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Ukraine_Prague_June 2011
 

Ukraine_Prague_June 2011

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    Ukraine_Prague_June 2011 Ukraine_Prague_June 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Long-term study of the stable system ofprotection of corn crops against weeds withvarious methods of soil cultivation in Ukraine Olexandr Ivaschenko, Viktor Zadorozhnyi, Mykola Kosolap,Yuri Manko Ukraine
    • ContentUkraine : introduction to agricultureGeneral weed situationLong term trials ( previously results)Conclusions
    • Structure of Landowners, Ukraine, 2010. Acreage of tillage Share in Internal Type of Gross Production enterprises Million hа share, % (farming), % 1.Private 10,1 37 27 community 2. Personal 10,7 40 50 plot of land 3. Farmers 4,0 15 174. State farms 1,2 4 3 5. Сollective agricultural 0,13 1 1 enterprise6. Cooperatives 1,0 3 2All arable area 27,0 100 100
    • Acreage of the cash crops in Ukraine, mln. ha Crops Years 2000 2005 2009 2010All sown area 27,173 26,044 26,990 26,952Grain and Grain Legumes 13.646 15.005 15.837 15.09Winter Wheat 5.619 6.665 6.852 6.451Barley 3.985 4.500 5.122 4.505Maize 1.364 1.711 2.149 2.709Oil Seed Rape 0.065 0.439 0.644 1.08Sunflower 2.943 3.743 4.232 4.572Soybean 0,065 0,439 0,644 1,076
    • Yield of the major crops in Ukraine, t/haCrops Years 2000 2005 2009 2010Winter Wheat 1.41 3.26 2.90 3.27Spring Barley 1.48 2.45 2.06 2.61Maize 3.46 3.86 4.32 4.43Sunflower 1.12 0.89 1.28 2.1Oil Seed Rape 0.4 1.81 1.70 1.80Soybean 1.22 1.41 1.45 1.62Sugar Beet 20.1 23.8 24.8 29.5
    • Thus, the reasons of existing levelof productivity are the following:Negative influence of structural transformations of agricultural farmsof Ukraine, such as farm division;Unseasonable and low quality fulfillment of a field work complex;Withdrawal of stubble shelling from the essential system of cultivationBreach of rotation ;Oversaturation of the rotation by sunflower ;Simplification of the maintenance to row crops and fallow;Increasing of spring ploughing volume, shallow and surface tillagewithout appropriate herbicide applicationsIncreasing of level of weed infestation by persistent perennial weedspecies;Insufficient level of weed control on uncultivated lands . As result –expansion of quarantine weeds, first of all - allergens
    • ContentUkraine : introduction to agricultureGeneral weed situationLong term trials ( previously results)Conclusions
    • Enough precipitation: 550-670 mm Kiev. Lviv .Kharkiv Unstable precipitation: Vinnitsa 480-550 mm . Dnipropetrovsk Deficient precipitation: 230-480 mm .Odesa Crimea
    • Quantity of the most wide spread species of weedsSoil-climatic zone Species quantityEnough precipitation 62Unstable precipitation 46Deficient precipitation 38
    • Wide spread annual weed species of Ukraine Weed species Soil-climatic zone enough unstable deficient precipitation precipitation precipitationAmbrosia artemisiafolia (L.) - + +++Amaranthus retroflexus L. +++ +++ +++Amaranthus lividus L. +++ +++ +++Apera spica venti (L.) P.B. +++ ++ -Avena fatua L. ++ ++ +++Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik +++ ++ ++Cardus acanthoides L. ++ ++ +++Chenopodium album L. +++ +++ +++Centaurea cyanus L. ++ +++ +Descurainia sophia (L/) Webb. + ++Echinocloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. +++ +++ ++Galinsoga parviflora Cav. +++ +++ ++Galium aparine L. +++ +++ ++
    • Wide spread annual weed species of the Ukraine Weed species Soil-climatic zone enough unstable deficient precipitation precipitation precipitationMatricaria perforata Merat +++ ++ -Papaver agremone L. +++ +++ -Polygonum lapathifolium L. ++ +++ +++Raphanus raphanistrum L. - + +++Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. +++ +++ +++Sinapis arvensis L. ++ +++ +++Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. +++ ++ -Solanum nigrum L. ++ ++ +++Stelaria media (L.) Cyr. +++ +++ +Spergula vulgaris Boenn. +++ ++ -Thlaspi arvense L. +++ +++ +Veronica arvensis L. +++ ++ -Viola arvensis L. +++ +++ +Xantium strumarim L. + ++ +++
    • Wide spread perennial weed species of UkraineWeed species Soil-climatic zone enough unstable deficient precipitation precipitation precipitationAcroptilon repens (L.) DC - - ++Agropyron repens (L.) Pal.Beauv. +++ +++ ++Cirsium arvense (L.) +++ +++ +++Convolvulus arvensis L. + + +++Cyodon dactylon (L.) + + +++Euphorbia virgata W.K. ++ ++ ++Equisetum arvense L. +++ +++ +Rumex crispus L. +++ +++ +Sonchus arvensis +++ +++ ++Taraxacum officinale L. +++ +++ +++
    • Weed seed bank Seeds,Soil-climatic zone Billion per haEnough precipitation 0.4-1,47Unstable precipitation 0.5-1,71Deficient precipitation 0.55-1,14
    • Seed reserve of the most wide spread botanic families, % Soil-climatic zone Families Enough Unstable Deficient precipitation precipitation precipitationChenopodiaceae 62.7 51.8 59.6Amaranthaceae 21.6 16.5 12.8Poaceae 6.4 8.8 11.2Polygonaceae 4.5 5.3 5.8Brassicaceae 6.2 3.0 1.6
    • Current weed control system includes the reasonable combination of :Rotation;Using of the different methods of theessential pre-emergence andintercropping cultivations;Treatment by herbicides.
    • More appropriate herbicides fitting into integrated control systems (i.e. post-emergence compounds) be made available, particularly for the following crops ranked in ascending order of weed competitiveness: sugar beets, maize, soya beans, potatoes, sunflower, legumes, oilseed rape, winter cereals and spring cereals.To improve the efficiency of chemical weed control it is highlynecessary to improve the precision of its application. In order to allow optimal use of herbicides the concept of economicthresholds must be practiced.The critical period for weed competition, as it has been elaborated formaize for Ukrainian conditions, has to be taken into account in order toavoid irreversible yield losses. As herbicide resistance may become a threat to future chemical weedmanagement, an appropriate monitoring system must be installed.Prevention of herbicide resistance will depend largely on theaveliabilitiy of a wider range of compounds.
    • Introduction of a more integrated weed management system can`t be succesfull unless it is preceded and/or accompanied by significant improvements in the above mentioned elements of crop production.
    • Rotation1. Clover2. Winter wheat3. Sugar beet4. Corn, silage6. Corn, grain7. Peas8. Winter wheat9. Sugar beet10. Barley
    • Comparison of average multiyear temperatures during vegetative period (April - September) 25 21.83 20.7 20 18.93Температура, ˚С 16.19 17.86 18.49 18.15 14.82 15 15.08 14.23 9.88 1975-1984 рр. 10 2001-2010 рр. 8.07 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Місяці вегетаційного періоду
    • Changing of average multiyear quantity of precipitates during vegetative season 400 350 300Опади, мм 250 200 1975-1984 рр. 339.94 150 300.68 2001-2010 рр. 100 50 0
    • Changing of biological structure of weed groups during 30 years9080706050 1982-198640 2002-2010302010 0 Ярі Озимі Зимуючі Багаторічні
    • Changing of spring weeds share in weed groups during 30 years, % 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150
    • Changing of perennial weeds share in weed groups during 30 years, %500400300200100 0 Березка польова Осот рожевий Осот жовтий пирій повзучий Хвощ польовий-100-200
    • Changing of autumn weeds share in weed groups during 30 years, %201510 5 0 Series1 Дескуранія Софії Жовтушник підмаренник чіпкий Триреберник непахучий Фіалка польова лакфіолетовий -5-10-15-20
    • Changing of quantity and species saturation of weed components in soybean agrophytocenosis, 1984 - 2010.450 437.6400350300250200 Видове різноманіття 144.1150 111.33 Кількість штук на М2100 37 50 22 11 0 1984 р. 2010 р. no-till 2010 р.. традиц
    • Correlation of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonousweeds in weed groups of soybean agrophytocenosis 100 90 Дводольні 80 38,9 Однодольні 70 61.4 % класу бур`янів 60 79.5 50 40 30 61.1 20 38.6 10 20.5 0 1984 р. 2010 р. традиційна 2010 р. No-till
    • According to the forecastUkrainian farmers will doPloughing – to 13,5 million hаMinimum tillage- 16 million hаNo-tillage – tо 2,5 million hа
    • ContentUkraine : introduction to agricultureGeneral weed situationLong term trials ( previously results)Сonclusions
    • Concepts of weed controlConcept 1: application of a reduced amount of Acetochlor (1200 g ai)before emergence of cornfollowed by Roundup (max. 1080 g ae) around the 3 leaf stage of corn.Concept 2: application of a tank mix of a residual herbicide (Callisto)and Roundup (max. 1080 g ae) aftercrop emergence.Concept 3: application of Roundup (max. 1080 g ae) after cropemergence followed by Roundup(max. 1080 g ae) at a later stage.Concept 4: application of Roundup (max. 720 g ae) after cropemergence followed by a tank mixof Dicamba (240 g ai) and Roundup (1440 g ae) at 8 leaf stage (latest) ofcorn.Concept 5: usually applied conventional herbicide program (Stellar, 1l/ha + Metolat, 1 l/ha)
    • Vinnitsa, May,2011
    • Vinnitsa, May,2011
    • Wide-spread weed species in different zones of corn growing Weed species Vinnitsa Byla Tserkva Vecelyi PodilAmaranthus retroflexus L. + + +Ambrosia artemisifolia L. - - +Galeopsis tetrahit L. - + +Galinsoga parviflora Cav. + + -Chenopodium album L + + +Cirsium arvense Scop. + + +Convolvulus arvensis L. + + -Echinochloa crus galli + - -Elytrigia repens L. + + +Euphorbia virgata W. K - + -Polygonyum convolvulus L. + + +Polygonum scabrum Moench. - + -Polygonum persicaria L. - - +Setaria glauca L. + - -Sinapis arvensis L. - - +Solanum nigrum L. - + +Sonchus arvensis L. - - +Thlaspi arvense L. - + -Fumaria officinalis L. - + -Stellaria media L. - + -Melandrium album Garcke. - + -Anagallis arvensis L. - + -Plantago major L. + - -
    • Influence of cultivation methods and herbicides on weed invasion, corn (Vinnitsa,2010) Weed species Cultivation types Farm practice Ploughing, 20-22 сm Mini-tillage, 10-12 сm No-tillage Mass of weed species ,g/m2Concept of weed Control, Harness,control Without 2,5 l/гh 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 treatmentElytrigia repens L. 7 2 - - 1 - - - - - - - 2 - - - -Echinochloa crus galli 50 2 - - - 1 2 1 - 1 - 1 3 2 1 1 3Setaria glauca L. 77 3 - 2 - 2 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4Chenopodium album L 1 - - - - 1 1 2 2 - 1 1 1 - - - 1Cirsium arvense Scop. - - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 - - - -Convolvulus arvensis L - 3 - - - - 1 - - - 1 1 - - - - -Polygonum 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1Amaranthus 2 1 - - - 1 - - - - 1 - - - - - -retroflexus L.Galinsoga parviflora - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 1 - - 1 -CavPlantago major L. 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 1 1 - 1 -Total 138 12 - 2 - 5 9 7 3 4 6 8 11 3 3 6 9Quantity of weeds 58 7 0 1 1 4 8 7 3 2 2 8 9 3 3 5 8per m2Mass dicreasing to - 90 100 99 99 97 93 95 95 98 96 94 92 98 98 96 94control, %
    • Influence of cultivation methods and herbicides on corn yield ( grain, t/ha, 2010 ) .Cultivation methods Concept of weed control Yield, t/hа Farmer practice Control, without treatment 5,43 Harness, 2,5 l/hа 6,81 1 7,91 Ploughing, 2 7,53 20-22 сm 3 7,60 4 7,15 5 7,01 1 7,12 Mini tillage 2 7,35 10-12 см 3 7,42 4 7,01 5 6,97 1 6,70 2 7,22 No-till 3 7,32 4 6,85 5 6,74
    • ConclusionsWeed infestation had a mixed character and was very high . Themost mass weeds were annual monocotyledonous : Echinochloacrus galli (L.) Beauv. and Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.Efficiency of weed control concepts didn`t have the essentiallydifference on the background of the different cultivation methods.The best weed control was registered in variant ploughed at depth20-22cm and treated by Harness, pre-emergence (1,2 kg a.i./ha) andfollowing application of corn inter rows by Roundup Max 1080 ga.i./ha).The lowest projective cover degree (3%) and (poor) weed infestationlevel were registered in variant treated by Harness , pre-emergence(1,2 kg a.i./ha) and Roundup Max, 3 leaf stage (1080 g a.i./га.)Maximum increase of yield 2,48 т/га was harvested in variantploughed at depth 20-22cm and treated by Harness, pre-emergence(1,2 kg a.i//ha) and following application of corn inter rows byRoundup Max (1080 g a.i./ha).Yield of corn (grain) was fairly lower in the No-tillage variants versusthe Tillage variants
    • Conclusions6-10 species of weeds are considered to be the most harmfulin sowings;weed control measures should be over by the beginning ofherbacritical period;preparations for soil influence should be used in conditionsof annual weeds domination;roundup must be used in the system of the basic soilcultivation when having long term weed infestation;To prevent occurrence of resistant biotypes it is necessaryto alternate different herbicides or use 2-3 componentherbicide compositions.
    • Future of Ukrainian weed control More restrictions and herbicide bans are expected Minimize ‘environmental footprints’ of farming Farm size increasing: Call for rational and robust herbicide solutions (insurance) Reduced tillage on the increase GM crops: Still uncertain how they will be adopted Site-specific weed control may help to solve many problems, but technology must be cheap Need to keep focus on integrated approaches, e.g. crop rotations, competitive crop varieties, tillage, etc.
    • Thank you for your attention! AgroSoyuz, 14/06/2011