All things both Liberal (in the American sense of that term) and Progressive have their ultimate origins in Rationalism. The first citation of the term "progressivism" in the Oxford English Dictionary is dated to 1892, in England. At that time the St. James Gazette used it as a term of derision, equating it with "radicalism". It also began to be used in the United States toward the close of the 19th century. The need for a new term for reform-minded Americans was driven by the undesirably close association of the term "liberal" with the policies of President Grover Cleveland, and the association of the term "populism" with the political radicalism of the 1890s.
One possible link between the social and political movement called "progressivism" and educational reform.The rapid growth of urban areas after the Civil War was partially responsible for creating this goal. Urbanization presented the American public with the ugly picture of rapidly sprawling slums and the innumerableproblems connected with municipal government. Many reformers felt that the closeness of urban living required the development of individual social responsibility. If the problems of the city were to be solved, people had to learn how to cooperate and sacrifice their own interests for the welfare of the community.
The key organizational terms for these new corporate structures were specialization and cooperation. Four representative figures in this progressive movement were George W. Perkins, Samuel Gompers, Theodore Roosevelt and Herbert Croly.
Most progressive educators believe that children learn as if they were scientists, following a process similar to John Dewey's model of learning:Become aware of the problem. Define the problem. Propose hypotheses to solve it. Evaluate the consequences of the hypotheses from one's past experience. Test the likeliest solution. Given this view of human nature, a progressivist teacher desires to provide not just reading and drill, but also real-world experiences and activities that center on the real life of the students. Typical progressivist slogans are "Learn by Doing!" and "Learn by Discovery.“
Workforce education was promoted as an intervention for many different social problems.
The philosophy of the early vocational guidance leaders reflected a strong desire to create a highly organized and cooperative society.
Although numerous educational viewpoints exist, two major belief systems or philosophies have emerged in contemporary American public schools.
Hello colleagues. I’m Taesung Kim and I’m going to share some ideas about constructivism with you. As indicated from this image, a learning theory, constructivism, is about constructing knowledge.
There are a lot of definitions on this theory and most of them include the concepts like interpretation of knowledge, transaction with the environment, and existing beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge that impact their meaning. In other words, constructivism focuses on the process of learning rather than on the products of learning. So, to be brief on this theory, individuals are constructing, creating, and developing their own knowledge and meaning in transaction with their environment.
The philosophy of constructivism starts from the conventional question: “what reality is like” and “how reality is known”, and, in this dispute, constructivism supports the idea that reality is the result of individual’s perception.Historically, constructivism has two major streams: individual constructivism and social constructivism.Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is called cognitive constructivism because it focuses on personal exploration and construction with internal development. Following radical constructivism puts more importance on the individual’s role as a constructor, ignoring the influence of environments or communications with others.On the contrary, social constructivism situates the individual within an environment where individuals construct knowledge through transaction. So, the active individual and the active environment are the basis of this theory. Building on this understanding, cultural constructivism regards prior generation’s culture as one more essential element in the process of knowledge construction.But, in general, constructivism refers more to social or cultural constructivism rather than individual constructivism.
In fact, there are some variations between theories, but the general key concepts of constructivism are as follows:Knowledge construction takes place from the social negotiation among individuals who have ownership and multiple perspectives in learning.
In the knowledge construction process, existing knowledge and characteristics of students are the essential factors and also collaboration with teachers and other students are regarded very crucial for learning.
Basically constructivism is a learner-centered approach, and it had a strong influence especially on the self-directed or situated types of learning like e-learning, problem-based learning, and so forth. So, in this context, the role of teachers changes from an instructor of knowledge to a facilitator who helps students with their learning.
Along with behaviorism and cognitive theory, constructivism is regarded one of the most influential learning theories and is continuously studied and applied in various educational settings.
And there are a lot of related concepts and educational methodologies like these. In addition, you’ll see other important learning theories which have a close relationship with constructivism during our team’s presentation.
Concept was introduced in the early 1980s by researchers including Mezirow and Freire. Kolb felt the concept of reflection needed to be defined further. Kolb later on developed the learning style inventory still used today. In fact you can take it yourself online.
Out of perceiving and processing came the stage called, “Abstract conceptualization” Key: time to reflect on learning is important. Remember to give time for pple to reflect on what you say.
Abstract-In this stage we make generalization, form hypothesis and draw conclusions.Key- use logic and systematic planning rather than feelings to solve problems. Handout to include diagram of learning cycle.Active Experimentation- stage where we put our thoughts into motion. Where experiments occur and we try to change situations. Key- goal is to answer what really works.Inventory- shows a person their preferred learning style. Can identify strengths, weaknesses and potential career paths.
Cooperative education students participate in experiential learning. Welding for example, have to learn by doing. Nurses have to work with actual pple, not just manicans.
Experiential learning has helped shift learning in a classroom from teacher-oriented back to student-oriented. E-Learning systems are creeping into the classroom at an alarming rate; simulations are an example of artificial experiential learning. Until recently was classroom exclusiveHelp students with problem solvingExperience the occupation first-handCTE co-op students need to be aware of technologyMany occupations becoming automatedNeed to keep with the times
There is always going to “yay” and “nay” sayers no matter what.
I would like you to take this opportunity to turn to someone in close proximity and say as enthusiastically as possible “You look marvelous” If this made you smile or laugh, serotonin and dopamine were released from your brain and you are now ready to learn.
Brain based learning is derived from the structure and function of the brain. In order to understand brain based learning , we must understand basic facts about the brain. The brain is a wet, fragile mass, weighs over 3 pounds, is the size of a grapefruit and looks like a walnut. Neurons communicate with each other and grow dendrites (fibers) when you listen to, write about or practice something. These dendrites are constantly searching for information but the brain does not learn things that are not logical and have no meaning. The natural tendencies are to integrate information because we resist learning isolated bits of information. Our brain performs multiple functions simultaneously and will engage creativity, emotions, physiology and intellect.Think of our brain as this vast network where store information influences what and how we learn.
The brain is a wet, fragile mass, weighs over 3 pounds, is the size of a grapefruit and looks like a walnut. Neurons communicate with each other and grow dendrites (fibers) when you listen to, write about or practice something. These dendrites are constantly searching for information but the brain does not learn things that are not logical and have no meaning. will engage creativity, emotions, physiology and intellect.Think of our brain as this vast network where store information influences what and how we learn.
In the 1960’s Dr. Paul MacLean described the triune brain according to three stages of evolution, brain stem where information enters and controls bodily functions. The limbic area which controls emotions and the decision making process. The frontal lobes which are divided into 2 hemispheres, the left controls things like logic, time details and math and the right creativity and emotion. The three stages of the brain he related to three generations living in the same household. There is constant conflict and contention. Thus our emotions are affected which impacts our behavior, learning and memory. In the 1960’s Madeline Hunter introduced the notion of teachers using what science was learning about learning to modify traditional classroom procedures and instruction.The 1980’s became known as the decade of the brain. There was rapid growth in this area due to increased use in technology and understanding of learning, the most notable is Caine and Caine who developed the 12 brain mind principles. These principles were an attempt to consolidated a huge amount of research and to summarize how the brain affects education.
(Handout 12 principles)Based on the 12 principles here are some brain friendly practices:Threats were found to impair brain cells, students must be able to recognize and control their emotions for learning to take place. They need to create their own space for learning.Variety – vary the way you present the information, encourage co curricular activities such as book clubs and community service organizations. Believe that the brain is connected to the body and the entire body must be involved in the learning practice. Use the senses!High levels of expectations and positive learning environment throughout the schoolEmpower students – students should have input, they need to see the meaning in the new information. The may be able to make a connection to a personal experience. Share work and ideasTransfer knowledge from the classroom to real life situations, problem solving, decision making. Students must find a connection to what they already know. Various disciplines such as math, literature, science and history are seen as separate disciplines, but in reality they share information thte that the brain will recognize and organize.
The brain is constantly looking for patterns , trying to make connections and understand. Go beyond isolated facts and memorization We have to look at the time frame it takes a student to learn and master a task. We are programmed to force information into a set time period. We need to allow for repetition of tasks but in a way where we are not going through the process of memorization but actually finding multiple ways of remembering. Such as making the connection to what we already know.Mind and body interact, we need food, water and nutrition to think!Students need to evaluate their learning process and progress. Find other ways besides paper and pencil testing, reflections, journaling, asking questions and knowing where to find the answers, acting appropriately in an unexpected situation.
Brain based learning incorporates parts of the other learning theories. Grew out of neuroscience and constructivism where connections were made between experiences and ideas. Our brains are shaped by these experiences and learning takes place when we can connect what we are learning to real life situations. We are involving movement and all of our senses while we are building upon past experiences to help us understand new material. It allows teachers to connect the students experiences, personal, emotional and learning to what is occurring in the classroom.
The more we know about how the brain functions the more we can do about changing the way we approach what we do in our classrooms. We need to be able to engage the brain by using …..Remember
Take a moment to focus on the image: We all can relate to dancing at a wedding. We experience weddings, in general, in the context of our own culture and traditions. However, the learning opportunities expand as the culture changes, as the context changes and as we become more involved.
Learning in context – this is one of a number of definitions. It is the most general. Others refer to more specific situations regarding academics, problem solving or real world tasks and they emphasize society, social interaction and relationships that are key to the learning. Other names include: AppliedIntegrated, Project-based, Learning Centered.
Contextual Learning is not really a new concept. It has been around at least as long as Confucius. Tell me, and I will forget, Show me and I may remember Involve me and I will understand. Probably the earliest model of learning in context in terms of career development is the idea of Master and Apprentice - it has a long history since medieval times. With the Industrial revolution, theories began to emerge in the early 1900’s connected to the work of Lev Vygotsky, whose social learning theory emphasized a correlation between social interaction and cognitive development.A contemporary, Jean Piaget focused less on the social interaction but more on the developmental psychology of the child. Around 1938 Dewey was perhaps the first to use the term contextual and stressed learning through authentic experience and inter-relationships. And as we have heard his work was the foundation of constructivism or active learning.
In the 1960’s we saw a resurgence of the theories of the early pioneers and a focus on Social anthropologist Jean Lave’s situated learning or learning in a particular context in a particular environment. Daniel Hull, educator and author has focused on contextual learning in terms of Career & Tech education and career paths. Elaine Johnson has a more scientific approach with work based on brain research and academic relevance and finally William Daggett is a current force with his views on curriculum integration.Other names include Barbara Rogoff is an educator whose interests lie in social, collaborative and cultural areas. Howard Gardner is another whose theory of multiple intelligences supports contextual learning. He has been involved with Project Zero, a research group in human cognition that maintains a special focus on the arts.
Contextual learning involves all of the above as key components to the best practices of the theory. Each one connects to the other and allows for an evolving process.
Two examples are Dan Hull’s strategy of REACT as principles in contextual learning and William Daggett’s four quadrant model of Rigor and Relevance.
The influence of contextual learning is seen in all areas of education from the sciences to the arts to the math class to the career and technical courses.Something called contextual distance should always be kept in mind – that is the distance between the learner’s lived experience and the learning experience itself. Ideally you want to shorten that distance but something’s are more concrete and are embedded in everyday life making them less abstract than say something like a math problem that is more symbolic than literal. Despite that challenge in education the positive implications are strong for both students and teachers.
Contextual learning has roots or can relate to the concepts of each of the other theories. It’s foundations come directly from Dewey’s Constructivism and the Progressive approach. It can certainly be active and experiential although it can also be more focused toward a memory or past experience. And the research proves the connection between the brain activity and learning in context.The differences are that contextual learning has more of a holistic or life long big picture approach that definitely makes it applicable to all types of learning at any stage of life.The life-span perspective shows the greatest promise for an encompassing theory of human development. (Wolf, 1998)
In terms of where our society is heading – Contextual learning will change as our world becomes more global and as people push the limits of social interaction and experiences. It’s the good and bad news – more challenges will occur in keeping the virtual progress under a certain amount of control but also more opportunities will occur for the learning process and career development.
Linda Wolf (1998) says that “an individual's theoretical position is affected by their world views. This world view not only affects how an individual conceptualizes a particular field of study but also influences the questions they ask within that field of study”. And I would add an individual’s world view often is affected by the time in which he or she lives. These theories were developed by inquisitive minds of certain time periods - some of whom had a particular agenda because of their opinions of society. The theories continue to be developed and studied today for various reasons – social, educational and scientific - as well as to promote that individual point of view. It will be interesting to see how they change over time and in our times.
Key concept recap using simple quiz.Row 1. Questions.- Learner’s existing knowledge- Transaction with environment- Collaboration- A teacheris a facilitator- Knowledge ConstructionAnswer. Constructivism (following slide)
Notes for concept recap:Row 2:Questions.Learn by Doing-Kolb put the theory on the map-Abstract conceptualization-Active Experimentation-Learning Style InventoryAnswer. Experiential Learning (following slide)
Column 1:Questions:Utilizes a Variety of Learning EnvironmentsConcrete and Abstract ApplicationEngages Memory, Experiences, ResponsesConnects to Personal Frame of ReferenceReal World Career RelevanceAnswer. Contextual Learning (following slide)
Column 2:Questions:Originated from RationalismHighly related to 1990’s educational reformHumans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other peopleEmphasized governmental role to address social problemsAnswer. Progressivism (following slide)
Column 3:Questions:DendritesIntegrated LearningConscious and unconscious processInhibited by threatUniquely organizedKinesthetic LearningAnswer. Brain Based Learning (following slide)
Thank you so much for your listening.
Learning Theories Constructivism, Progressivism, Experiential Learning, Brain Based Learning, and Contextual Learning February 12, 2011 GunsungJoung, Rosemary Battista, Stephanie Irvine, Sue McCaughin, & Taesung Kim
- Experiential Learning - Brain Based Learning - Contextual Learning
Progressivism Emergence - Progressivismis a political attitude favoring or advocating changes or reform through governmental action in the late 19th century into the 20th century.
The Progressive Movement began in cities with settlement workers and reformers who were interested in helping those facing harsh conditions at home and at work.
Progressivism Social & Educational Movement - Relationship between Progressivism and Educational Reform (Spring , 1970) - The first goal of the educators and the social reformers who adopted this vision of the well ordered society was to change the basis of human motivation from desire for economic gain to unselfish interest in working for the good of society.
Progressivism Social & Educational Movement - The second goal of this social and educational movement was the establishment of a highly organized and interdependent social structure. - Both the social educators and their progressive counterparts selected as their model the large industrial organizations that had developed after the Civil War.
Education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people.
- The man who probably did the most to point out the value of the educational training when the school functioned as a social community was JohnDewey in his school and society lecture (Cremin,1959).
Progressivism Workforce Education - The public workforce education support began with what is termed the progressive philosophy of the early 1890s. - Progressives argued that government had a responsibility to address social problems including equal access to skilled jobs, and workforce education is one of the major beneficiaries.
Progressivism Vocational Education - Jane Addams, progressive reformer, lobbied for vocational education and vocational guidance in the public schools. Others lobbied for agricultural education. - The goal of vocational guidance was to increase efficiency in the social order by matching individual talent with an appropriate job.
Progressivism Influence & Comparison Phillips (1995) - Most types of constructivism are modern forms of progressivism. Witcher, Sewall, Arnold, & Travers (2001) - Transmissive philosophies and theories include idealism, realism, and essentialism. - Progressive philosophies and theories include naturalism, experimentalism, and constructivism.
- Experiential Learning - Brain Based Learning - Contextual Learning
Constructivism Definitions - Knowing is that the learner dynamically adapts to variable interpretation of experience (Glasersfeld, 1990) - Individuals construct knowledge in transaction with the environment and in the process both are changed (Anne, 2000) - Learners have existing beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge that impact their meaning (Almala, 2006)
Constructivism History Conventional Inquiry What reality is like? Vs. How reality is known?
Constructivism Key Concepts Five Components of Constructivism (Almala, 2006) - A complex and relevant learning environment - Social negotiation - Multiple perspective and multiple modes of learning - Ownership in learning - Self-awareness and knowledge construction
Constructivism Key Concepts Other Key Features of Constructivism (Chen, 1995) - Knowledge students bring to learning - Characteristics of the learners themselves Other Key Features of Constructivism (Anne, 2000) - Collaboration between the teacher and the student - Collaboration between the students themselves
Constructivism Influence - Initiated learner-centered approach - Exerted strong influence on adult education - Provided the theoretical background for a quality e-learning environment - Caused Problem-Based Learning instructional model - Changed teacher’s role into facilitator
Constructivism Comparison Behaviorism(observable changes in behavior) - reinforcement, stimulus-response / tutorial, drill & practice Cognitivetheory(making symbolic & mental constructions) - development stage, assimilation & accommodation/ thinking Constructivism(constructing knowledge) - active interpretation, experience, social interaction / facilitating
Constructivism Related Concepts - Adult learning - Self-directed learning - Interactive e-learning - Informal learning - Collaborative learning - Social networking in learning - etc.
- Experiential Learning - Brain Based Learning - Contextual Learning
Experiential Learning Definition Learning is directly connected to the way a student processes experiences and later reflects upon those experiences. The concept of reflection is two separate activities: - Perceiving - Processing (Kelly, 1997)
Experiential Learning Key Concepts Abstract Conceptualization Experiential Learning cycle - Experiencing learning, Critical reflection, Planning to solve a problem, Active experimentation, Further critical reflection Learning Style Inventory - Activist, Reflectors, Pragmatists, Theorizers
Experiential Learning Who uses it? - Business: employee training - Students: supplement to classroom instruction - Teachers: enforce concepts - Researchers: close achievement gap - Essentially everyone - Covers numerous occupations
Experiential Learning Influence - Help assess student’s learning style - Help match employees with job tasks - Help CTE students learn through hands-on experiences - Help adopt e-learning technologies in the classroom and workplace
Experiential Learning Is it effective? “Yes” - Cost & Time effective - Increase of employee’s job satisfaction “No” - Must account for student cognitive ability - No increase in computer use over last two decades Depends on instruction design, student ability, & curriculum tasks
Contextual Learning Definition – One of Many Contextual Learning is learning designed to connect information to a student’s personal frame of reference or their inner world of: - Memory - Experience - Response (Hull,1993)
Contextual Learning History – Throughout Time A Natural and Predominant Model of Human Learning Tell me, and I will forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I will understand (Confucius) Early 1900’s Theories Emerged / Inspired by: - Child Psychology (Jean Piaget) - Social Interaction (Lev Vygotsky) - Constructivism/Active Learning (John Dewey)
Contextual Learning Best Practices Kindergarten Through University Level - Strategies - Emphasize problem-solving - Establish a variety of environmental contexts - Encourage self-regulated learners - Teach in diverse life-contexts - Encourage peer teaching- Employ authentic assessment (U.S. Department of Education and the National School-to-Work Office)
Contextual Learning Implementation - REACT: Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating, Transferring (CORD, 2010) - RIGOR & RELEVANCE: Acquisition, Application, Adaptation, Assimilation (International Center for Leadership and Education, 2011)
Contextual Learning Influence All Areas of Education – Dependent on Contextual Distance Positive Implications: - Self Efficacy - Varied / Creative Teaching Methodologies - Empowerment for Students & Teachers (CORD, 2010)
Contextual Learning Globalization Virtual Extension through Technology - More Dynamic - New Gateways - Unknown Areas - Changing Nature of Context - Challenges as well as Benefits The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly
Wrap-up _ History 1960 1930 1980 1890 2011 Progressivism Constructivism Experiential Learning Brain Based Learning Contextual Learning