavior.
Peer groups are important, but (read 1st 3 lines)School age children state that a good friendship is based on acts of kindness. Each person has to be able to support the other. Violations of trust, such as not helping when others need help, breaking promises, & gossiping are serious breaches of friendship.School-age children’s friendships become more selective. Girls demand greater closeness than boys and are more exclusive in their friendships. (READ LAST BULLET)Over middle childhood, high quality friendships tend to stay pretty stable and can last over several years. The impact on children’s development depends on the nature of their friends. Children who bring kindness & compassion to their friendships strengthen each other. But relationships between aggressive children often magnify anti-social tendencies.
Peer acceptance is how likeable a child is, how they are viewed by their peers. I’m sure that looking back, everyone here can think of….There are four categories of peer acceptance. They are POPULAR children, REJECTED children, CONTROVERSIAL children, and NEGLECTED children.2/3 of children fit into one of these 4 categories. The other 1/3 don’t fit into any category, and are considered “average”. WHY is one child liked when another is rejected? Social behavior plays a powerful role. (READ SLIDE)As teachers, …….
Read bullets,Possibly because they have had less opportunities to resolve conflicts through sibling interactions
I just want to touch base on the different family influences that are happening to children during middle childhood that has a direct relation to their emotional and social development. READ SLIDE
From 3rd to 6th grade, boys strengthen their identity with “masculine” traits, but girls identification with “feminine” traits declines. Boys usually stick to masculine activities, but girls experiment with a wider range of options. Besides cooking, sewing and babysitting, girls will also play sports. Girls will also consider future work roles that have been stereotyped for males, such as firefighter, etc. These changes reflect a mixture of social and cognitive forces. Parents and adults also influence this. In Chapter 10, we learned that fathers are far less tolerant when sons, as opposed to daughters, cross gender lines. As Nicole mentioned last weekend, her husband didn’t want their son having a kitchen playset. These messages are very influential, and as teachers, we must be aware of this. (read 1st 2 bullets)This also promotes happiness and satisfaction with oneself. (read 3rd bullet)This pressure reduces the likelihood that children will explore options related to their interests and talents, and they are also often distressed and depressed. I read on the internet about the story about “tutu boy”….
Children quickly learn what academic areas are considered masculine and which are feminine. (Read first bullet) I found this interesting bc, first, I am completely in tune with this. I’ve always hated math and science, and excelled in reading, spelling, art, etc. But also, it struck me regarding my daycare class. At age 2, boys and girls alike love music, art and reading. I know they obviously don’t have any formal schooling, in math or science, but at what age does a love for music or art disappear? And why? Because of societal norms pushed down from adults…from parents to caregivers to teachers. As teachers, I think it’s so important that we become aware of what we’re doing. The stereotypes we hold, the attitudes and behaviors we portray, influence children’s preferences and how well they do at different subjects. (Read 2nd Bullet)Girls also often adopt a more general stereotype of males as smarter than females, which they apply to themselves. In a study of over 2,000 2nd to 6th graders from diverse cultures (Eastern and Western Europe, Japan, Russia, and the US) girls consistently had higher school grades than boys. Yet even though they girls were aware of the higher grades, they discounted their talent.
Transcript of "Edug506 eriksen"
CHAPTER 13 EMOTIONAL &SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AGE SIX TO ELEVEN YEARS
Erikson’s Theory Industry v. Inferiority If early childhood has been positive kids enter middle childhood ready to turn their energies from make believe to achieving realistic accomplishments. Children’s drive coupled with expectations of adults sets the stage for the Industry v. Inferiority struggle Struggle is resolved on the positive side when experiences lead children to develop competence at useful skills and tasks.
Self Understanding Social Comparison-Children become more aware of their competencies and deficiencies, especially in relation to their peers “Self Concept” developed by social, cultural, and Cognitive influences Influences blend, parental support is vital Children begin looking at themselves beyond the family and in the context of social groups This is the age when self-esteem begins to decline
Self Esteem Hierarchy Academic Competence School work in various subjects Social Competence Relationship with peers Relationship with parents Physical Competence and Appearance Athletic abilities Physical Appearance *Note, separate self-esteems do not contribute equally to general self esteem*
Self Esteem Across age, race, sex, SES individuals w/high self esteem tend to be well adjusted, sociable and conscientious Low self-esteem can lead to anxiety, depression, and anti-social behavior To protect self-esteem children balance social comparisons and personal achievements and goals By fourth grade the majority experience rise in self- esteem as they discover their abilities. Berk speculates this is the reason declines in self-esteem during the early school years are not usually harmful
Achievement Related Attributions Attributions: everyday explanations for the causes of our behavior (I rode my bike because I believe in myself) Master Oriented Attributions: Credit success to ability, which can be improved. Failure caused by insufficient effort. This leads to industrious/persistent learning style. Learned Helplessness: Success is due to external factors like luck. Failure is caused be lack of ability which can not be improved on. Influences on Achievement- Incremental vs. Fixed View of Ability Attribution Retraining- intervention to encourage learned- helplessness children they can over come failure through effort (p.489)
Fostering Resilience in Middle Childhood“Resilienceis not a preexisting attribute but, rather, acapacity that develops through childhood experiences”
PEER RELATIONS Peer Groups: Collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers. First Form in Middle Childhood Organize on the basis of similarity in: ×Gender ×Ethnicity ×Academic Achievement ×Popularity ×Aggression ×Proximity (being in the same class) Children who deviate from group codes of dress and behavior are often excluded. The customs of the group bind the kids together, creating a sense of group identity
FRIENDSHIPS One-on-one friendships provide children with insight into larger social structures. Friendships become more complex and psychologically based. TRUST is the defining feature in a friendship Children tend to select friends who are: similar in age, race, sex, ethnicity and SES. Similar personality traits: sociability, aggression, depression, hyperactivity, pop ularity, achievement and prosocial behavior.
PEER ACCEPTANCE Determinants of peer acceptance Popular-prosocial children are kind and considerate, they perform well in school, solve social problems constructively & communicate with peers in sensitive, friendly, cooperative ways. Popular-antisocial children are admired for their belligerent behavior. They may be considered “tough” kids, they cause trouble and defy adult authority. They are seen as “cool”. Helping Rejected Children Coaching, Modeling, Reinforcing Positive Social Skills Intensive academic tutoring improves school achievement Interventions with Parents
FAMILY INFLUENCES Parent Child Relationships Effective parents engage in coregulation – exerting general oversight while letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. This depends on a cooperative relationship between parent and child. Siblings Sibling rivalry tends to increase Parents compare their traits and accomplishments Siblings attempt to be different from one another Siblings who maintain warm bonds resolve disagreements constructively and provide one another with emotional support. Only Children Have higher self-esteem Do better in school Attain higher levels of education Form close, high-quality friendships, but are less well accepted in the peer group
FAMILY INFLUENCES Gay and Lesbian Families Same level of commitment & effectiveness in child rearing as heterosexual families Children do not differ in adjustment or gender-role preferences Never-Married Single-Parent Families Generally increases economic hardship for low-SES mothers Children who lack a father’s warmth and involvement achieve less well in school and engage in more antisocial behavior than children in low-SES, first marriage families
FAMILY INFLUENCES: Divorce All children experience painful emotional reactions during a divorce Children with difficult temperaments & boys in mother- custody homes have more adjustment problems Best factor for positive adjustment following divorce: Effective Parenting. Contact with non-custodial parent is very important and father custody is associated with better outcomes for sons. Divorce mediation can promote children’s adjustments
GENDER IDENTITY & BEHAVIOR Gender Typicality – the degree to which a child feels similar to others of the same gender. Psychological well-being depends, to a degree, on feeling that they “fit in” with their same-sex peers. Gender Contentedness – the degree to which a child feels comfortable with his or her gender assignment. Felt Pressure to conform to gender roles – the degree to which a child feels parents and peer disapprove of his or her gender-related traits.
GENDER TYPING Achievement Areas Masculine: Science, Math, Athletics, Mechanical Skills Feminine: Reading, Spelling, Art & Music Bleeker & Jacobs, 2004 Study Mothers’ had early perceptions of their children’s competence in math These continued to predict daughters’ self-perceptions and even career choices into their mid-twenties. Young women whose mothers regarded them as highly capable at math were far more likely to choose a physical science career