Sandoiu praha

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Sandoiu praha

  1. 1. Conservation Tillage –Contribution of Roundup Ready Systems Dumitru – Ilie Sandoiu University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest 1
  2. 2. The resilience - a raport between restoration capacity and the degradation capacity Lal (1995) proposed a funcţional relationship: tf Sr = Sa + ∫ (Sv − Sd + Im ) ⋅ dt twhere: i Sr is the soil resilience Sa – soil previous status before of antropical action Sv – forming time of new soil Sd – intensity of soil degradation Im – inputs of agricultural managementResults that the soil is a renew resource as long as „Sv – Sd > 0”Recovery time is questionable, for 2,5 cm soil deep from 30 years to 1000 years. 2
  3. 3. Arable land surfaces suitable to conservative soil tillagesystems in Roumania (after Elisabeta Dumitru, 2008) District Total Flat land-low pitched Strongly-moderately sloping land Thousands % arable Thousands % arable Thousands % arable ha ha ha Total 4984 49,6 1567 15,61 3417 34,0 România Minimum 9 6,6 186 51,2 7 5,1 – Braşov Maximum 164 85,9 164 85,9 - Bacău Constanţa 514 98,5 2 2,3 392 75,1 3
  4. 4. Suitability of Romanian soils for different tillagesystems 4
  5. 5. Historical evolution of farming tillage systemsPimitive system of agricultureLying fallow farming systemFalow or field farming systemAlternate farming systemConventional farming systemIntensive farming systemAlternative farming systems (chiesel, paraplow)Unconventional farming systems (No-till, 0-till,Strip drill) 5
  6. 6. Ways and means in conservative tillage systems assumesConservative tillage systems quit plowing Between them the tillage with chiesel, paraplow and disk bring a strong mobilization of soilThe systems as “without works” or “directseeding” (No-till) provide most benefits for soilconservationEssentialy a large quantity of plant debris remainat the soil surface 6
  7. 7. Direct seeding in Paraguay 7
  8. 8. No-tillage in South Dacota, USA 8
  9. 9. No – tillage in Argentina 9
  10. 10. No-tillage in Brasil 10
  11. 11. No–tillage immediately after harvest 11
  12. 12. Criteria for the land suitability assessement at conservative tillage systemsFor the flat and low sloping lands which are not subject to erosion:1. Clay content, with values ranging from 13% to 32%2. Slope gradient less than 5%3. Excess moisture, from absent to more than moderate4. Compaction or settling degree with values, 0% v/v (footer unsettling) 12
  13. 13. Criteria for the land suitability assessement at conservative tillage systemsFor lands exposed to erosion processes, there are practically the same criteria but with different numerical values:1. Clay content ranged between 13% and 45%2. The slope gradient less than 15 – 18 %3. The excess moisture, any4. The compaction or settling degree, any5. The salinity level from absent to more than moderate 13
  14. 14. The role of conventional and unconventionalmeans in the tillage systems The characteristics of the conventional tillage systems: Depth work 20-30 cm Tillage with owerthrow furrow Large number of passes on the ground Easy mobile humus mineralization Degradation of soil structure 14
  15. 15. The role of unconventional means in the tillage systemThe characteristics of the unconventional tillagesystems:Plow replacement with other active organ at chiesel, discand seederReducing of soil depth mobilization at 10-15 cmReducing of number of passesMulching of soilSmoller decrease in the degree of mineralization ofhumusIncreasing of weed level at disk and chiesel 15
  16. 16. The role of means in no-tillage soil conservation with Roundup Ready systemAdvantages:Increasing rate of accumulation of organic matterImproving of hydrologic regimeDecrease of water loss through leakage and evaporationReducing of soil erosion lossesModification of soil termic regimeConservation of soil structureIncrease of soil macroporosityDecrease of apparent densityIncreasing rate of accumulation of microorganisms 16
  17. 17. The degree of soil surface with crop residue according tothe method of loosening and pre-plant(Steiner et al., 1994, Sandoiu et al., 2010) Tillage Fragile plants 1 Unfragile plants 2 Furrow plowing with 0-5 0- 10 returning Loosening by disk 5-15 10-20 Loosening by subsolier 60-80 70-90 Loosening by simply brush 40-60 60-80 (chiesel) Loosening by chiesel plow 30-40 50-70 Loosening by cultivation 35-50 60-70 Loosening by disk followed 30-50 50-70 by smothing Direct seeding 75-95 80-96 1) peas, beans, potatoes, soybean, sunflower, vegetables; 2) barley, wheat, oats, rice, maize, sorghum, cotton. 17
  18. 18. No-till system influence on water and soil loss(after Lal, 1997) Soil Tillage R unoff Soil erosion duration (m ) m (to/ha) years Plowtill N o-till Plowtill N o-till Sandyloam 4 70 21 7 0,5 Loam 13 15 9 4 2,2 Silt loam 34 29 0 3 0 C loam lay 3 38 55 1 0,4 C lay 2 61 45 13 1,5 18
  19. 19. Soil physical characteristics No-tilling farming impact on aggegate size and stability (after Blanco-Canqui, 2008) 6Aggregate mean weight 5 diameter (mm) 4 plow-tillage 3 no-tillage 2 1 0 silt-loam silty clam loam loam OHIO 19
  20. 20. Soil physical characteristics Crop residue influence on accumulated water quantity (after Blanca-Canqui, 2006) 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35Water content (v/v) 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Crop residue (t/ha ) 20
  21. 21. Soil physical characteristics Soil compactation in no-tillage soils (after Blanco-Canqui et al, 2007) 2.5 2Cone index(MPa) 1.5 plow-tillage no-tillage 1 0.5 0 loamy-sand silt-loam loam INDIANA 21
  22. 22. Soil physical characteristics Crop residue influence on soil temperature on winter (after Blanca-Canqui, 2006) 0Soil temperature (C degrees) -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 Crop re sidue (t/ha ) 22
  23. 23. Soil physical characteristics Crop residue influence on soil temperature on summer (after Blanca-Canqui, 2006) 34Soil temperature (C degrees) 33 32 31 30 29 28 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Crop residue (t/ha) 23
  24. 24. Soil physical characteristics Total soil Porosity (% v/v) at differents tillage variants after 3 years in SCDA Valu lui Traian –Roumania (after Elisabeta Dumitru, 2008)T he C onventional Chisel Disk Direct W5%D epth tillage Seeding(cm )0-5 55 57 50 53 45-10 49 49 47 47 315-20 49 49 50 48 325-30 48 50 50 48 335-40 50 52 52 49 4 24
  25. 25. Soil physical characteristicsThe tillage influence on loam soil structure (soil water stability, %) after3 years in SCDA Valu lui Traian (after Elisabeta Dumitru, 2007)The Conventional Chisel Disk Direct W5%Depth tillage Seeding(cm)0-5 4 3 4 4 15-10 5 5 4 5 115-20 6 4 6 5 125-30 7 8 15 11 235-40 10 13 17 13 3 25
  26. 26. Soil physical characteristicsThe tillage influence on chernozem soil structure (soil water stability, %)after 3 years in SCDA Brăila (after Elisabeta Dumitru, 2007)The Conventional Chisel Disk Direct W5%Depth tillage Seeding(cm)0-5 3 3 3 4 15-10 3 3 3 4 115-20 3 3 3 5 225-30 4 3 4 5 335-40 6 3 4 6 3 26
  27. 27. Agrochemical characteristics of soil at different tillagevariants in SCDA Braila 2003/2004 (after ElisabetaDumitru, 2007)Depth Plow Chiesel Disk Direct W5%(cm) seedingOrganic carbon (%)0-5 1,63 1,63 1,62 1,67 0,145-10 1,54 1,55 1,51 1,57 0,1315-20 1,51 1,52 1,52 1,52 0,14Humus (%)0-5 2,81 2,81 2,82 2,87 0,145-10 2,65 2,65 2,60 2,70 0,2315-20 2,59 2,60 2,60 2,61 0,24N total (%)0-5 0,200 0,214 0,196 0,194 0,2065-10 0,188 0,188 0,178 0,180 0,18315-20 0,169 0,190 0,174 0,165 0,180 27
  28. 28. Agrochemical characteristics of soil at different tillagevariants in SCDA Braila 2003/2004 (after ElisabetaDumitru, 2007) Depth Plow Chiesel Disk Direct W5% (cm) seeding P2O5 (mg/kg) 0-5 39 39 38 47 12 5-10 34 32 30 25 17 15-20 26 22 20 16 14 K2O (mg/kg) 0-5 269 325 286 296 21 5-10 240 274 224 237 31 15-20 211 262 167 230 42 28
  29. 29. Biological soil characteristics Tillage influence on earthworm population (after Jordan et al., 1997) 180 160Earthworm count/sqm 140 120 100 chisel + disk 80 no - tillage 60 40 20 0 Continous Soybean-Corn Corn-Soybean Continous corn soybean 29
  30. 30. The influence of tillage (after maize) on vital parameter incambic chernozem at INCDA-Fundulea (Gh. Stefanic, D.Sandoiu, 2010) Variants Respiration CO2 Cellulozolytic activity % mg/100 g dry soil degradated celulose V1 - Plowing 20 cm a 14,63 a 7,06 V2 - Chiesel 20 cm b 12,64 a 10,74 V3 - Vibromixt 10-15 cm a 14,35 b 3,77 V4 – Strip-till a 18,55 a 8,31 V5 – Direct sowing a 23,27 b 6,50 DL P 5% 9,33 3,94 30
  31. 31. The influence of tillage (after corn) on pedoenzymaticalparameters to cambic chernozem in INCDA FUNDULEA(Gh. Stefanic, D. Sandoiu, 2010) Variants Catalaze Zacharaze Ureaze m g Phosfatase + cm O2 at c m glucoză at NH4 at l00 g g m P at g 100 g soil dry 100 g soil dry soil dry mater l00 g soil dry m ater m ater m ater V1 - Plowing 20 cm a 398 b 2190 c 47,67 b 13,74 V2 - Chiesel 20 cm b 169 b 2586 a 73,04 b 13,12 V3 - Vibrom 10-15 ixt b 192 b 2538 b 64,81 a 16,50 cm V4 – Strip-till b 144 a 2955 b 64,24 c 5,77 V5 – Direct sowing a 376 a 3259 a 76,31 a 18,02 DL P 5%= 105 5%= 501 1% = 9,72 5%= 6,19 31
  32. 32. The influence of basis tillage (after maize) evaluated by syntetics parameters (vital- IPAV, pedoenzinatical-IPAE and biological-ISB at ambic chernozem in INCDA-Fundulea (Gh.Stefanic, D. Sandoiu 2010)Variants Indicator Indicator Indicatorul IPAV% IPAE% ISB%V1 - Plowing 20 cm a 10,47 a 50,92 a 30,69V2 - Chiesel 20 cm a 10,23 a 58,62 a 34,42V3 - Vibrom 10-15 ixt a 11,62 a 54,91 a 33,26cmV4 – Strip-till a 12,39 a 58,85 a 35,62V5 – Direct sowing a 11,31 a 54,71 a 34,01 DL P 5%=4,05 5%=12,77 1%=6,63 32
  33. 33. CONCLUSIONSNo-till and RR systems are conservation tillage whorequires no-till machines and RR package with seedsand herbicide;No-till system as conservation tillage reduced waterlosses and soil erosionRomania needs No-till system for 3,6 million haThe influence on physical, chemical and biologicalproperties is beneficial but good results appearsafter a longer research periodSpring sowing date should be delayed due to thermalinertia of covered soil with plant debris 33
  34. 34. THANK YOUFOR YOUR ATTENTION 34

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